Skip to main content

Full text of "The law of electric wires in streets and highways"

See other formats


Google 



This Js a digital copy of a book thai was preserved for generalions on library shelves before il was carefully scanned by Google as part of a projecl 
lo make Ihe world's books discoverable online. 

[I has sal's' ived long enough for Ihe copyright to expire and the booklo enter the public domaLn. A public domam book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright tenn has expired. Whelhera book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways lo the past, representing a wealth oF history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Mai'ks, notations and other marginalia present in Ihe original volume will appear in this file - a reminder oF this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a Iibrai7 and finally lo you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud lo partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong lo the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have laken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parlies, including placing lechnicaJ reslrictions on autonialed querying. 
We also ask Ihal you: 

+ Make non-commenia! iise of tha jiies We designed Google Book Search for us^ by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
persona], non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from auTornated qtte/ying Do not send automaled queries of any sort lo Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
Iranslation, optical character recognilion or other areas where access lo a large araouut of text is helpfuL please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials For Ihese pur|X}ses and may be able to help. 

+ Mainraln atliiburion The Google "walermark" you see on each file is essenlial for informing people about this project and helping I hem find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep jT legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring thai what you are doing is legal. Do not assume thai jusl 
because we believe a book is in Ihe public domain For users in the United Slates, that the work is also in Ihe public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyrighl varies fivim country to counlr\'. and we caji*l ofFer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume thai a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any maimer 
anywhere in the world- Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google*s mission is lo organize the world's information and lo make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through Ihe full text of this book on Ihe web 



at http : / /books ■ google , com/ 



THE LAW 



ELECTEIC WIEE8 



m 



STREETS AND HIGHWAYS 



EDWARD (i^:ifQ)!i.tEAkBEY 



mOOSn> EDTFION 
ECnSED AND ENLABGCD 



CHICAGO 

OALLAOHAH AKD OOHPANT 
1900 



^ 



THE LAW 



ELECTEIC WIEES 



n 



STREETS AND HIGHWAYS 






BETIBED AKD ENLARGED 



OHIDAGO 

OALLAGHAK AND COMPANY 

1900 



/■■^ 



THE NEW YORK 

iniBI.iruBRARY 

146502 

U LOEN FDU KOATI Of|| 
»9O0, 



COFTBiaHT, ISDOb 



erATS JOfJRNAI. PKUnCIQ OD«PAB% 



to THE 
HSHOST OF KT FATinCB, 

AITTHONT Q. KEASBET, 

IK GKATITU1» ;f OB, JHJi ISSI^A^^MT 

or Hia ExufPXA ik^ k'L^WtxE' Ain^ as'akai^ 

THIB BOOK fie- JS^DlCA^ici.' 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 




Tbc !J30 of the stroctA for linos of eloctrio wires hm to- 
creased \ery mucH sincB Llie first edition of iJits bonic wiu ifHU 
Uo. Hiktky of tho quMtio&a tti<?& di^uaaml as new hu.vo now 
brcn (k'finitely BOttl^d W th* |*onpnl ii^^rmi'iiL of judioial 
opinion, acd diffcrcQt qucations have siivcTc becomo the »ubjuot 
€if 4^MiLrovi*nty. Tli« rl^hlft pf thi^ owm^-nt uf nliutUQ^ land 
luiro bco& coD«idored in many latcT caaca; but, except wi;h 
regard to Iho lue of UtimU for l^lejfraph and telepLone vlrm, 
there U dov litUo diferenoo of judioiaj opinion upon thio sub- 
J4>ot The questions that have become of grpAU^r pnicticcil im* 
porUmcc iro tbo«o r^Lotiag to iho powcrsof municipalities over 
ibu mrt of Uie stirvrt^ Tor nUrntrio wirf«; tbe poiver of comLem- 
nation where ptivuto rights ure inrotvcd ; tito int«rf«rdaoe of 
ODO kind of Eiii« with another; tliu ItuLility for injuries arising 
from necl^ent oODatrnction or tho nao of don^roua currents, 
aad thfi power of t\w suttes to impow Uoeoso fo«A and franohiaa 
taiM, 

AlLhoogIt nome of tlin ijui<^U<mi4 dwmiuml :Lt smmri longth in 
tlie firftt odiUoD bare boon settled by subni^qucnt docidioos foL- 
loiring the tendency tUat wan theo |MJtiite4l out* it )];i!i «<i?nied 
beet to rotaiD what vas then vnttan and to add to it a brief 
aoroant of tbo tater eaaas fto aa to pn^SLTt the whole courn; of 
jadioud dociatoa npoo tbo cabjoct Tho chapters on the qnogtioiu 
of Utc autliority to grant franchi^c-'S nm\ ihn nature and extent 
of monioipal oontrol of tho n^ of tho flrceto for cLcctrio wirea 
bare beuo wholly rewritten, and new obaptnrs luvii h.v:n wided 
OQ oondeiDiatioa of pfirate H;;bu, on the liability for injoriea 



a 



Tl FBSVl.OB TO TBS fiSQOTm EDmoir. 

from tbe nnanthorized obstraotion of the highway, and from 

n^ligence in the oonstmction or maintenfuioe of the linee, and 

on the qoestions whether electric lines are real or pereonal 

property, whether they are eabject to meehanics^ liens, and to 

what extent they are subject to taxation, either as property or 

by reason of the franchises. 

The scope of tiie book is indicated in the title. It deals 

with electric wires in their relations to the highways, and there 

ha£ been no attempt to discnss the principles applicable to 

every kind of case in which electrical appliances are concerned. 

These are better considered nnder the law of torts or contracts, 

or any branch of the law to which they may relate. The pm:- 

pose has been to study the cases relating to the use of the 

streets and highways for the electric railway, telegraph and 

electric light lines and other lines of electric wires. 

Edwasd Q. Sxasbet. 
Kbwabs, Ksw Jxun, Ibioh 1% lOOa 



PREPAOB TO THE FIRST EDITION. 



It !s ftlTr»y» interesting to oli«>rve the manner in which tlie 
conrts de«l vritK new inrotittons imd Apply old prinoiplefi of 
Uw to new cooditione. InyeDtion vithia a few y^ars paat has 
be e n tqteciftUjr dirocted to new applications of electncity, And, 
In order to serve the o«tv tiscB ih^-kt haro bcca found for it, 
BttoetB and highvaya huvo boi>n t^dfcn ne coivcniont lL^<^s for 
tbo diatribation of the eWlric current. Tiic: iikc of th« stTOota 
for this porposQ has given rise to «ome legal oontrovenleB, and 
it fdcma desirable that the dociaionfl on ihe subject should bo 
coUoct^d and oxamined in order to soe hov the principles of 
the law nduting to the stroeto bare bocn applied to tbcec now 



The poloa and wires for the electric ratlvray have attracted 
«^eeial atl«atioo to the eabject within the liist two or tbreo 
joars, and it was a diacOGeioa of tbeoe in an articld I wroto for 
the Ilarrard Law iC«riew for Januury, 1891, thnt snggcfted a 
ooro oarofol cxaouRution of tho law rclattng to tho n«o of tho 
atTMts and roads of all Kinds for dactrie wires, whether ovei^ 
head or tud^groond. 

£dWASD Q, KKAfflgT. 

HsWAmK, Kkw Jkbket, Jcd* 1, 130a 




TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER L 

iNTEODUCTOay. 

t* Qfovl&c EmporteAOB i>t Uw (ntbjnot ,.,*«*! 
X LcfAl nIfttlcTU of the wfrtH t^ f h« hf|[h«r»js • * « • ft 
& Armo^tiiait frni diiiaicitk of the subJcpL 

(iij FuUiu fjtfljlB^TbHifcUlJiuhly by SJiiI uB^er whlcb sLrMtfl 

■nd tiKbtf&ya may b« tu«<l for poloi and wtrv S 

<&) PriToito rUtit* — Tbe rntACioQ of tbc fltre«t to Uw owner of 

abuUiniE land ftud his riiEhU ta Utv HMtvt « • . 4 

CHAPTER IL 
FRAWCHTSKS — LEOISr^ATnTB ATHl MtTfllCiPAL. 



4 TatTAifiy^tovj , 7 

& AsAlogkfl ft»4 gakoml p«mdpl«a . • « * T 

& n* power ow Ui0«trMU Wluni^H t<»tbn IrrgUUtura. ■ ■ 7 

7- Paver of ao«nidp>llty 1« only wliHt i% 'i-li»^xi*<-d , . » t 

& Extent ftod UoiilB ofotdiiiiftfy powcnof munidpolitr , . f 
% 71m wm^ oonCliUMd -* UualciiKilKWH chnnot (luit eicliulvQ 

fnoohiica 9 

la OrdlMry powen of muftlotp^th* wHh f«ip«ct to the i tw ai fc 

ocmtiiuied . • . U 

IL QiMslioa whcttMsr t^ rvioun eleofario wiree «oaw within theso 

Hnee L» 

11 Pdweisef <TlUMt'>lfniTit Tlii4|>rivilvKr< wttknifpooiCoilieMWid 

■milw ttsea — Btcom end bon^ mitroibds . • . . U 

U The ■>!»« — E3pctrfcAllic«Lyit , .... Id 
Ji Power of iRiLBioip^ity to nutborue ctAet ruilwttj ooea|tt&ioe to 

an poke eod electric wtrm 16 

U Tti» maa^ Kib>ot— OuM~'nfcgSartT. Newfoit fitjwt Byi Oe. it 
1C ^b6 MM— HI Aitemd « £d«i Parti InoUcud Hj. Ca t. W1i» 

tow M 

IT. Th^«Miio*-Loii«rgftnT. lAfftjettoStjeotRy. Ca . . . >1 
1& ThoMino— LottieviUe BAuteg Mffr C^ v. GDotnJ Peawog** 

fty. Oo. *1 

U Tliewin»— I>«Cjc>itCtty Ky. Ca 7, »it[B 21 



T1»LS or OOKTKNla. 



Ttiesune — C3BB1 lu utuuuery In New Jene^ . . • . S3 

Xlio tetno — Coctmry doL^itJoa m the S&w Jer^y tuprfitoe iy>iirt SA 

Tbe iwiko-^Latercttwa Ju K«w Jenejr . . , . , C4 

The nunc — ^ Dcrfaion cC tlio cDurt at appfulji of Now York . 37 

The mme — Decision* in Mnnrljiml , * . * • fiS 

Tbetfune — DivtiLntui ill other lUitis , - , • * . 39 

Cdoolofl^oEifl iritb r«Bp«ct to tb9 dUcMO raiCwAj . . , St 

R;>w«r ofmuiiicipnlJtxto authoruB telofn^pb and telephone liaoa CI 
Powar or the miiaiaLEAlitj to auttiortzo pol« «nd vim fat eleo- 

Irlc lightiag • . $3 

The Alike — Cuaofl ..84 

The >auie — CtuMft in Iowa - . . < . . . . S& 

Power of municiptUitj U» croot Jta own electrio lightiog pl4illt . W 

Ooveming [>rinnli>iA In mil chww rosaFi . . , , . OT 

Tbe parAoiount unthoTit/ isis tha legiatotura , • . , SB 
Aulhonlf of B<iJiiL' klutl a rnquifud for s{iauUil usoa of the streott 

«vaa thoush lh«j tira propar Hlrwit U8M . « * , * IU> 

CHAPTER IIL 
MUNICIPAL CONTROI. 

OCUmRKT OP LOOXI* AOTaO&rTUiK — C?OMtUTf OSfB A»D BliaiTIATrONa 

M, GTBEta ara ufTuiLI^ mikdi> subject U> concont or ooattoL of louU 

Butburiliua . > . » , . . 41 
IT, Powvr of muDKMp&bt/ to vitlihold gmisbuI and iiupoiA 4.-oiidi' 

iU^oa 48, 

S8- Ttie mTi«-^Mnnlrtpnl oonnt-rit ua cvmdltion preoaJunO . 

3Dl Priooor oanditi'>ai) of muoiolpal oonfloat , . . . . 4fl 

4k Fowar of luiuijijiinblity with rw}itio| to thn Jw{guatjr>a of Iho 

rout* 47 

4L Tbo MUELO — El9otrio^1is'it wlrfnf AO 

43k ^awer to revukfl tami-Uiint uiid nituoro iKilea and wlrm . . &1 

4& Tbe lune — Cmse^ rolaticg to toli^gmpb and toEnphonc wlrna , Ql 

4^ The Muio — Ciui«t4 on t^iectho nulwiiy And «ileutrio4iKht win» . D8 

4& Powof (he ie^islalun to revoke rr&Qc*ht>o » * • * fiQ, 

CHAPTER :V. 

UUSlCtPAL OONTHOU CONTINUEa 

4& G«li«tnl povrer Of poTiiTe ref^il&tion with respoAt tO polM And 

wiiQ3 — What conditio na may propetlj' be im[XM«| • . 07 

47. OnflMon thl^ [lOJot ralArin^ l<^ leT^^rapTt IEdm Iq citLAR • , 08 

48. QiAM relating to cle^tHc-hH^hc wirvB ID <iitic£ . . « . 06 
4& CJiiMM* nil&ting lo Ctib fliMlm mjtwj^r - ..... 00 
50- The i>0T»r to rer^ulat* ioM not iiupljr ttie power lo lay tn etn- 

ban<o ..*. ., •- -61 

AL ThH (niwrtr to rAgiilftle ilon rtnt Imply tli^ [owi^r to flu toIU ft&d 

nu* ^ 



TJLBEJt or O0VTSN1S. 



81 Hi* fmww to tvfpBlaU t1>« oliW4«t or locAtkcc of ttiff polM ud 

wira itoM tx>t impiy power to impaat othec oanclJlioiw . . tt 

Bft CnndlUan tlml alWr auspan!0«dhuEtbaatkitf&lla iButbaa^nv 

pol« e4 

&4 CilautuiJ DicattLU^ of Itfft power tii>liii[mMilicciuio fv«e . • tt 

fi& ^« i»m«t nMitliiutuJ ..,.,,.,. 64 

B& Hooittpftl rijE^iU in Uw BtrecAa ftro not Ibooe of va owner, biitniv 

hfid fur (lubtiu imrpum < . . . . • ■ TO 

Iff. mfttar«tl»<'tQa&Uiit1iorilin'' 7S 

fi7a. Lrcal ««lk<iriti«n ftnd ooioaly Litil^c'ii > * t • • • 19 

B& Hi>v noniaiptfil oonmmt m&x tw v:iv-«n . . . - . T4 
Ml Tb« MOM — AppLbalJoa tar miuiJoipftl ooncoot or for a dotignft- 

tiooolilioiitTvttM 7S 

CHAPTER y. 

FOLK3 AND WtRICFl A3 AN OBSTHUCTIOH OF TUK inUllWAV — 
HOW FAR JUSTIFIED DT OUANT OK FRANCniSEl 

M Po1««Focl«d in Um* ttrf^le willKiut l0icUbttTO«ftuctioti are nt:iU 

nacn ?7 

CL FoIm «•£ up vith nxfinko l«giHlftt1vo Mnnottoa ftro not DDiAuio«& 71} 

0& Ociaocal kutborilf (low net autliurao (LmKorvu^ubntructluna • tit 

m ii«>tr«« — I^ibUc&ndpHTDta 00 

d Ot«tniotios to ordinMj thnd cxCrncmliaAr^ uso of tliu vlrccl™ 

Guw nteUv^ ki mavicg « bmun . . . *.* *tt 

CnAPTKR VL 

UHDERGROUfJD WIRES. 

tt S%bts of tho public vii tlio ootnpADiiM w (o puttinpf wIrtM ui>- 

derirnnmd . . $i 

n An »Tpiatlv« anJ dlillciilt work — Tha munlfTlpaltfy cftunnt m- 

<nMrQit S4 

ffr. Unullf prorklod for bj lUitulini — Bn^lbL jtotubcM tiffctrrod to 44 

Qt B>|Wfc dooMoB iiod«r Omftdton statute) s7 

ift OcqMral pr»«ki(itt» o( AmoricnD otatotei • « • < * fiT 

70 DAfMost ttinnmaibw flO 

7L 7b« le^udatioa in tl«v Tcrk providiox for s board of ^iMlriool 

cculrol acnl « ««b««jr ooni|i*uj O 

Tl DacWoMtliaraoD «s 

Tto LimiMloM ot the povofa of the vubwn^ ooropiuiio* , , • 49 
?& ft«lMlnA ol tfa* elaUrlo-wln aoeDpftiiiw to tlio Hutwaf oompo- 

BAM M 

CHAPTER VIL 

BinOT^ or THE OWNERS OF ABCmNO LANM TnTH RESPtXT 
TO TIU: VHK UF THE BTiU«ei» FOU EIJlCTIUO WiKtU^QEK. 
BAAL VirfW, 

71 Tb» MulU|iicntkia of vrirn in tbo ttrocA* faM fc^roo rbo to ooo- 

tfonmlM with Uoiloirtii^n . t7 



TABLE or OOSTEXIB. 



TlM puipoB* for whkh ttuf wIrM orvi pnt than la m laipoftADt 

clomtnt D? 

Kav uputt — H^fjmt vhrwii of tbo pTLiprr UMf of * rtnct • M 

V[OM'«of Judico HiElcm iLrid Ur liAwis , , . , . 99 
DintluoUnii Willi fic*cicct to iLe LitJe in lbs public «ttd Id the 

fthTittin^ owTi^r ,.,,,.... lOft 

IftcithorooMtheM mcoriua righU in the vlrvete M wob • 101 

DiftTUHnuiii ijT tlii> niilrJHct l>y M(- CunuAD P. RAPdolph . * lOl 

8nmo tulijuot — Th« «lifir^E«<l rjilr<fwl OMM , ... IDS 

&MUO Mibjccb — Other ccueii .,.,.... IIM 
8fifnH subjiwt-*Th« rfjrUU nAll-r HfTwM u« tliti rtsW of ftd- 

JMSOQQX without imioot to ovmctship o( Lbe Utt^d iti lh# vLr««t 105 
ThU priDCl^lc^ U Tvoa|^f£«d. will «ici[ilKfy thi' JiMiaMbOU. WtUM 

dlattriction munt Iw ooriKJJ^rwl la r^kiUng the <nM0 . • lOfl 



Xil 



T5. 

m 

77, 

m 
ea 

aa 

6& 

9i 



CDAl^TEU VIJL 

RI0B13 0F ABtJlTINaOWNEH&^TRLeOHAPH AN D TSLEPHONK 

8CL TelB|$rmpli&Dd(clH.plionewir«»hA\'GLGCoiflo obiiDiiouii to atljoiii- 

iag InDiJ-ovutui , . . - , . . lOS 
8& QiKstiou of riicbte of Uutd-ovntcn aaics«^et«d but not <uu»wctcd by 

SoottA JanjiL^nlii Iftefl 109 

87. Tba qoevbon to* xiovr bocomo impurtAnt tW 

fl& Qurjttiua «Ut«d ttO 

8a Ari^imftntoo (Ui>Mila Ilt> 

I HO. Arguioeot on tbo other «d« Ill 

9L DmtJiiclkju iubbs cuuswilb ruspuut tu l^e Uile to tliv laud la Uni 

■tTMt lit 

02. CHma In MlM^Liri In I883hi f*ror of Ui« dcKitdc vrirca . . lU 

9% l>4cMon in M«#>w;hTi*ff<t.t» on lht« Kuue side £u ISSS . • • llA 

01 iMUtt <iUD In HtB*c>itri til 

ML Other iSeoLaiv^nB on th« miDc iiicjQ 115 

1M1 Tfaantso — lAtvr o«iM« nn th*fii\mo lidft . , . , . lift 

iP7. Mi'irM withcut |M)Iu» uota tiurJirn LIU tb<i l^ad , . , . UT 

8BL Ovn ou lli« iitht^rtiMo — DtHJajoiiA in r^ew Turk and New Jtfnejr IIB 

n Gams m Adnu w«lom ooorCc .._.,,. 121 

IOOl Gum in VirKir^U. MHrylAml nal Uinbtsipfd , . , . tBI 

10L TioWB of T.he tJMt t>ook writi-n 1M 

SOS. CancluiickaA with roqMwt Co Om rlgbt to u«o tho tdghwayi Urn 

lbe toEvfimpb and (ol^liono Ufl 

ICO. DWnotlon faAivwm rnral hlghv^yi and dtjr >trailA — Drbno 

Kn4 tuburbfta ouomoate ...... VK 

101 Fira olinu nnd poUov bdoflp^pli — F^ al«m nod poUctt tdi^ 
gnph hTo pubho uhM ^^ No <ioubl tho <lf««U Btty bo «Md for 

IboM without oMu[ccdat*oii ....>.. 1ST 

lOX nJchni tocotnfiprnaUoci forjuTtml dnniii^mln obsmrtlDgAOcen 

nad light Asd ^, fit«» • . tS 

10& Injur? to Iran ft}onc tb« romkido IB 



TIDI-V OJ ooiCTKirrs. 



xiS 



CHAPTETt IX. 
KIOUTS OP AnomrfG OWNtlia-ELECTIUCLiaUT wmE& 

t07. la vi«w of th4 inirpOM* crT tba du» ftlo^trlo-light idrM nuy b« 

VMlcffona to fcia-pipeo ralhrrr tb&n t<» Ultiiv-mph ltc«a • 18) 

1(0. Vlkflllwr i-niFfidiNB tiujr bn |j4l<l in oouatry nuul* or citf ictniai« 

«rUhout ctjaponisUloa 133 

MA DbUaottan bctvten orbiiD ^ad rami cMflmcnto • • . Ifti 
IHL PtpiAor polw uvt vim for lighting tb« jOrwta ft pfOp«r w 

wh««<ev«r Uiej ttn iM«J«d for that pucpoM . • • • 185 

Hi OkMC 130 

1^ Ift th«i« » diati&utlon b«ttT«»n win* uflwl •ol^:r 'or pubUo Ugb^- 

Iak Atid tbi)a« luod tor prirau buildizL^ cklpoT ^ . . 188 
tU. tiftbtllty for nrl.iiAl im«rf«rAnc« wlUi rlghtn and pivll^i^ of 

rndfitetatsj to high'*uj ..,.«,•. 1S9 

CHAPTBU X. 
glOirra OP ABOTTIKG OWNEfia-THE ELECTRJO EAILWAT. 

114 OppeallkiQ ic th^ iDlrorttuTtloo of Om trolltty hjntom . . . 140 
114 ISoiaUftr ngbuof thotdodovneraiQ thostroot . , . , 140 
t14 Two qucviivnslo be oonvidered-^ltishtfl ot ftJjncencj And pec* 

vanlcn of tlw usa of tho ctroet 140 

IIZ Th6 doelsionfl rei&tlag lo thn U:l0jr%l>U Iuito not diJt^nninDil tbo 

lnw wiib nspiK^lto llm elt>clric niilwfty . .... HI 
U& b thi* vtflCtnc milwjiy 4 aqw burlon ot a pdrrei^iari of tha iu«n 

tf ttw alnot — CompkhrouD witb otbtir raitroailaoa tboatr^O lid 
lA Hotw nnmvfa am eienftmlly hdcl t<i be n prcptir use of thn 

MvottL Unpofil&g DO nnw burJait — UisBonUiig opiuioiM . . H8 
UOl 8UaJLQ imilrvAtb q^ witbb tbo prt^et uavol tbo strool — Hen- 

ffMUgfvDQ £Dr thacLlflUncilon . MS 

tfU Diibwaoo o< optatoti ^ lo dammj tttuik(n-on;^nc« • . . 149 

XXX y\m mtBo, iKmUtDAo^ . . lAt 

Id UjMortbapftbtonaiwny IM 

Iftfc Poles mad wiroa for the «l«crtric r&Uv&j — Do they affect tbc prof^ 

«ftj rIgbU of Ibn ftlMif tln^c <ivnnr? iQfi 

IS. Oo*npftr^«on vrfiUi th» elovibtoii nUlraad oasto — PoIa affut^t not 

tb« land, but tmlj rl^hU *A adjacency, uolcae t>bo uv b « |wr- 

MnkiAorihM niftof 1botitr«0C JU 

M. Tbore b no obaajpi of om Id QubotJtuting «1cctridty for bona 

power ina 

IfT. l^iMMioa o4 IntarfvfvDOtf vith hm of vtnet i« & quMtion of faot 133 

IHL dnm-U^ AdanuAEJonrkrk luGUoodBy.COhT. Wioalovr > 180 

UH iWUiD ¥, 1:iihI cn^Vftuad R. R Ca 187 

Wi T*(0(*t»-Sowj»>n8t Ry. Co^ ...,.•, IAS 

ML Dcirott Chy By. Vax 1. ^lilU • . 188 

Oft LoEMfiiut V, lAl^yeCt«SL Ry CW lAO 

1« U]«in^UoBftpEiaj(Hfc^Co.T. GtatnJPiMRr.Cci. . . . 140 

3H \\m\my w. tUitid Tn^usll St. »y. Ca . . . * . M 

Ob BalMrv.H««uk 1C8 



xiir 



T4BLE or Odxrem. 



187. SHfC>ott*' L'nion Stmt ICiuLwuj <»n» ..««•. 10S 

13& DetrolLCU; Ity. Co. V. Maifl. oanppnj 1(0 

lIllL TheBuad-^LatHr <-aHA4 — MATyl&oil . . . « * • lOH 

HO. lAteroiaee'— r«D]]»TlvaDia . •■*■*• 100 

Ul. I^fpercasaflin Nflw Jpnm^— In nhnnrvrr 171 

14£> Lat«roAM« — Kow Jorsay supreme ooiiAsod ooiutof orrcva • 171 

liQi I^Uir okdM ia ottior utitloii -.,<.••• 174 

144. A diir«r«A| vihw in Ntfhnu^kA •,,,.•• 17tt 

]4fl. Coaoliuioria ...••-■... 177 
140. Tiio^lftcLricrikilwiLj on rural hlghwcjs — Mod» of untb«cTJC» 

rioa 1-19 

K CHAPTER H. 

RIGHTS OF ABTTTTINrr LAm>OWNEItS. HOW AOQUtaBO — OOrC 
SKNT — CONDKMNATIUN, 

147. CQajiHutor*buUmtf ovi»r*a«ft ouaditloQ preoodoot *' 4 138 

14HI Tb«rlgbt COAalojuDutioB • • * 181 

1491 BoqalAilAA of tlie ooojcutA Idi 

IAOh r-flii'lMrnn^tloa of ttfbU offtbutflnif nwni^ni^Tntrrxtuctory • 139 

]9L StututH of lonM of th« iMn proviriinjt for oond^mrLutJon . IM 
l^ GoQilQmiLAlioa ft^r tlui CclA^nph and tbo tolcptiono ■» Tboj arc 

publio TIM* 197 

IG3. The »me — E^ht iwquirod onlf siioh «a ie ii4c«aaaf7 1 . 19$ 

in4. TUo tMtae — CotidJliiMut t)r<-<;cOutit— F^iUui^ to i«n>a > ■ 199 

ItA Th*nni« — C4(i<Iiti<>nipnK!«ifent — MuaIcl]xU avUiorllj , . !$V 

Ifift Thoaomo — CoadHiocui proocdont — Cocfientof property owAon IDD 
107. The Ulna — Coaditk)D»pr«oed4MLt-'Com|i]kuii:4i wlUiiuTtofiwa- 

ffNW IBO 

ISA Tb^nmo — fiijcht of w»r OTttTft tunipiko . . * . , 1M 

15ft ThAffuna — Rtfiht of wftjrof railmJ — TliB rtgH to coDcleRm . 191 

iSft TluMuaa — DflicagOA ^ ^ . . * . * • • IBS 

181. OMidattiiibUua fur«]«:ln<hlLKht lliw < « • » * • Itft 

IBS. Coiidonuiiilioa for «l«ctr;c>-paw«r lfD«« 1M 

10& Ooa^UmcAUoa for «t4»trlc nilway — T(kkm|; ono nulroad for the 

ute of nnottwr niOruod ..->-•,• 194 

tIM. TbAttUiifl — Oosin^rulpoada — C^rtrl^mn^tton and r^-^paUtf on . IM 

180. Tho noae — Bftculntioos la Kcw Jtaof • * * » . 194 

10& ThA M4IIW — Cb«« fn Pflurwylvaetft ••«*•• 197 
167. Ihit aftiD4 —Cum in Ngi? York . - * - • • .198 

lOa TlMUine— DccMon InUMMCliuMtti ..... 199 
19BL Kl4if<nc naiwT^r cmvliijf oihvr nlboaclft— Btnvt oompuntte 

boawi«T MO 

17a Tb«M»A-'C»«&in Kw^tnor VIO 

171 TlucuM— UwMlfiimftoteuidHelitUfes fOI 

17U TbeMine— OuMiohon«rlTWikaiidDd«wuo * . . 6)8 

I7K Th#minA— OmitnConovcCicutuiiJ AkUtiu. ... £94 

ITi Boq«M<eorUwpil«taoatooood«si& . . . . , IM 



TATLS Of OO^TTKNTS. 



XT 



CHAPTER XK. 
TBLGGKAFHH OK P0STK0AD9. 

ITIL OccMrioaftndiniffKiMAof tfa«»C!tof oocgrttMoF JvJjHlStM.oon- 
CQruBjttolcKVt^ilvonpOM-POft-lt W 

1T& DHdrfoDof cli««nprMiwi3oiirtmirtiditinif ftnlcoQAtruEafUiea^ £01 

177- WtettbttUrm'poBMorulH'HnctudcA SOT 

1T& Hm ttoopd and tit^i of the act tu d(>cbr«d hj tte aupremi^ 

ODon — EqULlI prfvirp^M nxnu-ai to ill tclr^mph oompuikN . 20S 

1791 RillMftduid imrDpiko ccnai>acu«ft Oftuc^ot £iT« oxolujiv* ilflliti of 

wmj tx tdacnpli poryoHA SOS 

Um CbDtn^U for «xolQilT« rigtat fOV UlV^nph IUm votd «o gtOQ&d 

at publio poU^j ■ d • • SIO 

ttL Itodlfliifltkinftnnrf AXTAptlaxui 211 

tboothu ata 

U&. Tlio riglkta f^osff^t^ ari* puMio nnd not pnv&to Hghti^TlM IaU 

leroHi OEkl^ bo tal»a bf coikAoct 913 

L4L Tb^^An^ThoHCtorcviDffNmgivfii no powar tooond&inu SU 
ISL £b ft takgmph tioe ft tutw burdoa upoa tb« Ijuid tuk«n for ft ruil- 

rad? m 

tu Dda the lAatuta Imply thai tvltfifnpb la ft lil^liwfty um« ftod ni>& 

ft nftw boffdoo OQ tto Iftod? ^17 

tfT. SlftUitoi7 ftutboritr k^vhh to t«lvvra)i)i coruiviii im n-Hb iMpoot bo 

(hOVfaof Efttlnwd llnoi Isto beo<>D4tn>vd itrit.ttJy . , ftl4 

1J& TftliCDIphftoa pont'TaadtftroiiubJoct to mimidpol ooutr^I • , S18 

18t. Tolccfftptu un tmvtTjmlj ajp mbjimt to state Iftxiitkia * « SI9 

110. MkorilftOftOQi pott^f , V^t 

OUAPTEB XllL 
UrrEBTERENCK OP DrETEKKNT KINDS OP ELECT1UCCCritRENT& 

ooNrucrma VBca or cLiiXTriUG wmcs m tob sTHEEra 

ttL Ibft ttM ot thit Ulnptiono df«turt>Ai1 by «l«ctrlo bgtt lod oloctrlo 

nUvrvy currcotft « . SS9 

IM. QuiftMftnd tnftnnftrof thAdlHMirhftonaHAxpUliuid • • • ISS 

HL nOffkBft rabffot^'C&duotiai: ft&d ltAfcftf« . • ■ - SU 

IK QootiDtyi^ < ... 223 

HBh Ikok* of Cba lUffioultf** mny b* avoUwI by tti« iu« of tho moCoS- 

Uedfcvit— ObjtctioaAtothia ioa 

UK 1W«|Ahn» oanpftftltt taufisied ttuC Ibey ««ro oDtttlsd to protoo 

boD 39S 

ir. nMianl<»e>U4«ft««rttholMtrlc-Ushtwlm , . . , 2S« 

1«l Klft7trifrllcb«v1i«— Dntfoitt— N«farwk» , . , . !3a 

IMl Tbo aftfna — Oltio »..•-•»., 297 

ML Tlwmijfi — Oiiurlo . , . 2£7 

m. tbonaio^Akbftmft 198 

WKL noiftftw — Votinoat— IVxA* * 99S 

IkL Ibft Hune — Uftitiid Suta eiraut ccFurt> CftliCoratft • • . £9 



Kli TABU 01 

SIM. TTip MiDft — Tnctlui* •***«••■'• £09 

3U5. Tlivvumu— MiMOurl 5QQ 

SOAi Mor« serous c«otiovcri7wUhde«C3dot«iIir|^COUp«ni«t> * ttO 
MT. Kt^tri.*! ratlvAj — DAflUioni — C«inO«l XFolon Tai«pb9n6 Cft ^ 

Bpruguo Eloctrio R^. Sc Mot4)r Ca SSO 

M> Qftst TauQenue Tukiiibuuv Ox ** Cluttftuoo^s Elect^'ic SUwt I^. 

Co. Acd aroUivr cams SSI 

90a Rook^HoaatftinIkUTdDpibonoCoLT.e^tlAtcoCltj Rj. Ox . SSfl 
ftJO; WfftooTifilu TalepbuAd Ca t» E»u Cttiro SL By. Co, & Spr^um 

El«otrioB7.ftMoU>rC<L S39 

SIL CitT & 8uburb*a ToLojcrikpU AuB'n t< Cujcioriall IxicUcod PIaqv 

Rj.C^ fisa 

«;a. KanCT^aoMaMTWopboQoOa.T. Kno2inU«£t Kj. Ca . . sm 

914 TbaVDEDo* PDtlttnUCiil .....,.• , i&S9 

ail Cumlwrlnnd TDlopbuno Ca t. United EHfivtrb E j. Qx . .868 

HT. JUiEBgtlabciu9--lli«ctoctrlaaof Ftotoberv. Ryla&dslATOkvd. IMO 

£1SL Ci>iicl(uioiui witli ruapot^t to oloctric r^ilwaj cuncot • > » Ml 

SIVl I'raaiutlnn!! AgniriKt dATignr frumccntoct , , , * » S43 

esa ICIftotmly«la U9 

cnArxER XIV- 

TTKATJTHORtZED CONSTRUCTIDN OF THE BlQBWAT^X-lABtU 
irV TOB IHJUaiES. 

231. Introiluctory 3M 

S33. Ijvationof th«pr>lM— Uj(TiflU7Copeu«engetit1& fSin • • S44 

SitiL Ij>?atiooof polu — LiAbUttjto tnkToLcnOD thottrMt • , S4a 

JE34 TliM lArnu-^ AiEotljvr view .,.,•... S4fl 

S2^. Tbaumct— Soun>«udext«atof Uioliabilit; . . »7 
sae. TJi««Ame— TliotosUlAtaniiuiy cQodlfrtberightiiortbcpafaUo 

In thff htrfVTt — El«ctHc mtlmij polM^ConoluHlua . . MO 

237. LlAbJity fortaiuncv — WtiMlifta^lAgtoobir , . • . 900 

lis. Tbtiskme— DtKiaiuiui » , SCI 

fl»iL The wm^^ ocmtiiituxl — Qtiy vifn .-•••« SOS 

9KI Wir«t iwo^n^ tou Low — Coblr]but<yry Qcgli£c&o« . * . 3Crl 

CUArTKU XV. 

COXSTRUCTION ANII MAI^TMAKCB — UABnjTT FOft inOQL& 
oeKCB - J>fiFBLTiVK UATmUdA A^D DANQBB0U8 CUB- 

SSL laUc^uctcnr — DcfitiiUonof tboduly Ami liaUlHy . « • SOT 

BU. AcsLlogy tothol|j^lUljrorocCupkero(pn>QiljM, , . < 008 
Mt ApptioaliuQ of th*) principle to Ibc cooatmoUop and tnfctnkraiica 

of poloiflfict wirw fl40 

SU TliAcuna — Cum .^t.Mt 

Mh Vbo HtaDO — aiaoaroDtiaa«>1 >••••** ttO 

aai PidIm v»] nlna tlifuwn dovD bf Aft «irtertMJ fbro « ■ • Ml 

ttT, DugorouaO(ifT«iu«laihftwU«a MS 



tiBUB or ocHfTssrre. 



rr&i 



JM IVstunndoKtnitof UwltobOi^ SM 

f4a DooUto* of FlMclwr t. RjluatJ* nppU«d to th» oltotrio CCrMOt . SOT 

HL DDdriDe of FlBt«faer t, Rrlai^i^ >^ fnl^T i^opt«d in tlw United 

flcatm ef» 

SVL Doty m WMrtJ !y tto ijtotpar OM 

ChM* oo UjtblMtj Cor oAOftpo of dc^^tria ouTTeotiQ public Ughwuy 270 

TbvBABM— OaaUcoAil tJ$ 

Tbosne— Conticiiiod « * . 9T3 

M& iMJmrj rn»m Uie ft^nuio citrTvct — ClMfttARntlov of «>•«» , < 2Ti 

ifl laJax{«ifroiB«l«cCniicujrMit— Uabjlity topttaooa on prirale 

pg op ai tj ^t 

Mft Ihn Au«^Th« lUhilitj of t1i« OKnmr of flKTieflmiifa |irAmlHM , 37^ 

Itti Tho «BU — Olhoc grouadi ot ImbiLty with mpoot to dnagor 

iM> doclrlj currsoC 270 

SML AffthnttoD of thou pr^Dotptat Co th« tu» i>f th« dor^tria frurrc^t 479 

TWmoo— Omm dTS 

Tbsiamii^nira uttBOB in MnmHTZiusi^tttt • • . • • m 

A«M*tii the LnitodStatoflOircuiCooiutof tppotUi • • . ttl 

T1«HUi)0 — Ot^^rcaSM t « £63 

UftfeAH^toflirTUibi — O^nent ntlm .,.*•. £91 

^W*uno^Sp«eiaJaiidob'^ifHia<Jan£con • . • • . tt9 

nBMmn — DiifecUw nf^Lnni-'flit .-•••. ffiT 

iBjtifT by oiAotKie ilioofc— Oaty lo KrvAiita— Dftfectlvf &ppll- 

uoeo— Cuia SOD 

1B& DncjiojMrvKntii^rhrrivftlrapolMftiid vIvM — C«Mi , . SOI 

Mt llMiuno — Dutyof in<pisTtioa BOa 

ML TbttMuna-OUMTCMM £^ 

Ml DufoettTO tppUmcw— R^*fc< of 6mplo7nflaiit — Duty of Bamiot . SUl 

SML ninMnm ftpptiniirntTTirr fumnhnl Irj'fhnTnnnt'r ■ • t S05 

Ml CbuiributorrnogllgoniM — Ciiwt 299 

TllOMD*— OtlMTOWM 2^ 

I>Jitf7rroin«loctrto>bock'— X^tfi«C;UfteDoe^Pcoxl3>ftto 20a 

'HiaftUKM— OoAn^«ir«a JIOt> 

Hm Mine — Cootutved »«••*■*. 901 

tliOMuM— CouU(iu*il -.».••*• 303 

iolnt mitligeno* — Prodmsto <«u«a ^ Conolualone , • , AOi 

V«t)icm>09 — B4^4p*ahqaitur SOS 

TteMDO— Gum 4K» 

Hmmim— 0mm SOT 

ITL UftbUilj of uauniciiHiULlaa tot JofocUvo poloa uid iritm in tho 

itiectA M0 

irt^ lb«MnkO-Q>atla«ftd .,...«.* aiO 

OnATTERSVX 

ELECraiC L1KE6 AS PEOPKBXT. 

fBlfntiietnr7 >>>••-*•■ B^^ 

tn. EUotolo liAM M lixt«n« ...«••«• 'IS 

ssa Auu-c^M u^ 



ITUI 



TABLE or COHTBVTB. 



ET9. 

184 

E80. 

Bsa 

flSA 
200. 
SOL 



»s& 



S04 



&QG. 



ElMtHallnHubJoottoiTHintiiiiilat'lIrn 810 

iiltMirio liaM Ai prop«rt> tiubjiKt to tuxAlioD — H«aI or p«r*oiiAJ 

property 317 

Thanme— Valne of the Intent in land for tiixatioti . , SlO 

FrtiQohtAf taicfvaJ tniAtion of tbe fmii<ihia<> - • • • 800 

FmnoUisc Uiie« on companlne nperatlnt^ elentrio lln«i « . B2I 

CbAnuTt«T&Dc] BfX>poof th« fr:u)cLi0« bu - > « * « 93S 

1^ CO tbe fronohiee a» p[OE«^y .•.*•• 023 

Is ihAOorporkte tnhnchlaefiubjgctto tAx M property? . • 333 

Aro tho fnv&ohisce icdwled in the ordluaiy tax lavs? * • KM 

TbdSftme^CoQtiaDad , . f^S 

State fnuichise tax«« &arl the fBdurtl la« — Tho <t^^^'^^*'° Btat«d S98 

The earaQ^Tax c&oocjt be laid oa ictcisUitc coiujiifiii;e . 029 
Tha A&me — FranclilAi^ of ocmpntiy engaged irt iai3rata|« oom- 

meroe amy bo taxsd as property ...... 390 

ThB Bjne — An ejiolaa tax may be levW on Lbe frauchlse^ evea 

ibougb icL«asQTed i&JircoUj by receipla rrom intentate oont- 

merce .,,,....•,• 891 
Thesama— ^TftKation of fmncbSseial aipi'Mi oompanfes, bridge 

oompanice aad tclopbcma cu>mpaTiJee . . . , • 833 
Tlio «&ine — Goncl^oiu aa to sUbl« taxes and iateietata aom- 

meroe ......---.. 333 

Pr&QoUbe tax — Electrio li^ht. power bad heat oompoiuea. are 

tbigr •lemft a£ miutuJ^ftUFmjf cum^itLnia . . , . 334 



♦ 



E^< 




TABLE OF CASES CITED. 



(U3 K. y. n 7B. ICO, uo. 
w. y. u i2\ 

v> S, y . Klov. R R Co. 
CHH. Y. BnpM. CutlTL^ 
AduDBT. Oucatf^^ a ft K. & Oix 

V, Ufiloa G7. Co. (10 AiL f£«f. 

^jAduna Expra* Qx ^ ladluu flOS 

AduM £>m0 Co. % KeQtack7 dOS 

u. & mk am. 

Si|it«i Ca T. Ohio Sut« Au- 

AAuE« E>(««H Cok 1. OhL^ 8l»to Aik 
<tiUir (itt 0. a 1M,L IMi 2tt 

Alric* V, KnogivlU* C7« f ad. K«^ 7901 
44 

Aimaiidef t. Kew CUtle (UD lodL 
61). SOU 

Allci^eiir Clly *< UUlfiUo E. A a 

81 B7. Ok an r«, 01. tiii sr, 
aaaoL 

Attmliovii r. VTmtim Daum Telei:. 
CChn«8P>>9L ll7Vft4 

Bf, ft lUiw. Ca T, FcnM* (61 
1ILAp|kJ3akt>l 

Kiptd TUi^ Ox T, Daa 
n»Ky.9IIXTlLl«8LSSL 

T«bft. ft Tdoph. CO. T. 

at ud nsi lAx 

XaUph. ft T«ke. Ox V. 

fTBCi An»n*.*8. 

TftT-OxT,SiQlto(l An. 
R ft ft Cevp B«9. n;; iOI. iSL 



AmerJcAA Union Telug, Cd ▼- HattU 
BOiw Town oi (3L N. X &!- ^^f* 
3T, 4a 46, U Ml 

Atneric^Ln TTiil<»n T<«)«9 Co. r lilil- 
<lleeon ISO N. Y. 408J. 37^ 

AfidcTBC^ V. Jcmtj City El«c« Uftftit 

And««on V, l^uUvUla {K Cold lOOl^ 

Aibcm T. WlMfilin; ft Hjirriiiburif 

K. K Oi. iUB W. Vtt. U m |;MJ. 
Annauous v. Gnmt {ttl N. V. St. £4;^ 

ArncJd T. Pt1o» (Ift R L U7X TO 
AjMop V. Yat«> (9 H & ff . TSt^H 234. 

AictiUoii. T. atA R R Cg. f. U«<«« 

AK'lilAon. T. ft a F R OXT. H«jer* 
<e3 F^ n«lL 7«\ 9ST. 

AtluilA CWIWI fit Bj* OO. T. OttiDfiV 

Atlftntio Avft Itj, Co. T. Van Dyfca 
(73 Fed. no|k t^v m 

AtUatiD City Wau-r Wurkj t. At- 
Untie Ucj \3U X J. V^ MQl 

(.ft 
AUftOtlc Citr W»t«<- Worfa Ob t, 

AU^nUq City .lAK^USmt. 
Atluuo City Wat«r Works il Con- 

wmmtn* WaUt COt (U KJ. Et^ 

437k 0. a. 97. 
AtUnuo it Pbo. To1«^ Gok v. dii- 

cAff«^RLftP. RRCa.(S Biia 

IWk IM. U^ IM. 
AUanUe ft Faiv Ttl*^ Ox t. Vnkm 

y^ Tdc^ ul (I yvt. K»^ 74h 

Altornor<kDenl f. Oaj SUta Uift> 




^^^^3X TARLK or OlKlS omcD. ^^^^^^^^^H 


^^H KafsfnoH tn to aHtlaDK 


^H Attoni«jr-G«neHil t- EdinoQ Tobpb. 


DAyortQO T, N. T. ft K J. IbTopb. Ca 


^H Cu (0 Q. a Div. $4ti. 132. 


401 K J. L iaoi.4a 


^H Attorn A j-GonenU v. [^mhiird A 


B«ki[uiA V. Thtrd Ar«. n. a Ca (IJU 


^H South &L Pwfr Rj, Co. ^3^ Leg. 


N,Y, 14H.1 


^H iQt. Pfr-p su^k. IS. 


DeMcn T. Cbloi«Q (75 ["od. Rcp^ 380), 


^^1 Attorn h7'<icDc'TTJ T. lkir^tTT)poltt«n R. 


11. .la. 


^H R Ctx {1:3^ Ma» dlS). 1-2, Ua 


B«ggi V. Kduon EUol Ugbt ft IIL C<x 


^^H Attoraoj CjiiOAtul t. LTriiUHl liCing- 


<DC Ala. 1!05}, fiGG, 


^H (knn KUoL Teteg. Cu (SO Btav. 


Boll l^Wpb. 0> T. nn1l»rJlto E1«i^ 


^^^^ earj. eo, 67. 


IJght Cto. (12 Ont Rapt 579v tCKL 


^^^^K At(oni«j4i«niml V. Wiklwortli LLglit 


Boll Ti>Ut|>h. Co. y. V^ind C-^ Ua App. 


^^^V A Powar Cu. (ai N. R li^y. 


Wti 1^. 


^M 4$*).U 


Bell Tv1()|jli. Co. T. Rlnlin^ocd (78 PnJ. 


^H AnffoMft Rj. Oo. T. Andnvs (SO Oa. 


H-rp.ei8K i«a 


^H osd}, iini. 


BMiimtt T. N. J. R. E. ft T. Co. i3C A 


^H AutuflU Ejr. CUi V. Audcvwn (EI3 G& 


J. 1^ £2T). 330. 


^H 709). £01. 


B*nneu t. KAllroftd Ca (103 0- ft. 


^H ATOo-by-Ui4y3Ni Lard ft L Co. v. 


5::),!na 1 


^H If«ptune City (Q7 K. J. 1. SC3),AG. 


DcQtou ITurboT t. St. Jcsuph ft & ^ 




3t Ej. Ox (103 MSdL SW^ Sfc 


^^v 


BorR«n TrHilii^n Ca v. J£idi{0^4 (i> 




All Rfljy r.M^ OT. 


^H Iftibockok r. florunton TrAr3tiot) Co. (1 


BeiEtn r. Scuili«tii tf. E Tel Co. (TD ) 


^H lAok. Li^, K«itii 338k sa 


Conn- M), M 


^H Bftdgor Lum bor Co. t. Hvton IVfttof 


Bif^low V. Perth Aruboy (1 Uuloh. 


^H Supply. EL LL ft P. Co. (IS Kao. 


a&?}.ia 


^H t^^STe. 


B[(irord tr. JohasQU (83 Ind- 433V 


^^M Bttir T. l/iTAhnnl, Aymi A Cck (M N. 


wy. 


^H J. j^ ?:{:f), ■is.'i 'jH ^f- 


Birmin^bnm fty. ft Eloo. Co. ▼- Bin&- i 


^H Bftilj r. Hofiif^, W. ft a R. EL Go. 


taf luun Tiruitiou G^ 00 & B«pk ^ 


^^^^ (l»Q ». V. ;K»2]. ^.K. 


1931, I7i 


^^^B aiohV.HiniXhCIl A!? T^^Ha 


BLCtnJiiffh4tn TractioQ Ca t. B«1I 


^^^B H ft Ol a R. Ca V. B»icigh (l^O U. & 


TVikpfcL Co. (31 a R^ TO),^T- 


^V 8$9K SAG. !^< 


BirauDstuuii T^aticu Ox Y. DbiB- 


^H R ft(k T«r]f^ OOl r- Mor^n^i LfL A 


IsghHjn R;. ft g]«o. Co. tai 0L 


^H T>&T«li«. Oxill La Anil tmu 


B«^ 308). 194. 


^M 


Blnoiagbiuu Trncticd) Cx T. Dirm- 


^H & ft (X Tdejc. Ox T. Westura TTnifaa 


in^hnm By. ft Eloc. CNi. l£4 A 


^H T«leit Co, (^ Fvl. Ri.>p. SIV^ Itn. 


Wop. 5on U4, ica ' 


^^L^ Burbor v. SD^aitr Uniati St R B. 


Bitceic r Groki i:ftacRi &;. Co. (L IL 


^^^^ Ooh m Hk-h, smi, ir. 


ioKq.o:in^s2a 


^^^H Awoett T. BmrI of Traja Toto^ Co. 


BiHBll V. Na« York Cffflt a R CVk 


^^^B (im iiL wtk vk iq«^ lift 


lis SL y. cu 7% 


^^^V BMbebv. JoU»9oa1l«N.X Cq.i9!). 


BUac^ht r. WMtoro Ualoa tblcj^ 


^V 7fl,niMi«^ 


C^fflOK. Y. ;lIO). 19a 


^H Baamy v. Kookui: W U a SMi, K% 


niubn*!il ▼. Efuptra stats TvfvfJt ft 


^H Bi;l*rv.DoUUftW.&ELCa(40N. 


T4liMt Co. (71 Him, 5SSX OB, OOl 


^1 ^.U9v«Ml 


MiM T. BflU [ffl »«A WT\ ia m 


^^M Baynclia V^ t^vtf Jitr»; Tnli^ ft 


VtoDk T, Hihvjitikiv SL 1^. Cb (» 


^^^H T«ioph.C(vcaiK J.ik isexsoL 


wu. »Tix 910^ 33£» ftia, «aa 



tiSUt or <U*IS GRVD. 



xzl 



Ht^wmiDm v^ tt «K«lcCB 



Cain Aux. a & A Corpu R^ 

BtcwufciJ ft a N. Qfl« L. Col V. 
Bowil of AJMvom V. C«atffftl & R. 
Bovd oi TnA9 'Mvf^ Ca r. Dmictt 

(i«7Ui sarxKOH ira 

Sbrdm T. Atkbtio Uichlond*. etc 

Aj. Oo (St All lUp^ »;«), 01. HO, 

l«& tM, I4& 
Barilriatovn 4c SouUi Amtioy Tvtn- 

|4k* O^ Y, Oiodisi A Amiiny R. 

& * T. Oa (H ». J. 1. 8t4). ^\ 
HoeuB r, lUolttrOjv* (la All«n. lii;j. 

n 1% Tf^ IM. 
BoMott A Albguf El B. Cb> r Shanlj 

<10T Kmu 5ftSk »9, 
BoMM ftar« DBpotft A TrtMt Co. v. 

Bukcn' Ot MoroliiicrU^ T^lei^ Co. 

Boakoo T, Cn>vtlier(> fivn. A CnsK 

Badbr T. S& Kt V Eoi^ TalefitL Cot 

StMcM ▼, North l^sndoo Rj. Col (U 

la T» nolUad TnaA Got f8;> 
AIL Bop Ulv «7. 
IWiVLBliiL* B«TOti«h T. UoluiJ Tnut 
Oft CR J, E<^ n AIL tCttp. «sn S9L 
LvwMoQ ft AdImiri B. E. 

Ca rr> M& soi lift UL 

C^t FbUo Hfim *, U«r«iitb 

(4lW«Gcpk7Mj.^& 
Vnna Clw ft ElflDUrlo Ca v. ICnr 

f ark (41 K T. Itapf^ t3«X «L 
^mAJth CoDk ft J, R a Qx ▼. 

Bnokl^ Cli; &7, Oa 133 Bufai 

cujaaoxffBkik«%4a 
citj a a Ga «. odd#7 
a K CftmewkwH 

114. 

V, M. T- ft n. J. Nm^ Cd 




Oroonn r. Tf T> ft X. X Teln>L 0» 

44U N. J. K «£U tt^ 148. I3a ITl 
Brown r. Coltiiw iM H. IL Ml ii I- 
Drown r. Duplcttid til Lib Ana. Wi 

1191 
BrowTt V. a W. Tof«ft ft Tolvpli, Oa 

I4ia W. Et9|vfi9),61 
Brmh Clno. Dlouk. Ca Y< Coiuolldjitod 

Telflg ft Kl*?. Stibnay Co. {li 

N, Y. fiuiip. «l\ T3L 
Bnihh Ulvc^ Lifltit Ca V. Jotua Bro« 

f3e& LfBht Ook Cie W. Il AulL 

R30J.4l.0ai 
Brosh KW. licM Co, T. Koiror (LM 

BiilTikl^ *Wv Kyn Co. r. Ilu ficAn T^m. 

Uj, Ca> (IW !*«. 8t 1^ 140, IH* 
Burlinjcton y, DMicbua (43 H, J. L 

1091. a& 
Bufton V. D&vit (It L& Ana. 444), 

Dutict V. rwBuc (44 y. J. I. trth sa 

Bymo V. Bondlo (3 R ft C T«3), £34 



a 



CUifemiA V. PMtflc Rf. On (m 

U. ft U «3L 
ColiiomLA St Tf Lrc Ca T. Alia Tol«« 

Go. rrJ OO. JIL«;, 17a 179. 
CUumot £liM\ &L Uy, Col t. OroMV 

OOBL ApfhOSIlUL 
Chlrart v. EKaU <t4 KeU OIK 171. 
Cbua4« IIOTB a a Ca T. Clllm^ 

CoMhCa (3t XJp Eq. H$L 1& 
ChiMfm tloTK* a aCcbr,WOT47«^ 

■7TtvtloaaL(36lf.XL IQH 

Cbnd«a BofM a a C& T. WmIJov- 
«ry Tnctioa Ca OS It J. E4. 

OtforAieii ▼. H«4 a a Ca. <n Oi. 

riowii^a KMdm O^ T. Sr«rbitoo 
TtKBiMf Cd f»CaiB. lOfk IH 

in 
Ckpv Hat a ft a ft a p. ftr- Ca f . 

c^p* itey fiM K X 1. eoav «4 
c^MBfaacmr c.i« Ji^«* 

!L J. L M]^ «J, A 





^^H IXtSaVJHtW w to VKtlOUft 




^^m CkpB lf&7 R ft Co. T. Oipa Hay {0& 


Qitoftjr^ T. Milt TTTfla I4 A P. Oo. 4X^ 




^H N. X 1. ^i). 10. 


11). App 4^kU. 




^H Ck;dia Cltj Gofl Uisht Co. t. Char 


Chtupj & Atcb^Q Bridff* Ock ^ 




^H Irr Oak Ini* Ca (A] kiwo, 310). 


Fur. MuL "Mug. Dx (» 1E«L lUji 




^H Sua 


157, 174. tBH 




^H Coflf T, BtiUvrntor fit R7. Co. (36 


Chioo^ JtCLT.&y^ Co. T. Bftt&mozMl- 




^H ULiiik.dTA\ u ma 


IVI^iUiiK- tito. Rj> Ca (Ul Ifi4 




^^1 CAiTnntAT T. CarpenlAT <)7n CL £9), 


P77), ITL 




^H 


CtifoAf:o ACT. Rr> Co, r. WbEllr^ 




^H (Xnon T> CcDtrsl R B. Ox (8D Oil 


H ft n a 8L Bj. Oob IL9* iDil* 




^H esiU lift 


mKioft 




^H Qit«r T» NortlivMUvii Ezch. T«lepb. 


Chkftfco A E. 1 R Cd» T. I««ti UK 




^H Cck EBD Minn. 530), €6L 


III flnin. aol I 




^^1 Cetttrul BiHucli UnJoQ Fat-. IL IL Gu 


Cbic-tij:o & W. L % Q> T. Genoal 




^H T. M^t^tt^rn Oninr Telpg. Co. (3 


Bloctrio Rt. C0L(7»DLAppk aaVj, 




^H IVL l{i*{x 417^ 19a 


1«1 




^H C«otral i^bc. IE. IL 0> V, CnlifQnu& 


CUicai:o <fb K W. Rr- ^ *> Milvtti> 




^H (I62U.S.011.28!V 


km K. A K. larc Rj. Ca 0)0 WI& 




^H Centnl yarn. T«1oplv & Supply Co. v. 


Mil 14a 




^H W]lk«barm & W. a Uy. Co. <lt 


Cblooso A VlocfouMA R R Col 1; 




^H Tn. Co; CL iU-\\ 4\7h HO. 


rcopU(n3iiisu t^ 




^H Cuitml UniOA T-alcph. Co. v^ Cmd- 


Chun^ro. a S <^, K. R Ca T. St^el* 




^H biuy (100 tod. 1], isa 


H7 Nob. 7(1), 17K 




^^1 OenlrALUnlon TrTlnpb.Co.T.&prftcrDO 


ChloACO. a A Q. R Co. f. Wf*4 Qii- 




^H KlnaRy.tt Motor Ccw and Akcnn 


rAS»A<- Ry-Ca(IMllL3.Vi^]tt^ 




^H SL Uj. Cb. (3 Aia. £:L Clu. HQTJ, 


171- 




^H 20T. 


ChicAK^ r^i«OQ Ca *. BudMD<e0IlI 




^H CbAnriberlAin v. EtijuiLvlbiiurt «U^ 


App. 0S9K an. 




^H Oa l«l N. J. &> 48j, 11L 


ChlrA£0 (ien. Ry. Ca v. CliliM80(in 




^1 Cfc«ttb«» ^ Fon7 (1 YoaU^ I6T), 


1IL353L.55. 




^H 131 


CliJCAiro Gv<(i, Ry. Gol t. ChltnioCSlr 




^H Cbapninn t. RothweU (FA, BL & El 


Ry, Co. I.6S HI Aiip fiO^^ 41 fWL 




^H ift.'4],9i& 


Chopo T. Euirak* {79 Oal a«SX VT^ 




^H Cb«bNk W&ter Workd v. tkrvivy (IT 


Onoioiuiti IL ft R tty. Ca v, Bow^ 




^H ^ a 206). eax 


iiijf Gmmi (49 N. R Absv ISIX 




^^1 CliOMip«nt« 0E Pdtcnnfto Toto^;. Ca v. 


I5«L 




^H B A 0, Td«g. Ca 10« Ud itOX 


CiDcHanai Inolboa By. 0> t, CIQ' A 




^H 


Subniten XdeptL An^ <4;| OUff 




^^M Chtam^/tmk^ A Potomv^ T^tni;. Cn r 


&t.3V0^^L 




^H aAaTDi«g^<:^ieoMd.uw},i57 


CinciTimii R R. Co. v^ Cu vniliwvill# 




^^1 Cfcttnpnho fr ^Comu TolopL Oft 


(14 0tioSt.AS$X tl«L 




^H y. U*rk«ulfr fT4 Md. VftK IOOl 


dociniuiU Suvot R R Cck V. Sn&IUi 




^H CbOTlDT T. WMttrri UntoD Tftlvg. Oft 


f^fft Ohio dt SOIL Si 




^H i:j Ljui& U4 k«v. let), 51 


OtuoBB' Coocb Go, T. Cftiftdoit Horvo 




^^{ CLmW v. W«il«ra Vatoa T|l«|^ Ool 


R R C<x (33 N, J. Eq, 207^ 8T. 




^H ()M Fn. Rl IMi r>4 


IMI 




^H Ca^HUr TnL^rtloo COl t. Phib., W. ft 


CaiM»' ElMirte LiRtit Cd ih fiaad* 




^H aB.&o^<i8eFa.6t 10k I0& 


lOa MJcK &)U UL 




^B CUnoQ 1^ tUittob Stool Oj. .00 tlL 


Cilatu* Ay. Ou v. QilIoc4 (fl & W. 




AffL Mil frl 


RvfLlOIILU^ 





^^^^^^^^^^m TAKLB Odr CAAE8 CITES. XZlil 1 


^^^M K^nvBOH »>• la •kHou. ^^^| 


CWmM'BL i^. Oc^t, CitjRr Cx 


C^lvmhiifi W*t'>rCcL t. Colutnbufl HB ^^1 


(iMFeiLBei^ 7410,1113. 


Kaa, W), k ^^1 


OUmm' ftL Ry. Ca t, Jonw (34 r«(l. 


(>mmi-n^iHl Klijo rUlitA FovwO*. ^^H 


ttep.lT»).ft 


T. tr^ooiTA {50 Piio. Hop ao9\ ^ ^^H 


Cftfavo^ Wirfer Ctv t. Brrtljcepoit 


Gotnm«TciAl Ehc, UjC^itAroverCok ^^^| 


HjMlntilic Oa (M Cbtui, li. a ft. 


T. TafMnca i^^ Ful Roji 019). I^L ^^M 


d^ T. TvUfCnph A Tolvphon* Ca 


ComiDoiiwoAtlh T. Bortoa IV7 Mum. ^^H 


(I4> t^ Anit 4U 43. 


DS3\ S6; 4S, ei. ^H 


Cilj ft SuViuUq Ti!lou, AM'a v. Cbi- 


CotDEU^nwiNdtb V, Drujib Ctoc^ LJ^Ehi ^^^| 


i-lnntl TiH^llital Piftna By. Ctv 


C<i. (ll,\ Fl ml 147^ 3Ua ^^H 


<» VmIl Bua lOSi tflL 


Cftmmonvaalth v. Contnd Pom Bjt. ^^H 


a4j Elea Sk Bj. Col r. (^aiarj (01 


Ca(5^l^k6t* Gosj^sa ^^M 


ATk.3a!ie4& 


CocniuuriwiMUttiT, I^iacmBlva Ugbt ^^^| 


Qlj bf. Co, V. CICttaciraBOx(lW 


C<^ iUS }^ »t IVUp ^cl ^^I 


u.afisrL«t9e,44. 


ConuHkAnvoalth r^ Noithoni El*a ^^^| 


Cliibsift V. W«vtorn UiuoQ Tttb^ Co. 


LitfU ft Pvwvr CVi. ()4a Pft SL ^^| 


(«OLa, Anm. HRX 2S9l 


SS.\ ^^H 


Ckrk V, Cliftmb^tsCS g. H Dir UST}, 


ComnMDH'tLlth V, Scnitb (0 Anx KL ^^H 


Goa 


<;«». ]<;r}, tne. ^H 


CtariE V. Hoinn n H. ft N. «S7\ aML 


ConiitiOELwmUb T, Gmllb'a Kipt«<« V 


CU*k V, Sunn V3m, Rj. Ca le Api% 


c<L (W Kf. aav iHL ^^1 


Jkt, 5U tTft. 


Commonwrolth t, Wurwlcl; (IM Pil ^^H 


OftT T. PohUI TDk«. QUde Qx (TO 


et f^, 40. 4X ?a ^H 


lf^«MMOa 


COEnmoiiw^th T. W«<loh«stn-(ftPB. ^^H 


CUmaU T- LordJauOA El«a IJfl:ht 


CO.CL R«|\543|v^l3& ^^1 


C^ (U 1a Ann. e»SX 4A B>LS<i 


CoD«r latAnd. Ft U ft IL B. R C<h ^^M 


131 


r. Eeunnly 441 », 7. Bapp^ Ai^j, ^^1 


Cfonfauhd V. Buigor St ^. Ca <B« 


3SL ^H 


lU 331^381 


Cooover T. I^kir^ £m*r Blaokt ^^H 


GbfiAusd r. Otr o< BfeO£or i97 Me, 


aBL.«08ktML3ea. ^H 


SSVittl 


CoDMilUjaMl SLfi^. Ll^ht Col V, Pm> ^^I 


CbfvlMid V. N«v J«na7 SUomboat 


plftli EI«G. Light ft tiw Co. (M ^^| 


Odl auS V. Y. tMx ASS. 2S1 


Ala. 872), SOL ^H 


OnvfaAd ft Putabursb a B. OcL 1. 


CoDmlitUtttd TmcUoD Ccx *. B«fc ^^H 


HfMT CSe Pl St SSH SA 


OeniLga («1 f. J. U S€SX 10<l ^^I 


GWfite^ffta B7-C&T.Bft£kiM(tSI 


CoaMftHJmod TVaotioQ Ok t. £lk^ ^^H 


lta4i»^nL 


Utb A9 M J. L Otft\ 47. ^H 


Ctefton T. C*dftr R&plrti A M. B. R 


GctfUMllitftUbt lY^ttoTi Ca T^ AoQtti ^^H 


c^ ^ ]»««. <sak ua 


Dmn^ ft H. TneUcm Ca (Se 3L ^^M 


OMoo V. Uiiil«o ft Lyov a A E 


J. Bq. 500. 143, ira ^H 


Qa.<STlo*ft.ail lift 


Coq«oIIi1»m4 Tnctloa Ccl v, Veicli- ^^H 


OsfllBf T. tWbnii'Uiff Tn<«Soa Ca 


iiiiK R B. C«L (not ?«poft#d; ^^H 


|5 Pft. Dml B«(h tS). iia 


K J. Cb^ Av*. % IWO), Ittt. ^H 


QaDto T. Udoa U B. U P. M&k 


CbMam«a' Qu ft E3ea IJidit C^ t. ^^V 


Al 


Trf^TM* 8pHas Ca (U HuD^ 1 


CMMitel at7 IHctioQ Q> V. Kli«' 


133L nt ^^M 


M« 0*7 &7' Co. (4« K. T- 9gvfk 


Cook T, BnrinirloD '^ Iowa. «L A ^^| 


nDva& 


Ckok V. Wt1ai»ftoa Olj G«a Ob ■ 


Chta«&> RM^ O^ V. LvbUn tl 1 Colo 


(^AaR^Mt).an I 


»ftm 


CoT^ V. mu <4 c & uev H& 1 



3X17 



TAiiLic 0? oA^Ke orntD, 



Btfl a WM m ta a^cIIov, 



CMe y. BloHtim (res Vam. SS)\ 39SL 
OoiTlgnn V- IJQion liUfftr H^H Ctk. (M 

BUM. £77). 3U. 
Ooabr r. Oweubuio 00 Biuli. 83d). 

laa 
Votetia^n t. P«na, a R G;. (15 K J. 

I. J. »>, 19a 
Qyrtsrd^B V. CLuiritoa <4 Q. R fX IM), 

Cm r. I>. R A. ft a Rr- Co. (10 IdO. 

CfanJnd v. Now Tork. U A N. D. 

Cnwford V. Dulawatn. VilU|^ o( (7 

Ohio St, iflOj.»i Uk 
Crawfard^Tdlo r. DnnJtm ftSO loil. 

Cf^ko T. Ptatbnnh W«Iai Wortn Co. 
mUfin.9i)}. lie. 

Orut<ihor T. 1fmtuctE7 tUt U* fl. IT], 
Oiiff V. Kfrwarlt A N. T, a R Ca (*» 

Ciinib«rluni] Tvlcff. ft TcIcpTi, Oo^ t. 

UnJtvJ eiH-. Co. (^ Tpqil 493), 

lU 
OjmbLXI&nd Tolcph. & Ttle". Ca t, 

UhiUmJ EIcc a Co. (la Fed. feip. 

273). :tl4. 917. an. ML 

D. 
IHily Th atat* of 0>ite (51 Ohio St 

34a.^ 00. loa idv 

DmI; t, Oeonna. «to. It R Co. (^ 

Am. A Ki^ R C^ «T]. fi. Ita 
JHij ▼- OoM^uk. «ta R a Ca ISO Qo. 

T. LyoiS (W low*. S7«L VL 
lAlft V. V(«w Ya«k R R Cf^ OM 

tluoullt OoU««« T. Woodvraril H 
^ThMl ail 7W. Ma M& 

kvtaport V. KaU«7 (T town, 10ri>. 31. 

kvcoport T. IDolwokacUdl OB F»o. 



QL 



UartA V, C^nU^I Cong. C!mnh(l 
DavU T. Ekla/ur oT Ifftw Yurk (Ulf. 

Dm&ti v. Ann Arbtrr SU Rj. Odl 

Diflnwitrv ft H. CHoftI Co. T. Si^ninl 
& P. Tiactfion Cfcw (ISO Pa. QL 
OM). Iflft 

t»<»liiuan?. L ft W. R R Co. 
(Gt N.J. LQ3M.l!4^Saa 

Di<][ihi V. Emna (3a Ind 00). IML 

i>fnv»r X. ftb«rrott (^ Fed. Rep. ^OBi 

Denver ft R O. R Co, T. lL>unio (ll 

Doavor ft & P, R Oa v. Dwiiko (ll 

Colo, 1MTX ISO. „ 

DimvQr Caii«aL GltitfL Oj, v. dlmpMiSl 

[SI c:oio. aril 3«t " 

UoDror Tnunwaj €bk t. Lonitooor 

[SO t:ola 150), 44. 
DnnvftrTmnTWAf OdiT.ltAlrl (i Cdl<l 

App. £3). V7iL 
D«ft MoiiiM 8t R R Ox r 0«i U^ntf 

CfobiJ U»u£i* R R Ca (T4 loww^ 

58ak»a 

Detroit T. DvttutE' CJly &j. Co. (^ 
Detroit r. l>otroit R R Ca (49 H. W. 

Dutnj4b T. Oftbarne Hiei U. ft 4 

ST4. 
DetfoitCativecD'St Bj-Okt. 

(n« Utcb, S84>. «l 
Detroit Ctttrens'St Rj. Ca t. 

B7.c>cmc;HS.mOL 

Detroit Oitr Rr- Co. T, HUU (8&W 

OM]. miisi. im itc 

Dfttrc4t CItr »3^. CCL V. tfiU* c» Mlc^ 

523J. lua 
Dtrlki T. QncoB U|£kt Co. C4» AtL 

D*vita V. Smltfc tW N. Y. *7D*. ?^7, 

Dickv J ▼. lUiM T«Js» Ca (4S 
43e).2aa 







^^^^^^^^^m TA3L£ OF CAE£H CITIOX ZXW ■ 


^^H^ IbftBiuuw H0 to Br>c<IoBa. ^^^| 


Dfeter «^ IUm 1U«. Ck^ r46 iUl 


l^icbfte T- EvACATflle St 11 Ca (78 V 


ffitkSML 


!ii<3. Sfll), IS. ua ^J 


D&c^ftjq T. KowMikM £l»e. Us^l C«. 


HUeoUio CcaiMtmotkin CD- t, IMSm^ ^^H 


{» III Af^ 9»)» ao, 4^ 


nui C« If. Y, SL lEoih 4i30>. 3dL ««» ^H 


FKIkiD T. ALh-Kf^^njr Omnt; UtbtCok 


■ 


(i:»P».St.4WKlW>*, Mi 


KI«^Erin Tfnfir. Cn, r. San nui«l«oo 1 


Dijxn T. Boll (SBl ft & 108). MS. 


{45 FvdL }to(L nOllf» 40, 1 


DuBCci v; W«at«ii Ubwd Teloft Ox 


BUctrio Irapr.Ctt T.8ouuieU(43Fod 1 


W r«l Sep «M), ?^ «H, Ml 


)to[x riMj. 411 ■ 


Uodd T. Coivolidatod IHctioo Co. 


&l«rtno Light C^ T.Cit7(4 D«l ItU ^^| 


(ST K. J. U ie»L IMl 


^H 


OodvB V. DftnApamSTlow^MO;^ 10; 


Elwtrio ruwcr Cu t. Kow York (03 ^^ 


Doomde T«l«9 ft Td«ph. Ox v. 


rt Y.Supp.Vl0i,41 ■ 


Vemk mK J. L ^l». «. £L 


EEcciHa a Jt. Co. V. Gmnd Raprd* 1 


Dojrio v> Wliko (tt Ut«c Rc^h ii:\ 


(B4 Mich. £57). 37, a», A], M, m. ■ 


Mi^att, 


ElpctrLc TcL Ccx t, Onuvwn ol cha 1 


DfldyV-ilMUottlMA PiaKCD. 


Poor oCbftUonK;^ U J. 140). 97, J 


(»T lowB» M^ UMl 


£ax ^H 


Dnkt* T. Ilndami fttrer K K. Co. <7 


ElniHlvd Rj. C» oif Onuid Rapldn t. ^^H 


BwbLMBXmiW 


If mnd HjLpidn (IM mch. ?d7K 3tL ^^H 


Dvb^Q* T. UaloQ»y <D Iow«, 4H> lOt. 


ElUavrood v. E«<Miebuis tl»l Wu, iai)p ^H 


[hiuiir. DinvlAj^lnm OumI Oa (L R 


^H 


ig. a43v23fii 


EtUotI T, FAlrbav«a 4t W«iti|ll» a ^H 


Vnmn t. Uc^UaiM (tt X X I. 4Wv 


P- C> (S2 CouL QTOt 111 ^^H 


ML 


Blbou T. H^ (» (^ IL DtT. 3UIV ^H 


DMMlb«tf7 V' VutoAl TUc«. Cu (11 


S^Oh ^H 


Abtl It Gm 440^ «C 


KllInU V. N«vport 9L Tty, Go.(lSIL L ^H 




TOTt. 'ia*^ ^^1 


k 


EUis T. Sbeffl^Ld Gu Ca (la L J. ^H 


hrt Fjhj R & Cn. r, D0|1« (Bt T«niL 


EtT T, C(LTn|»b«ll l5a How. Pr. I88L UL ^^H 


:tT^ UVl 131. 


EmiAni Cttr 9Qbv«j Ca r. Bmd- ^^H 


■mi rortkod r. M«Hnom>hffOrgg. 


w»j ]L a ca (^ Btn. mM^ ^^M 


WXft 


Ennliv. Onjr v^ Hon, 330^)71 ^^H 


Sh»K>W Blvo. Uffbt 0> T. Gfuii 


EpporMD T. Postal T<}J. Ctb:* Co. pi ^H 


fMJ«M»*aA%T^ 


& W. Rep. Td>^ £«& ^H 


EMi T«utnt!v Co. V. KnoKTaio Bl 


ErUiMD f, t^A 48 g, a Dlt. 4141 ^H 


Xf. COl (J Ahl n C^ 40rtL Vll. 


ttu ^H 


htf TfVMNM Tilcpk Ca t. Q^lU- 


&io Tdo& A Tclopk. Ca k K«oa«dj ^^H 


Mi«9 Sec; ainiBl ft;. Oh (» Am. 


iaOTvi,7UlMl ^^M 


Eictessnnsi 


Y:n\itv:x. KewOrlmi^otaK,&Gtab ^^1 


^^M Tiiiiwi 1^1«pk Co. «, Sn 


(4BU. AiuL»Mn,«XL ^H 


^■^ MlMlkifiU&W,E<p«W>.ttl 


E^«ex CouDty Eloo. U. t. lCeIlj(?T ^^| 


^vboo Q. hl Co. «. ib-iitt <A u«i. 


N. J. U lOOk Si^ aOTL ^^ 


IKK A 


K«Mz CoDMy eiM Oil t. KcUj («> J 


SibM 0«ntfnU 8l«b Utftit Oa v. 


H.xLsoakMa ^H 


OvfkuAtJ ^ GoebiA l^raii^ C 


E>»*i C^not^ Blec Ca ▼. KcUj (61 ^^| 


bi»mj.1& 


N. J. L. «Si. 3«L V 


W^^ Mm H«pL * T-ltg. Cft fia 


Kttfvlia U^^t A Lm (^ KL EuaIa (S 1 


]LT.m].H,9Qtm 


CaaAppOMMa I 



^^f ZZVi TARLE or 0A419 OfTICU^ ^^^^^| 


^^H ItoKirttfirTa uv to *iif3«a ^^^H 


^H Exo^idor Eltt^ Co. t. Swovt C?iT N. J. 


Fmcnonthal r. Go* XJght Ca (07 iJa 


^H L ttUk 811. VT3. 


App. 1), M4. 


^H Exoabbr Etna Co. t. fiobt-l CW ^ J- 


Fmno U T, Oiokrtttl Oi^ R 5 Q. a la^ 


^H L.441X»i4. 


S42. 




Fr«iicU T. Coclmll (t* R 5 Q. R 5ai), 


1 


M^ 




Fninklln t, Nut1«7 Wat«r Ca (M M. 


^^H yaniimi v. Concor^l UofW Kf- C& (?Q 


X bq>«OU, 37. 38.40. 14& 


^H Atl, R«fh 541X l^t. 


Frits T. EHe Pa«. Qj. O* (IM Pfc 


^H rnrmot r, GumoM HI C H M?^ £40. 


at 4T«J. Sft 


^H FanvIL T, MtjcFT, eK*. Of N»w York 


Frotft V. Kiutura R R Qa {94 tC & 


^H (A R Y. -Supp. 473). la 


mjpWUL 


^H Fftri^H T. Wiiich«t«r At«. R Co. (01 




^H Conn. IST),^ 


J 


^H Corp. (4 MeL !«). 3U. 


G&lbrnnth T. Anaoar (A Bolt. Apiw 


^H P«i]DraL Su P. N- Ey. Ca v. AUvitlieoj 


Lai 37U IK, m ion 


^H (M PJltiK L^ Jour ^Wi 38. 


OhUntflicrT. numphr^CaLAwTimo* 


^H Fefgua Lona t. Attattbio Work* (111 


Brp. 694). S4a 


^m UHi.uahS«L 


GnLliuchi-r r. Olyphunt (9T AtL Ztrp. 


^H FMoh«t V. DmkA (13 Pvi R^Pl OMj. 


IfJUfJ, K^ 


^1 aiu 


OimtioD T. Uidodo GswUghl Ca <I4S 


^H Finch T. Eit«nfi« ± Arliogton R H 


Ma COSK 845. 


^H Co, (97 caL nvD, na 


OftTTfitt r, lAkn Rilind EIac R7- Ca 


^H natULg&n V. FLtiafiald (44 N. J. L. 


CTV MdL m, 125. 


H "«.fia 


Oftrrbon t, Chiooip} (7 Biw. 180), 81 


^M F1i^Iu:ir T. Ryl4Qd» (T. a L Cx, SOS^ 


Oullxltt 4: O>lio Ool v. TwUy of dU 


^H 3U.31£^2lT.330,S?7,?;tt 34A,94L 


Mnry'a Abbott^n [ 15 Q. R D. i;^ 


^H 


^im. 


^H Flood V. W4at4*ra Uaion Tclvft Ca 


OftttirotTp i^rtoucuRsaaan^ 


^B C13I N. Y. 603j,£:^U 


24^ 


^H FtoriiU Ont A P, R R Ca t, OomU 


Oftf ». Muluii! Un^OB T«1«ff Ca (U 


^H SL & a IL EL Ca <^ Rk BOfl^ 


Ma Anv4W).IJ0,0fl, lOfl, 


^B 


OniMTa ft W. Br- Cu *. K T Qatit 


^^1 Floridft Southern R R Co- v. Brown 


ft R R R Ox (4« N. Y 8iJppk 


^H [AS Fla. I4M). ISa 


S4!!), 15& 


^^H Fob« T> lEomcu WatcftoiTfi A 0. R 


Qfla4r& A W. Rt- Ca r, N. Y. Cent 


^H R Oil K. y. villi. 7U. ISO. X2X 


ft fl. R R Ok ^ Apph Div. U5X 


^H F(>l07 V, Jofw^ Citjr Kloc\ Ught Ca 


lOT. 


^H C54N.J. U4U),«.m 


Qixitira *- SkiriD^tm (L R ft Exdw 


^H Forbu T. Waijm>u;Uo TatU Glnn Co. 


i\Ma 


^H rifiDfrg.aas7VL 


Gibbott* r. Bnuli Rlea DJom. Ua (» 


^H Ford V. l^iiMgo ft If. W, R R Ca 


App. DiT.. K. Y, 140; Ml 


^H (14 Wii.«l<X v^ 


Gilbert V. CbMM ft Ucdb Rj. COh 


^^1 FonjUto V. U ft O. TeU^ Ca (IS 


^ Dl Di»L Ct Rop. 4«>i UO. 


^H Bla ApCL 41W, VSL ttTL 


Oabart V. QMolof. & L. A F. R R 


^H Foi ▼. CMi«rtDO ft a 8L Rj. C^ (tS 


Oa(»Cab.S0l\12a 


^H Fh. Ca Ct. IV|v 1SIK 14C. 


oiKwrfi CiMi rre n. y. a»i itt 


^^P Fqt t, QUhftrlTtn A R ii4. R7. Ca 


OfL^SrjKt T, nrmrlnlna T^ltg. 0^ 1 


[1 fl ix«l i£«fL stfTk ei 


R ft R US), 101 

.._ J 



^^^^^^^^H or OAAEg oiTta ^^M 


^^H IkftffKi ttn** >fltfiaMt ^^^| 


GOvtto T. ChMtiw A BC Rf. CU <3 Pft. 


^H 


DUtU«p. 4A0L» 




QOnMi 9. fr<i7M (57 N. H. am Ml 


HAicwa T, Tw^Dtj-dtPMad 6t Jt A. ^^H 


QlOt^UW T. V&utBtUO & a Ox |U1 


Ava Pau Rj. Ox tL rik PivU ^^H 


N- Y.ftt. B^fk isuv "3. ia\ 


Rop^ 5oa^ m ^^H 


Qltmuitl V. Eleotrio lnpfOT4Ri«ot Ca 


B&lffAx V. Lorillf (90 Cka Svp. Ck ^^| 


(lOT CkL UOX M. ttk 


R«ix M&X 3^ ^^1 


Olulv^ T. Uani> US K. X &i. T3K t& 


niU T. Sullivan R. R. Ccv t3 Rodt ^^H 


QlMM* V, McKAy (Ifti Uaw 433), 


Am, R5. Ouos, U3I), 941, :£8i ^^H 


M. 


OoIk^ V, Bapf d Tmiurt St. Rr- O^ H7 ^^| 


Qoodooo X UobordMO (U & 9 Cb. 


K. X]iki,e».^d;:.«7.«T,9&UU ^H 


aixiMi 


j:fO, 157. IH i4& ^^H 


Gertaa i^ But ChmUe Sd& Ca 


HaikI t. COBtral P& Totoft ft Supply ^^H 


WRv^SIOUDl 


Oo^U UcluLo^ N«w«.S3UMfib ^^1 


Oflnd Av«L Ry. Ca t. Pnc^ln'K Rf- 


Uannilvkl 7- Mlqwarl & Knn, TblMff. ^^H 


Qk (IBS i>& I^X tX- 


Ca i;Jl Ucv Ae^ ^>, 37, iH. ^^H 


Q«m4 Bftpddft £[00. T«U& Co. 1*. 


Bftfti^a V. WiJL, A, IJUDt«r £lo^ ^^^| 


OranJ BiipBJa EJiMO. atcOx {33 


Liulil Cu. (94 luv^a. 7^1, 91. V 


P»d. R«Fk a*^a), ft 


E3ATil«n V, SmithvltU Ca (39 Oo&a- ^^H 


Octbil lUpt J«. ct^- R. R Ca V. BdImI 


A^lVSfifL ^H 


^ (ITMioktfM), laL 


Hudwick T. VcnnoAt Tfikfr A ^^H 


^^blBd R*^^ 4fc L & Ca V. Bebsl 


TeltipJL C<x |78 Vt laOk 41 ^^1 


^ (SSMich, «;. ItVL 


Hirlisy *. BuITaJo 0»r Mfg. Oft (MS ^^H 


Gnj T. DnlUtf TcrmliuJ Rj. Col (13 


N. T,S1), 057, ^H 


T^ Cir, Ap|k tUi lU 


Hannia t. Bnuli EJn^ Lt|[Lt Ox (lA ^^H 


Oisr r. 8t FlMtl A Pk& R R Ca (13 


Ap^ Div. IMX SA^ £08. ^^1 


Hina 3151, 1S0> 


Hftnubtirg 4E U. Elec R7. Ox t. ^^H 


Onot N. W. Taloit C» v. MontnAl 


tlttrnaburicO&UIWnpikoGah ^^H 


lUc^ Ca (» C^n. au|L Cl. ITO). 


(H P&. Ox Ot R«p. S80X lU, itta V 


tK. 


i]arru<*n v. B«rk«]ej (1 Stralx Iaw, ^^I 


OnM Wett l^.ofOHftda t. BmU 


& C, G^), SGf'. ^^H 


(tUoaF.ClOUm. 


Oionaon V. Ceiitral a R. Ox [81 tC ^^M 


OntniBlik ArimY v. IiO«i1cHll«> Eliy^ 


Jk Lt £9U). UVl ^^H 


Ugbt Co. H0 & W. ttop, 1M]L 


BaffMon V. NL Aubtun Qibia EL 1^ ^^H 


>»L 


Go. (17 WIlIj, Dull. S60), LS8. ^H 


QiMB r. Ckpe Uar (41 K. J. I« 4B). 3& 


BiUiin V, BnviU Elnx Ustit Ox (U ^^H 


Ofvan r dtf A SubarbAn fif. Ca 


Afqi Div. 1^ »3T, ^^H 


r7BH4.fl»4),2S,l8t. 


Houai Lightiag 0^ T. Jooc* Bro& ^^H 


Ofen r, ttaot/m iStN.X [«ft3).^ 


£ko Co. L£U n'U;. U« Dull ^H 


Onf T. X. Y & PhlW Tnctioo Co. 


]37>.41,a3. ^^1 


(w !t. J. &). U3X »a 


HAVorfoM bloft Lig^t 0> v. Out ^^M 


OfiAs T. UnllAd Eloi^ UgLl Gft (161 


(U Ph. Oa CL E*p. 36fl). lOtt ^^ 


U^tfOxd^BU. 


my T. ojuxM a s. Y. isB), 3IA st*t J 


HMBMk V. Oodtow IS a A KM0L 


Mft ^^1 


^v •» 


HAjan* r. lUlolKh Qm Co. 014 X O ^H 


r Onit a * sl F. Rj-. Ox f. a -w. 


?(rr*$ltLteL£I& ^H 


1 T«lfff)lL & TnlA^. c:4\ ^4^ R W, 


HAjDNt Vp Thoasu <t Ib^ SDt 8^ ^^H 


1 IbfL tSli 15% 174 


^H 


I Ostewo Y. &I&IA (57 R W. Vto^ 


Q«aT«AT. rDiidor(11Q.K Dir, OQ^ ^^H 


1 loouim 


U3,Si9,St^ V 







^^V xxviii TABU Of »n» crmx ^^^^^H 


^^^^^^H RpfcHMM ii* ta Hfibn«. ^^^^| 


^^^^ Oootor ▼. BoMton ewn Light Co. (ICl 


Bobokoa Lonil A Imp. Co^ t, ffctri- 


^H Ufln. »»X ;»& 301 


KAdOI N, J. U 131. Ti^ 


^^1 Ooclor T. Iloilon Eloc Ugbt Ca ^M 


H<fCl;ftIl«f v.MA»}uafitn A a Ox(3l 


^H N, KRefL a;j9).sna 


N. V.£Jt.U6rk lU.STW lEi 


^^M Ecilmon t. Lebannn £ .L St By. Co. 


H«iki7ttT.Bt«M{]0a rfi4.:'V)ME^ 


^H riur^-Sumtm 


UiodKw V. BkltEiiKiro ?u& IL R COh 


^^M nr^nilersaD v, Ogd^n Ctly Ry. Ca (7 


(hV« Mil. nORi. ita 


^H Ulub, im, V. 


iJod^q* t> WorLoro Uaion Tttt«^ Cvw 


^^H HendviKiD Drid^ Co. t> City d 


(tAm.ELr>tfi56).U. 


^^1 HendEr?OQ (17» IT. S. nrO\ Sft^ 


Hojcvnounp v, PntH«on H. R. R C«k 


^^H H«Dd»nciD EtridffA Co. v. Ko&tutiky 


U7l!l,XEt^.K^).U8L 


^H (iw u. & idOh 9^ soa 


Hcldoa T. Pit^hbuTg I^ Oa (Itt 


^^1 Bmikosgi DndKe Ca v, £catuoky 


Haa.^n3^ 


^H 181 & W. Tt«ix 4m\ iiliii 


Holly V iVfftoD Gw LtBtit Otx (9 


^^M Honkol V. Dotroit (49 Mich. ^0), TT* 


Gr*y, IMX SBi 


^^H HoDiy Clauva & Soiu* Dn^wioic Ca 


DotJic Id& Co, t. Now York tl£l4 tT.& 


^H IT, a & a Tvilujf, Ca (U Am. KL 


Qli4>, :;Axi:«a^(L £1^ 


^H Qw SIU>, lU^ 


Hotao Tolopfa, G» T. Nc\7 ItrUDflttli^ 


^^H HflrtinMT Lights PoTTcrC&T.Jcihii- 


<n AtlRcp.€£e>.4lX 


^H KVi [:>:> N. Y. SupjL ^4). 29L 


Uani SUvcr Mining Gcl t. Now To^ 


^^H Bfinlincid V. Ifooky MouniAin ]l«ll 


U43 a R SOAl *JrXL 


^H ToL Co. (I'J Mont lOU). ^!^ Ml 


HouAdol y. Smyth IjCh, 73IX Zi& 


^H lI««WlUr. N. Y, aAlIRLt.OfK{65 


nountoQ A TfTiw a Ry. Co. i- t*giHL 


^H N, Y.ntrp|\Ha»).3ai. 


Tij4^, GAb1« Co. £4A A. W. ^^H 


^^H H«waU T^ WoAtani VnMtn Tilag. Ox 


i7»). 1:4. ^^B 


^H (4 Moolmy, 4Uk OU DA. IS& 


Bowo v. Woit Bed Sv Ry. Ga (W 1 


^^1 Ui«wb<fn T. K«« Uftvva (3T Cuiui. 


MuN-10]. 144, 1 


^H 47A). S7^ 


Hawaii V, uiiiTiii^ m k j,uq^ 1 


^H U&buil V. ChtCASO 073 JIL »U 0. tO. 


iSH 1 


^H HitflM V. C ft A. R a Co. (SO N. J. 


Uoyl T, So^ Sow Eiiit TptepU Coh (ft) J 


^H Eq, 435}, 7a 


Conn. 38Ah IDA, ^^1 


^^L^ BiflfbUnd At«s a K Hj. Ox v Birm- 


HuM>4ill *. »«ir York (104 K T. |^H 


^^^^^ iDRbum UaiOD Rv. Ccb (08 Aliw 


23%e3lL 


^^^P UW).te9. 


Hudacm Biter T^k-ph. Ca r, Wft:«^ 


^ Blgtklond A*^ A H Ry Ccr. &!«& 


Tliet TurrLp&ftH A R & Cft (M 


^H Ca ma Ajft, 33VI. 151 


Huiu 6T|. I A ^1& 


^H nUI V. 1k«to.a im UoA Oft). ?71 


nuds^-ni Rirrr Tole|>ll> Ca T. WftUt^ 


^H lUlkr T. A.. T. A a F, B. & Ca taS 


vlict Tumpii^o A Ry, Ox (IC 


^H KAaV»».iik 


K Y. aa»),»i. 


^^M UlsdmuiQ V. na«fKn llofie R B. 


nudDOQ Toloplk 0\ T. Joney City (40 


^H Oa(17 K J. E4. 9Sk U S2. T^ 


N. J, 1* awt «. «i. 


^H imi0a 


IToghn r. IjuniicnvilU K1#«l, Ll^bt 


^H Hioov. K Y. El0T.aiLC6.{S7N,Y. 


COl (&:i R J. Kq, 4^K VTUL SU 


^H 8t. BoiK 304). m 


Ouct r. cycAgp^lcTMADamnjr a 


^^H Hli9 1. ItaUimOTfi & Bomplna Pww. 


Ca(ut ULOJM».aa 


^H Ry. Ui {» Mt •^tt.. V2, lift 


Uact r. U<fjX m HI 344l, WM. 


^H Bob«ft V. Uilvftobca Qly R a Co. 


UuaiafTr t, Bvooiklyn City R & Ca 


^H (87 W^ IM^ 119k I2O1 I4& 


{1I4N. V. 4U3b llflim. 


^^L^ BohokMi LADd A liup. Dx V. Hobi> 


Hotrl^TiMkii V. Dnronsti of BeUur 


^^^K kaft(>CM.J. L.HDN3%l&i 


l«l ^, J, i. 44Si Cft ^^1 



UBis OF c±BS8 am). 



zaz 



fetfCnCKa BV Mf HCUcCA 



V, Borton Gw Ligbl Ca 
(ISiliii&IIVkESL 

aoMUsvn V. T. K. A a Rr* Co. {t 

Hjirantk) Works Co^ t. Orr (83 Pl 



Cci (let HHaL oaftbtt^sea. 

IaAui4 A C&n. R U Cb «> lAimno^ 

lwll«iiaN«CiiraJ AllluiaOM Oo^t. 

MuiteU [» H, E B«fL 9% 282. 
bdbnaf-Qlk Ik ft W. R & Co. v. 

BMStj (VT III 4^0), M, im 
lidknapcOli aUdo &t R H. Ca t. 

ClUnM' Sb R R Co. (137 lul 

sanua 

Indkupolli CKbt* 9t By. 0& r. Ctl. 

■MM' SL R Ofr (B L. R A. C30). 0. 

isr lowK itsa.\ su. 

Itoa Mounl^a R R Ca v, BiDgbftio 

(4 U R A. «a% 0. 
Jna Uoublsbt R R Gx v, Bkueli&m 

Irwlo V. Qrtmt Sontb T«l«& Co> (37 
Ia Aiux 87> OOl S& 



J. 



OOttDtj HorM R R Ox r. 
Rapid TninfU Ctx <&! FmL ]£«»(k 

aunrlUtf (30 FU t»A. 1(L Ba 
Jarnvi V. OimIw 8c Uy. Ux (» »«h. 

«8U to. 1^ l«i 
J«my i:iecfllc.Guif.UiBpby(m 

Jmrj Crtj- T. J. C ft R R R Ca (120 

R X c-^ aoi ST. 

imw^ QI7 A Dc];pm K R Co. *. 
inmj Cilj ft UobokBii R RCa 

C 



Jeraoy Qijr ft Bergen R R C<t. t. 
J*t*fy Cit/ lia K J. U J. lOOi 

Jcnv; Citjr Ou G^ v. Dwi^bi (9 

N.J. Kq, W3L Itt 
Jftmj CilT G«Al;gbt Ox v. U< & 

Impr. Col (4a Fi>4 flcii. mk sea 

John T. EtdiooQ (U a » a R 4ir;x 

sua. 

JobuKJii T. Tbomaoa-HoustaJt Elc<w 

Ca [M Una, bSllj, ^la 
JobjuB^Q V. ThomicD Uouton Coh (7 

K. Y. SjpiiTmilL 
JooBi T. GmitUi Vilb (lafl MoMC «4lk 

JonoA T. Nvir Hatch [81 Codjl I^ 

174, 
JullA Ballding A«m ▼. B«l] T«J«ph. 

Junior V. Mifaouri BL I* ft P. C& 
(197 Ua 79), SM^ lfC7. 

KAD«i« Cltj V. FlU ISS PM; B«F 077), 

Kaiuu CItr. atXftCRRRCcb 
V, »t Jciiopli Tenolnal Rj. Ox {VJ 

Ho. d^T^ lea 

Kmtu^j' t^ LcdJou, Dricbton ft 
South Cuut Er- OCX cT. R ft Q> R 
4)1), S34* 

K«oTi3cr T> Uukdon, UftaGBj.Ca 
(LR«a & 7:»»^STI. 

Elirc Lj^iht Ua (74 T«x. tOO), 9T8, 
STft 
K*1liri|^r T- Purtx-8<<%>Ti(l BU «ta R 

R cci (WW. y, soe\ n». isa 

Kdnned/ ▼, L*aamj[(W Miolk 4ldji 

Kenn^j- v. Jnwf Cf tj (97 R J. T* 

MS]:, £3. 14^ 
Keokuk T. rt W^rn^ Bea> 0& (M 

Io«-ik07LSL 
K«f*rT V. BftfTf AbOTf TrvtlOD OOb 

Kcni T. DeCubo Sefr. Ccx(t»H.y» 



^ tXX TA3LX OF OAflSB ORSD. ^^1 


^^H lUfMnDoot «n b> ihvU<iul 1 


^H SlnoAid V. Tn(!tofu Kftt Om C<l (I2t 


|j>AV»nvtfi>rth OaI Cn. t, Bitdllbcd 


^H Ia± n7K 10. ](■«, 110. 


^SKxTi. App.S0L99^ 


^H Knitner v. loiuboapolid (!*>■> t^"^ ^1^)« 
^H KnoKTfllf^ V. Afrios (7T F«cL Rajl 


Lo CIttij* T. DtkvoQpvt vl3 l«ii% Btl^ 
SI 

I^inipv M^Jilte (127 U atMOK I«t 


^P 50th & 


aw. 3fliL 


Eoob J. Kcnlh ATenuo Ry. Oo. (75 


Li;wts V. Cily o£ Ncwtoa A Eloa Co* 


Md.2aa3, 3ai.m 


aa Fuci. R.?pl NM?. a 31, 3^, U 


Kow&lBiri V. Nfvtatk P^m. Br- C^ (1^ 


LowM T. Fr^oholdcfft of CaraborUad 


F. J, I« J. GO;. 63. aS3, W. 


Ciiunty (87 K. J. L. J. 4I«>, H 


iCnuU T, Dni«lt EJoa Li^bl C(k (9} 


LewU T. Johm (1 P& St £301. IHO. 


MlPh. *r-T|» 2M. 


LdwIi' AdfD'r V. LouUriUo EliMW 


Kvaat V. BrooklvD Uolgbta Gjr. Co. 


Liglit Co. (EW & W.Jtopt 80%. dj 


(s&MiML itep^asi). lix 


MG,3.tL 




Llfiitinrgf^ T. Ann AcUmlii Tteptd 


I* 


Tnuil BL Uy. Ca (M Tu. TVJ, 

tia. 

L!ii(x>1d Strtwt Tty. Oa v.Ooz C48Ncilk 


lAckltkud V. TUilroAil Cd ^4 Ua 3^. 


011; no, im 


mnawi 


Laolode Gn»liichb Co. t. Uurpby (ISO 


LHtl^KmviTer. r. H««kutt (lt« U.& 


Mo. lUh li-S 1^ TO. 


8901.9^ 


Laid V. Nc-w Bt-Jrord Ry. Gu (119 


Livpi^rmmv T. FrMholdenofCkDDdttii 


HUL 419). 3&T. 


|5flN. J. I.9IHS74 


IaIv f. Mftr<iikaLitiLa El«*. Ry. Co, 


Lookhart v, CmieSt Ry.O& fSPhil^ 


UC4 N. T.ia&j, i^lb. 102. U0.13A. 


CcL CI. Ttcpi 4101 ua 


L*k0l&nd T. Cuuoy Uluit, «tc^ R K 


LookLo V, MuL UuioD Teldf' Ca(lO0 


C£^r8»N, V. sapp.mt4& 


HL 401). tna 


lAke [tcUnd BIcc, R^. Go.t. DAltt- 


Loebft Vp Dutto Qco. Eba Co* {15 


CdorQlTTHd Mai. 44 


Moni. ailL 


Lftmbom V. BeU (19 Calc 340)> lAI. 


LoaorgjLD T. LnffLyvlto Stroot Ry.CCk 


Luom X. C]iicA;;o, SI. P. ft M* R R 


{« AiEL EL Cub £;iO), ir.u^ loa 


Co.(43MiniL TU)2a 


Lonjcmnld T. SoUldDy (30 L J. El 


LftTiauh\rp Tolcph. Ov r. Ot<«p*ixtrt 


44^1.^^40. 


of the Poor (^ Ukw Titam. m\. 


Lordii of UotQJTwy lUrvh t. Trinity 


ML 


tlouM f L IL 5 Exck 2<H), SQOl 


lAncM(t«r T. RJUon Etne. IlL Ox (8 


|jorl» T. Sanh Chrmgo City R. Ft Ql 


*UCa K^fi l7ttK.M 


^ PAd 1ea^ S7D), tsx 


Lkoo r, Allni^tio Works tl07 Blu^ 


r ^fm<e r. Buchauan |« N. V. 470), fiil^ 


t'>i; 20% 


ML 


lAnon T. <:uDiral Ry. Ox :V€ IQ. Ap^h 


Loaiuttsr V. ADn>n (13 I^ R- A. 2fif]b 


fl83),U19T& 


10. 


Ufvo T. CHI Cllj fir- Ca (tt Ail. Bap. 


Louipvilloft Fhuikrort ft. R Co. T. 


nn^ fflo. 


BmvndTaMo^TOnti 


LdUrolM V, W««t4r« tTnioa TttU^ Ca 


LouiNvUle Bags^nff U^ff. Ool v. C«o- 


(74 UJ. 3;»] , t»a 


tnl PMi. By. Co. ^8 Aid. ELOm. 


lAinniL-tf T. Onnt WaaUfo Ky. Ctak 


1301 laea 


(10^ B Gl:t, !I2\ 


IjMnmJloflAAclAffUr^CakT.Ofitm 


LAim-ncc County r. K^wOMtoGeo. 


Paw Ry, Co. *W Ky. MS OMM. 


Ej. Ca(B P&Sapor;atSUX4^ 


LoaasrOfo Ov Co. t. C^Iudccm^ Gaa 


97a 





^^^^^^^^^0 TAJILK Off CASSA COICD. XXZl ^^| 


^^H Btftrtarm ag^ to mtnxfm. ^^^M 


UtttorilH S. a ft T. Rr Ox T- Pot- 


Mftx«*T. OT«nhlii^OfiO ImL tmM. ^^1 


tel T^ CftUe Ox (W Ui» «oe> 


Uftluijr V. Buahwlck B. R, Co. Ofrl ^^| 


101 


N.T. H&>.1& ^H 


LuMtert V. dtBtrai (i Cwh. Ml 1S£ 


K«iD» T. Gimod Tnuik Rf - Col ^143 ^^H 


LoaklMfrQIo Od&nrara Brvd£« Ccx r. 


u a viTf, esi S8a SS9. SM ^H 


AMwn m K, J. u am ^saSi 


MaIouc r. HfttbAwsT f^ K, Y 5). 8»i ^^1 


«niM 


lUanlmiUiti BLw\ Ufbt Ccx r^ Gmct ^^^| 


Lmi^MM V. LiTtaBrton Et*o. LL Ccl 


(31 S. V. &L IbipL VMK 73. ^^| 


(t71lD(it.8lt,tm 


hTADaia^ v, W«t End &L Bf. C^ ^^| 


LycE! f. OnukCft DkI (TAdlac U R. 


(lOU Uiuu. ?nO). 20^. 2«S. ^^1 


1 AiL s»v3ia 


MaQufii<?tiirr of Uiuft Kitvtrtfr Uj^ht ^^^| 


Lgrttck T. Hmdin (1 Q, a 29). 2Z% 


by UuniQtpal Corporolloiu {ISO ^^^H 




Atvu. Cl»:f>, It^ ^^M 


M, 


UftrintU A C(ii(<lnnKEJ Ky. Co. t. ^^I 




WvUm UnK^n T^tt^^Co^SS UhJo ^^| 


^HujiB «t Ontml Rf> ft EL«& Cok, 


&t Ibl). ISA. ^^1 


^F ^t\ma,^iSi,Z:^r^^ 


U^rUt Su a R Co. T* OouLnt R B; ^^| 


MAABdfflwi «. Cbl]«ni («3 N. 3. "L 


Cn. 4711 GaI, r&Aftx >l!*p 10^ ^^H 


im^Ml 


MarquM i>f ftalbtitin' '- Oiuttt Kortb- ^^H 


lf«Cannlok *. Dt«trkt of Cotunbia 


i^ni Tly. C^'tCB. iU\ fi& ^^1 


(4Ua£tej.4MLftl 


Uiint T, DkUwapm ft Eluibou C^naX ^^H 


. HdOuiUri T, Bo&lWUV l£j, Co. (3S 


Cn, iM Hiin, N, Y.03&>.W1L ^^1 


H. V. SopfiL lUU 1M. 


HAtvtiAll «. Bnjonao (SB N. X L. lOlK ^H 


HcDbvIU v. FeofjI^'a NitL Gsfl Cu 


^H 


(tOi> PL 8L »«Tl iDi). 


Mnr^liAll *. Wolwnnl iS8 R /. U ^^M 


KeDocttU r. Nvv'u-k (10 £7. X U J. 


sm^^>9^. Sil.Vl^ 1 


B4X77. 


UdTBbfif^ld t. Wiacoiuin TdcpJi, OOk H 


]CeDonadT.fii>flniotfrt4All«».U&M.. 


(TB I^. W- ]t«T|L T35>, 47. J 


atOhtWL 


UaAwnliu-cfflU V. \V. U. T«l499 Oo. ^^H 


1UK0*JU V. UobolMi (15 N, J. I. 


ll4Laa4i>\ieD. ^^1 


wxto. 


UitttEit^i^p V. LtiuJiHi Sttuol T^wn- ^^^| 


tt^Ate T, Bnuh El«c. LJfhl Co, {9 


wjif«C'<^(ALiiwTlm«ltiip.»N-il, ^^H 


BoLMNi. SH ItL 


^^H 


MqTaiwIilii T. Lmuoville Et«A La^bt 


U&ndlui T. GnwUTillD (03 a a Ik H ^ 


CaClCTa W. fi*tLfi5lK^t 


Uuy V. BurdoU 4U Q. a lOl). Zi9, 


KdLavi V, ChfAifo I. A U R C«^ 


Uftyo V. U'4ublasl4)n (l»l K. C EQ^ 


i8nowi.9«n rtti 


S^ 


Jlictea:^ r, WevtdtcaterEba 1^. Co. 


Uftyor of tHTDUport v. rffmoutti. 


ru N. T. 8^)|k OMk 14& 


cti\ IrninwAj*^ Ca l^S Iaw T, R- 


VoQini-i V. Fortbiid ft VBQoouT»r 


ICI^IW. 


It a Co. fi§ 0n» 9n)»n,8ft ot. 


Ucmpblji Bell T<li^ph. Ox t. Iluat(lQ 


]<a 11^ tn. 


Lai, IASK 101 


||cQ«lf?ui r D6l. U ft IT. & R. Ca 


Ucmplilfl H, R Co- v^ Crantti lHlon4rg 


f K-4 ,V Y. «18)L m^ 


( 1 10 U- a e09). VA:^ t^ 291). ^H 


HbcTwUi^ t, Onii^ ft yowuk 


UprviliAclJi' t'lUoii Bwb Wire Ox t. ^^H 


lIcvBCaraitCQ.(]4N. X Kii 


c:..KftQ.RO>r7l)toir«,ll>9jiUL V 


17), ML 


UoriflaD T, W«rt«fii Cfit«Q Ttk^ ^^fl 


lU4n« & C». t, Z«BLadAr of Cu^ 


C«« (T9 Uui ftlU ST, ^H 


vfttoBftfuvu (L ft 1 tuiL Akl 


Merrick v. Intnoofditaliw &j. Ca ^^H 


l^>» 


(iiaKcivA), lu. ^^H 



ixjui 



TUU o« ouit'tt&k 



f3rfrt»Hau<« 1o H^ttoan 



I H. U My 291^ «37. «74. 

CcUoU LcAd C<v I6ti How. Fr. 

Mn^nn t. Hndnnti GOnntf TUtc Ctx 

(SON,J. L.S50/,«l,41. 
UicIioDor T. PiiJftd«l)>lii& <18 Pi> £t 

^z^\ ia 

UiddJvburj Btuik t. i^dxort-^n {SO TL 
tfilbum V, LVJftT KAT>idaR R Ca (13 

Uill^iu V. 8JiAr;> (IS Baib. 199\ 10. fiO. 
na 

MiHun », hljLrp {17 Biub. -WTj. 9, 
UlbHU «. BltLip (27 Ff. T. «11>, & 41. 

Milli V, Annctroag, 7lie Donuiib <]3 

UiUvillo Tmclloa Cut. Qoodirifi (IU3 

N. J. Eq. 4481. 04. 
UUw&ukoo A SU Pkul By. Co. v. 

Anaa(&I U.a4aD).S£a 
UilwAukiwi St St r. Ry. (^ T. K©1- 

Mmot V. Phil£L, W. ft a R R Ca. 

Dolawjov Tiki Cbaa {\h WulL 

'lasi^ ys2. '^sx 
Ulntum 7. lAmo {S3 How- U. &. 

«i*M>iirt V. sdun-by <Ka u. a 7SX 
4». oe. 7C, 

aLf45aaitA).di& 

MitrVirtll V. KA^nacbft <II3 Vlrtlu 

Mobile A a R It Oa v. FMAl T^sc 
Cftbld Ox (24 a W. Reit. 4a9\ lOX 
174- 

ttoat«OBi«ty V. 8ao|a Aa* ft V. R 

Ca (l»S?. Ajip. Ou, b^X C& 
■VOTK^ T. Lo«iauM l»e U. 8. $lT)k 

A Bmuc R R Ca t. V«vftHE 
(10 X. J, £q WV U 8T, Ua 



Uocri* Sc Biwx R R Ca T. Fewifk 
PWK Ry. Cb. (31 N. J- £«t 

Uorri* A Ems R R Cb X Kqi 
Pm*. Rj. to 1G2 K J. E«. 

MortiiuM- *, N, V. KtflY. R R Cu 

N. Y. Bt.ReF^6T^7& 
Uouiit AdurmA Eil«a P»rk lQolljt«d 

l*y. Car- Wtfitfoir (30 W«A] 

430), le, Iflfl. 
Mount Ailtum A E^CQ F^f L lai 

Ry. Gol t. WiiiKluw (3 Ohio 

Ct. Bcp. 4!SX 1^ 
Mowpr r. LeioMter (9 Mns. 347% CTi 
MuiilDiibriiick V. Cotumiauaix^ (43 

N. J. I. :j(Ml aa 

Muli™ T, St Jobn tW N- T 5*7i 534, 

£71. 
Miitnk] Union T«ilt^ C% t. Ctilmgo 

ae Kod Rqi^ 309i la. 47. 6d 
UyhftQ T. LociuioDo IHoa UgbC Ox 

(41 LiL Aon. fi04). 2GT. 

N, 
!fjuMU) Ga« Tigbl Oa t. 

NatiomU Bell Tcli^pb. Cb ▼. Bftk«r 

liisaH] 2 Cb. UG), aiit Sir. 22\ 

S40,&IO. 
K«Ar« T, UL Auburn OMtt By. Cd 
<ei> Wily. Uv &3lL 171), Mfli 

rrtbTAMlm T«toplt OtL T. Vt^k ilfUi ft 

Kiwx Ligbt ca(n t««b mj. 18a. 

K«iwk £l4C U A H Co. T. O*rdoa» 
AduV of Hum (80 U. a Ap^ 
4i«^ atui,si».Mi 

N«wnf b KL I. A F. Cto. T. UoUilitay 

Newark £X 8t ft F Ca ▼. ILiJdy C«9 

N.J. K50Uaii2Tl. 
K«inuk Fma By, Go. v. BIcclc 

N. J, I. Om I4i 
Itair Qtatl« r. RivrtHe Dx (14 P>. Qx. 

Ct K<ii OI9h 54. 
NqwcII t. Mince&poli^t Lyn4dkl» 

H.RRCdL<a»HuuL imut 

Now E«ni«oky OonI Ca t. AIImaI 
11^ Ud. App. 407X UT. 




^^^^^^^^^^p fXRiJi or CJLSBS xxxUi ^^M 


^^K AiAnoMi •» C» Hetidaa, ^^^^ 


IWir OrlmiM ▼. OnAt Sovth. Tol««. 


Kow York,!* Eft W. ROxT.Slrin- ^^ 


Oa.(40lA Aiia,41(,D& 


bmtuMfr. *T N. J. U 1«U MO. M 


ifiw Orlauw Utx « lAko R Cc. «. 


Vaw York, Now Uuicn ft B, R R ^^B 


ia«v OrUkU (14 La. Ann. 72bl), a 


Ca T. Fj»U Qavi^Q ft W. R Ca ^H 


How OHMnt CHy R IL Co. v. Civn- 


17C C<^na OlOj^ 171. ^^1 


net C»j R R Ca il3 FI01I. Rajl 


Naw Ynrk. Now IIatoq ft It R R ^^| 


■ofta 


Ca r, Brl(]g«|ri>rt Traction Coi ^^H 


Hov OHoftUd^ otc a R Cok T, DvLik- 


(6a OoaD. 110X173. ^H 


atan lilt U. A 40^ 44, &m !^ 


New York TVitoph. Ca v. Koauey (9 ^^H 


Wt.3»V 


t^ iH*t tu^ snex 5t ^^1 


Hew OrleARA Qott Ca t^ LoniniftDeb 


Ni<»ll T. I^, Y. ft N. J, TaL G^ (U ^^M 


Liichi Co. <ua u. a <f^*. 0, «. 


AtL Rfli^ A88), 04. ^H 


Kew OrliAiu Guli^ht Ca v. Buit 


XicliolH T> Atki Arbcir ft V. At R R ^^1 


<«],ft. Ann. mx»l. 


Co. ^ MiolL Vdl>, IIU. 133, ISS^ ^H 


Kew Orlokiuk H. ft X R R Ool t* 


^H 


eoiUlu <t Aa l«le« Co. (33 ALL 


NIoIiqIa r. MlDUHHKiliBf83ML(UL43a}. ^^H 


titj, m i»-\ u^ 


VUH. ^^H 


K«v Orisuit Wl^laf Work* Col t. 


KittoQlyo«rii:e Cam (16 W^lLGSi), ^^M 


BiTCDiiua u. a4T4x&a 


2iZ. ^H 




NorfoLk ft VAO^rn R R C<i t, P«[tn- V 


ty, ITT), »L 


cylTtnin (m C S, lU}. 1^91 ^J 


KevpMt lUuMi, Ox T- Tax Anowoa 


NomntofTD T, Ee]nft<ine ToU>i& ft ^^H 


n^ R L o»x sm 3«K 


TultiiiL Cu aa Moattf. Ca L B«fL ^^1 


Mtw Vori: A Long Emocfc R R Co. 


D).S4 ^^M 


«. Alluicio HighlandA. oba Kj. 


Korrmtown T. Moyor (67 Fbdt.S(5k ^^| 


Got (SC N. J. ^ S:^ 101 


2ai ■ 


K«wYork A ClnHTniroal bUn Hf. 


Morth HnitlmArv ftaiK. R7, Ca t. ^^H 


COk T. Ktv JoriMf KUr. Uy, Ca 


BftltlnLOHi ITO ^d. 'Mil A ^H 


(ft>N-ll*Wj.IM. 


Stirtb RiUinip^To Pan* Ry. Ca t, ^^ 


K«w Tork ft HiulAfp R R Co. T. 


Norllj Ava 1C>. Ca (TS Hd £83), J 


fbrtj-MOUkd 9t MC R R Ca 


^^1 


4nbrtLMQl,m 


North ChlcftRn 9t Kj. Ca «, Cb««t- ^^| 


K«w T<frk ft N«T JeraerTslei^h-Ca 


ii&m [^ in, App. Lii»x aa vi 


T. BMiaeu m K J. L X T4JX HO. 


Nortli Gt^rriiKii lAtfyii fytruuiftUlp Ca 


ML 


V. liigvbrf^tdQ j,G7 ti. J, U 4U0^, 


ff#« York ft N«w J«fscr Tolfph. Ooh 


SfiT. 


r. Bruuim (tXt S. J. L 483), tU. 


North Uu<J mil C<x Ry. Ca t. Ilobokea 


Vtv York ft K«v Jmi^ T«]«pb. Ca 


(41 N, J. r.Tl>.liO; 


r, Deiaiauiiac<t4 K. X t. J. SOflX 


SoHh Ji'Pwy S*t Itf, COl v. Sooth 


•1 


Omifa (43 AU. iWlx ^J. 44 ^ 


Hew Vortcft Now Jfnin3rTo[ff»li.O0h 


NortliHni C«tiL R R Oa r. llanis- ^^| 


t. EMtOnn^lUK.J. Eq.4S0). 


bviTftK eLKj.Cik(]77F&at ^H 


44. 


I43K ITX ^H 


S*« VoEk ft New J^ntrj Tclopbi Cix 


Norlhecn Pac. R R Oe^ t. H«tt«ct ^^ 


T. SiHlckvr (W N. J. U V3). aaft 


inan fiiHi).s.n ■ 


lt«« Torii Cent ft R R R R Ca r. 


Kotlhwpsit-m T^l^jJi. Kiflli. T- Ch4- I 


1 WafiM tik Br- Ca (W I^ dL 


cofio, M. ft 3t r. ny. Ca iTO K. I 


[ fttL UVL 


vr. fi«iL sni. i:.^ lOo. i»l ■ 


Ktw Toffk aiy ft Nfwtliam R R Ca 


Norvxih Gas r.utit Ca t. Nnrwfnh 1 


r, Owtnl CnMi ToUft 0». (31 


City Gm Li;fit Ca ^33 Codc* tVX 1 





zzxiT 



UUft QV CASH 



ttai i rmttm u* fA ■hoaba 



IMl^ Wnt^sr Workfl r. Towuhlp of 
PtaoUin I&3 N, J, Bq. AOl), 00. 

K & R.axi^aftnUcbiOO Kuk,U3). 
tUL 

O. 

0*Brien r. Biiff&lo Tnction Ca ffia 

O'Biion V. En« (30 (^ Co. Ct Rcfv 

337), Ta 
Ot^tmoT T, NoYi 3rot!™ Tnlftph. Ca 

OiUU V. N, V ConU U. R Ca (1«0 

OTlahrrtf t. Nr^ianu EL Ry. Ox (?** 

Ofidcji T,CroMm&Qi531'Ao.BvFi.!W5}, 

50. 
Ogd«n City Hy. 4>L V. O^D Citj (T 

DCAh. eoTMa, 168, lea 

Old Ootottj R It Oa T. RoFkffind A 
A. BLRy. Cartel MA>HtHiJtW 

Dmubtt Hum Ry. G(x t. Cbtilv Irmni* 
my C<i (XJ FivL ftopi TVk l«ft 

Ootafia A W«tof a Hy, Co. r. W«^ 
c«n Uciou Tele£ Co. (34 tlllD, 

Onnge Cranrtowo & P. V. R & Co. 

T. Now York, O. L A W. R R Go. 

<10N. J. U J. »>U. 1<>L 
CBdUf T. N. T Bloa F J, Cci (4S IT, 

R JUp lOSSl. Ltl. 

ottoff ft. a c A a a tL & Ool T, lat 

CT«flUl V, L^awrlUo £l«Q. Light C^ 
(i7 8.W.Etefk.«ttXUSL 



P- 



ftelOo Pottal TaU^ Co. t, ItvIm <4a 

Fad Re|v 11% M 
P^o T. BitTiD (li & R IU|k M8h m 
PftlakW V. tAidunoot EL^a. Ol (]i3S 

R Y. *B1).3ailL 
PilOMT T. tATclunont Doa Gcl 19 

Piril l£l«c. L. A Hy.CQ.v.Sovthw«l- 
«fn T«l«tc. ft T^toptL Osv ^ An. 
EL Cm. a62> ^121, 



P*irrj y. Wmilh (I. IL 4 C P Dit, iiXV 

its. 
PaMnou A Punic H. R Gc^ t. Pakv- 

Km (M ». J. Eq. ia8>. 3T. llfc 
PuierMi Ity. Co V. Gnmd J \hl N- J. 

l^k V. gmiib n Cona. tOt^ m 
Pdbou T. £ut CIvvvtUdJ R. H. Co. {^ 

W«i»Ji. hiil ftTt. 30, 1£% 14& 
i^nnuyhncJft IL K Co. v. Bnul<l<ck 

Ei«c. Ry. Co. iin Fih Bt noiiei 

P«tiiihylvAitU1I;R.Cu T. OrHaaBbunt. 
.T, A R RU Rr Ox IIT« Pi. 8t 

F«Dnf7lvaii£> R R Co. t. tippIa1^Jtl 

reuDtyliunia R R Gtx v. UoDtgOitt' 

«ry C«k Piitffc a COh O P& D»b 

Ot. Rp|L 06), &T, 
Fecnsylvuitft R. R Go. v- MoQtgonk* 

cfyCftPftM^ltr Cfw|l«T PiL Bt 

ttkSTo. 140,14% 14«.inL 
Pmuiv^lviuili R R Ox T. fluhiirtwi 

RRpldltaiultOx(SFttUtLUJ, 

J7S\ 178. 
^tu»Hj l<ni»lii R R Ca T. WAnfvi 8L 

Ky, Ca <1*» r^ hL T4j^ ISd 
PenbfiilrAiiU TolopL Ca. v Vanwi 

(9 Uoc Uir Rv*' TU 3961 SSa 
Pennryitwalft TM«|ih, Oopply G& t, 

Wiikwbttm A if. w liy, Co. <ll 

Pfc Ca Ci Rep. 4lTj. £17- 

TTnfon T^«^ Ctx iM C & 1^ ISIJ^ 
]1fl^m,l78,ini.lM,3ML 
pE»ple r, BAmari UtO N. T. UX H 
TVoplA T. Rhdms <^ BarlL MX a 
I><^ T, Rwrd of An^ton IVP X T. 

PttJpAa 1. Doanl of Riulnod ODKl*n 
Of S-al* ol Ntw Ycrt 131 K Y. 
0«pp.7S1VK 

<i:ia If. y. nax la 

FnopU V, EftWQ riOl lli«h. MSI tt 

p»aiJ* V. ta Ca iW H. T. itfu am 



^^^^^^^^H TABLE CJf CAfiSe OJTBD. SSXT 1 


^^F IhftiJiKi nfT to icHda^ 1 


^^T^Mfie T. Fkirt Wttyne ft £ R^. Ox 


PfOfte'ft R & Co. T,lffiroph[« R IL C& ^^1 


(UHiok &«». im lis, 1«L 


(to W»ii l«-00). 8T. ^H 


PtoMe t OcAcnl £lc^ Bj. Ca (in 


PM>pk'« Bj. Ca t. 31«upLlA(10 & W, ^^1 


DL l»v t^ 


Bop. »;3X IS- ^H 


rwplft V OilfOf (ON. T.SuppflBft^ 


pA>rlii Gf<n, Rrdr\ <^ ▼, G*l1^tiOT ^^^ 


ta3;ise. 


it;6 )iL App. MB], im ^H 


tapb T. BocM Ini. 0<K (M V. T. SM J, 


PMluua T. Poitload G«& Eloa Co. ^^M 


tSlML 


(33 Piic. Bc|X Uk 2401 3114 ^H 


Pwtl* *■ Boom Ida Ca [tU V. 8. 


Pvvkinfl V. MoomtovrD £ Q Tamfx ^^H 


SMxMl»l 


Co. <H K Jh l J. mi. laa ^H 


rupta T. Kan (2T N Y isn 11«. isa 


P»rr7 T. K«v Oilouu. M. ft Q R^^ ^^H 


Bnpl«i lUjor. cUl c:iO Uor. Pt 


Cd. on Ala. 4]a> I'd, ^^M 


«TTiia 


PlikliKbilphia T. Amorioui Uoicn ^^H 


PcQ^W v> V«trocv1£tra Taleptu C& 


Tvlifit Ca (IflT Pa. flL ^0(!\ M. ^^ 


31 Hba, sw . AH. 


FhilmMphlAT, PimcaI TeUg. C<t. 57 ■ 


PMf^ *. llutufti T«l*e. Co.(N. Y.t.(a 


Uiin, £U AS. ^J 


Ptoffa 1^ Ked (44 N T Supik SlOj, 


FlukddphU T- Wwtero Voioa l^^kf^ ^^H 


»;16a.Sftl 


Cu. (M PbiU iU'ii. ?(m 43. 4T, ^H 


nopte r Kftwtoo <112 X> T. 396^ i% 


PbEljuI«lp^itav,Wt«U«ti Union T«t«ff. ^^| 


m 


Co> («1 r«d. R«pk IHB), ht ^^M 


1^1^ T, O'Orien <1U N. 7. U :S;4i. 


?bLliidclk>bJAr.Wint«raUiuaaTeJejc. ^^| 


I«3L SS. SM. »i\ 


Co. til} rv*l. ^-jk OI^L &»- ^^M 


PHfl»«. Sqolr* |i<n K. T. asSK S& 


Philfldolp^in V lA>Bl«ni Unio^nT^le^ ^^^| 


Pb^ t. ThoinfMnfSSHow.Ft im 


C^ m Ted. Rc|h 4M b M ^^| 


loa 


Philvtnlphuk V, Wuu^niUDkMiTvlc^ ^^H 


Ptopl« T. ThoniaOD (8S Qon.^^ IIL 


CfL i-l >Vkly. N. C 4»). 177. ^H 


fntU: V. Wcn|4o {130 K. 7 UZ), 


PbUoddpbu ft &i)atb<va Stcacuhip ^^H 


ML 


Co. T. rc[u:»TlFAaU \Vi^ V. & ^^M 


hnplft «x nL T. Dofcu (t» N. T. 1 ML 


^A). Toa ^^1 


V»U 


PhiladotptLift ft T. R COl T. Philib ft ^^| 


PiH'plsMcteLTVX.L.ft W. R. TL Ca 


a INm. Tty. Ca <5 P& DioL Rep. ^^ 


*. CUkV <1'^2 ■*<■ 7- *»1, Sftl 


4Sn 14(X 1 


Ita|ita « rad. KfllhiQ tU. Ca. t, Af- 


PblLmliAlphlH. W. ft B. R R Ca V. ^^1 


■■eriofBfo<JajE.i*aN,Y.Sttpi>. 


WilmintftoQ City Hj. Ca (3H Aa ^^| 


«).2ftl 


B«^ toon 1-14. 11^ m ^H 


Itepl* mx rADbrhfttlan Rj. Oa v. 


Phlllliv V. Ubrary Co. ;1A !£ J. L. ^^1 


fibrtwtiA^N. Y. tiv;,aHl 


3mS3<.M<^ ^H 


I^ofin VI r«iL K- Y. K^or. LiuM 0> t. 


rhilkpabuTffh v. Cwit. Pnna. Toloph. ^^M 


ft|Blf« UnsV (107 X, r. 5EM^. 72 


& 8uiJE<^ Co. (£3 W. N. OoM. ^H 


NoplacE nL ThoTn[urin «. M'tMhhu* 


V79<,M ^^1 


(tt How. Pr. 407l IIU 


Picbttrrl T, PulloAO PttlftO« Cv Ca ^^M 


Ptapto cz nL OrJuQ Tniti Cbk v. 


(inu.&m»e ^H 


Cbl«attk (134 N. Y. 4^}, 284. 


Pif kiinl V Smj(^ <lh) C B. 470), 3.n ■ 


Ftofitt wx wl W«it<cii Dnigot T«Ieg. 


Piddicord t. BHltiai«v<«b •!& E. R Ut ^^1 


Oa*.DoluiO»IN<Y.ie«f,4^ 


(»4UdL«S8ill9. ^H 


r^ik^ OuUtflit Co. T.iemqr Citj- 


rkiJtnDtit ElcG. tUiinu Cfk v. PftU»- ^^1 


{mJLJ.U VRK M. 


Boal Adm-jc iM Vx :4Tk 40& 1 


IVfOe^ Pbitt B5. Gd. v. DLtdviB |9T 


Pk-nw r. OtcBdAjL Q. ft W. Kj. Ca ^^1 


W, loC 'l»K U. 


l5« N. J. L 400l.£U. ^H 


hafM PWA ftj. Cu V. UeinpU* (ifi 


PkirtMfX Dn^w fisn ^la!MT9)kll,l& ^^| 


ft W. ttajv vrj.^a 1 lU IVX 1!^ ^H 



^ 3ZXn TABLB OF CA5ra OTBD. ^^^^H 


^^^^^H Icf flroDos ttn to ■gCoLai ^^^H 


^^^^ piimMr. RmciryCXSK. H. AOTl^MI 


Postal TaIo^ Ckhla Cil v. SoittiMm 


^H PUUtivOliv K. A li li. K. H. (;o. T. 


Ky. Co (80 FvL Bop. t*0)h l»L 


^H 3ut« m Ml Rtip. £Ui 1^92. 


160, i:t 


^^M PltUburi^h, aIc. Ry. Cii t, lUckiu 


PfAlAl T^lrtg rnbTn Cn. ». T«ivim * N. 


^H []S4aai2ix9ui. 


o. a R Co. L4« a w. Rap, ain 


^H PittotrarsK c, a JE 8t L. Er. C& T, 


UO. 


^H WoaiViruiuiiiUTsu. a 33i. saa. 


PtHtul TolbK- Ckibid Ox T. Tuaa (91 


^H PiBObe 11. Vnum n^^itoi Rf. Cc (HO 


Fffi B*p. ttJU *7* 


^H Uo> CS4), ML 


PobUI T43vi& Cnblo Ox t, Zopht 01 


^H Flununor y. DlH (lOd mm «»K M. 


rma,^m.^H, 


^H Pond T. Ui>L RIov. R tt. Ga (1 13 N. Y. 


Poaton V. Cnmborluid Ttal«|^ & 


^H l»C].7Uhll»2, ]^ 


IVileplL Co. (Ul Tonu. OUd), 10& 


^H Poolo V. Pallfl Road Elcc It/. Co. (ft 


Poltor T> gflf^innvr OdIcd St. R & 


^H AtL Bcp' lOOflV 01. L-^ 


Ca(R»Mlnb.e»S). 137. 


^H Port«r V. MoL BJov. R R Ca <i:^ 


FotUr V. ^ro-QtOQ I'rActloa Oa (1T9 


^H R Yh a»t), T<v ic^ tsxk 


Hk St ^k. 40. 


^H IVter T. !EaUi«ad Oo. (03 Uo. I2dke2. 


PuwuU V. AJiH.-<i'a dt IqiUaiu SpH^c* 


^H U9. 


R ROi r02fia,30DiaiV 


^H F«nUTid Bank t, Apthorp (IS Uuk 


Pmlhor V. WiUit. UaluDlVlas-Co-CV* 


^M 3S3J, SH2, 2&\ 


JDd.501]. IbS^ 


^H Fu(t RicUmonJ dC ? P. Elec By. Ca 


Pray T. JvTwy City 133 ?<. J. I. 3MK 


^^1 V. iftAtvii tAlAntI Htipld Tniit«it 


274. 


^H Ry. Co. nU N. Y. U61, 167. 


Primtly T. Fowlor (B H. & W. l^ 


^H Pwt Riohmoii'l d; ?, P. EEec. Hy. Cu 


f^a. 


^H w. StAU^n l^Lnml K^piil Triutilt 


Provlili^noa Oai 0& t. Ttiuitier (S 1L 


^H Ry, Ox (?! Bua 79), 167, 


L lA). 3$IX 


^H roAtai Oiiblft TVtI. Co. of La t. l4b 


ProfideiTt Sarmi; Tcstittittoa t,1Ih» 


^H Wd4t«iiL R. B. CcL «4D Ia Arm. 


■UurhuKtU (ft WiUI Oil;, 161 Sftt 


^B 1?T4>X IM 


:W4. 


^H Povtal Tele« Ci^Ui; C» v. Ad^Tda (115 


PMpka V. Amonoiui Oluccoo Qx (U 


^H tT.amii^.?ui- 


Mba B«p, tfia S4d. 


^^H PoMtnJ Talf K- <^hln t.'o. v. AdumA (71 




^H MlM OSjIp d»l. 


<" m 


^H Pb«lAlT«]oK- Cable C^ T. 1]tolUinora 


^H cn Md AU3I. ^^ 177. las. i&i 


qntkfn T. Chxrlm^woHti (Ifl Q, B. I01SX 


^^1 PMlttl Tftl«9- Cftbla Oo^ V. Qnu)tL«y 


10. lOH. 


^H 1107 Alb. 093K 10ft 


i^e«ii T. fnlD (H Cox Cr. Cu t6n 


^H rk»«iil Telps< C«U« Ca T. DnjffD m 


108. 


^H K. Y. Siip^ 230). M. 


t^icpyv cajE4R-^ook<nnL 


^H F0»4At T*li|t C&tl« Ox T. Cha^MtOD 


Qiite. 


^H (IW u* & 0V^> 194. td(L 


Qiiiji& V. Eoipin ^lalo TuWdk ft 


^H FoMal Tal«ir. Cibl« Ca v. Eftton (tTO 


Tnitg, Ca liiS Bvn. Ud> £3:^ 3aa 


^^^ laati^w 




^^^^H PosbU T«l«p Oibl« Ca r. Fnmirtne 


R 


^^^B AP. iLaca.<ajs.&]t<i|kim 




^^^^ 


Rafferty ▼. C««tnd TraMloo G^ A 


^H P«rt»l Telqe- Ctble Go. v, Lmoir 007 


Aiik a R ft Conk fiqv lOffX 77. 


^H A1& j^o^ loa 


BftlTeriy t. Ceu^nl TmctiiQiA Ox (H 


^H Putal Tvlrfr UOde Ool t. KcrEoIlL ft 


W. r^. C M^u l«L 


^H Wart. R. JC C«k <dS Va. MPJ. 


B*llf««d Ca T. DiogfawB ^ TmA 


^^^^ 


»tt)b10a.UL 



TAlLLft OV OXflSS CnVD. 



xuvil 



ttrfwow MV t* ■eftlviu 



blro^d Ca T. Lnrecvon^ (1 DilL 

ususa 

V. JftQkvRTilto St & R C& 

m Fu. «pn iioL 

EuuUl ^ iVUo &. a Ca («6 Mol 

auxOL 
Kudl* T. nailnad Qv ^ UCL 3S>'i^ 

T. BtHCuEi Hl-o. Ui[Iit Co. (Iff? 
4WI, 'J^, t64 

V TJiu(jLi>wii (14SManMT>, 
MS. 
Rovd T. Ckaiea tW N. J. L 839), m 
B«Qna 1^ PUiUildpbia Tiactiga Co. 

liaSPB.8t 1^1, Ml 
B^faw V. N«ffth SUtfoMatitn Rf. C^ 

fB BL ft BL wai, V1& 
B^tu T, ebdBald Qmn Dx (£3 Ens- 

LilwARq 31*^50.ItW. 
llglDli V. Unrtol Kin^Jom Eliao. 
TU«& Ok (U Cox Ci. Ou, U7. ITU 

:n aiIl 4011. \^ 12a 

Btfd T.r(orMk air Rr Ca (HVik 
B««uuiijr *. N, y^ 1- R & W, Ej. Go 

ii^ H T. jffniaa 

GMborti » Pw. n*F. IHfiX 31 
ttdiwMftd ^ 6oQUt«ni BdJ Tel^ptL 

Co, CSa FM, R«ik ]»h 50. IA2. 144. 
UdunoAd 1^ Sottthon Boll Tcl«pb. 

Ca f3u LliEbt Civ ▼, Uid. 

r. « P Er- Co, T, Bioh' 

T.lfciriiik5t«ii& W.lL Ca(« 

I*v^440M«l 




wii. can, <3; 131. 

Eoche0<il^^ EldiN B. & 0&, In to (» 
K Y. 3t G«T^ ACS), ISa 

Eooh<«tor Etoa Rf. Co, 1a n (139 

N. Y. 35?j» IKL 
Bockf Ucuntnln H«11 Toloph. Ca v. 

Cta ^''iO), soa' 

Ho0l>linkf V. TTviil'in (20 Tn 4ft), Hi 
Kvvblin^ r, TrvnlOH V^M. Ky Ca t'ia 

N. J. L, aW), 141 
EuaBetl T. Alcn uf D^rou (3 Tttmt 

Rflfi eon :r;4. 
fioUuiil Elcc Light Ca V- Mart>l« 

aij EJcc LiRUt Col (M Tt ITTTJ. 

44.201 
RvrUlQ* V. CoTi&6(«Q <10 & W. B«^ 

Ejkcd* T. FloWlid (U It 8 & I. 

nUlJ. 2Z7, 



a 



Sftddlo BivoTT. Onflflid Water Ox 

{19 N. X Lav Jour. S»4). »7, 
SkdiJl* Biv«r TnclLoQ Ca, la n [41 

AtL itofi 1071. IGl 
ai^iuAtf V. Swift Bloc Llgtit Ca n 

N. W. R^ixOKW. 
atflnftw Om LlKht Cg. T.flbglun 

m rvL R«|V 639J. ft 
S^ur T. JooA* ISQ N. J. L. 4«[t). ?& 
9bu Autopiuft A.F Ef. Oat. Dw^T- 

buid U» Tflr. CIt, App. 97). TO. 
8»n Antonio ICdijiMi Co. t. Utaoa '49 

a w. R«^ 1000), 9«a. 

Siuflwi T, Tolwdo (to Ohio Clr. CL 

If«fv 400r. 14ft 
Bknito^ C<L FJf4% R^. Co, la t« lG8 

Sivnikiuh r. SftvUitDiLh ft TliiiTi'Ipr* 
bolt ItlLOxliAGfl-CU^J). 11^ 

amuwb. Albinr ft Quit 14 1^ Go> 
t. Shinia* ^ QlL eon 191 

8cb«ib]« V. Uko Kboro ft H. & Kj, 
Cb. (10 Ohio Or. Ct,R«ik 8S4XTK 

ScliChag T. Abernetbj (IlS P^ SL 
4X71 KL 




TASU QW C*1B 



SUH TWicntfc T. 5 tt««riE (Tie J. * 

pn^ T. AnwfSoii A Eurepcwi 
GbBMfcU Kv«B Ca (O IC J, U 
mix 1U. ttft 
mtUk Vma Vont T. J««or Citf (S 

flteM or <C» Yort: r DkrK Ifajrtw 

ot Nrr York X>Mr, lin 1L 
eUto of <Mito ^ Eftit Cle*«Uaa a R 

8l«M bhod UUUml Itj. Oa t. 

ACftU'Ei liUtiil Elac. Ry. OtL (M 

(M r«d fi«pk i«D. SL 

flMrfla«r« Afp<«ia(l Pa. St. »L tw, 

aiofvca r. H»U>0» Osa^ Cot (tS 

Mam M0V2SV 
SCowmit r, dikimo O. 8t R5. Ca ^ 

aUtakton r, AU&qUo HigbUiidfc cAu. 
1^. CA. [03 N. J. E^. 418; S> AU. 

ftooktoa r. Ne<r JefBcr R^ Co. <M 

K J. rq. 1>UJ.S^ li% 
atofr *- ^'^ Yort Etct.B.R.Co (W 

atosraci V. PoctaU Tc^Ia^ Cahio C& 

iSufb Cu 41 Alb. U J. 1391, 1^ 
8U«et Rr- Co. f. ComiatiitTlIlo (14 

obi»itt.n34x nvL 

Hiiburtan KIml L> A P. Ok «l KasC 

0*«ugnf4t ML RC|k 8064^ id 44. 
aidmrlMB £!«& Ox ▼. Nuc«o4 i5S N. 
J. uesBi^ia^nn. 

SttbtttbAB Light A lN»««r Oo. <r, Boa^ 
tan 03a Uw. mx 41. 46. fia 

V09k /IW X V. M0:.WtM3;Sn 
tfoUJfvn V, lk«4oa A ALWnir a R Ot^ 

-,»l S- E. Bcp. isa, »3l 
ftisimU TriwiMlnp v Nvw York JE 

S. J. T<flv^ Co. (IT fl. J. Eq. IftS). 

fT,M,adlCll 



8Mir^aBi«n>fa9tRRCkL rw 
T. 

Tacvrt T. Kewpoft 8t Br- Col (10 

»& 

TnAMqan A I* SL Sy. 0> t, &lt«^ 
ootimtj SL Bj. Odl ^ AU. Be|k 
47VXSai 

Tttrrr T. A»btott (1 ^ EL Div. Sli^ 

TUflT, 1UUmW]Ca(«4lbL UlRLtlfiL 
IbxaEioa of tbw Pten. Tslsis- ^^ ''> 

n(4eN. J. r.q. l^BSft 
Tijior T. C«^itr«1 Praiu TrfipK Ox 

(4 L*olL CccU ;(«w«, i»H 51 
T^lor T. l^nteDovth, K. A Y. 6t Bj, 

0>.(SlU«.lMkl41ieL 
Tkylor t. fvmtal 1VI«k A Oibts Ox 

(4 LAOfc. LcfU r4v««, 111X B4 
Tnjlor T, S«cov («ft a & 071% 3S8l B8& 

CCL (75 Icw^ nSl. in 
Tolegmplk Go. v. CStf (Si W. B^ Cte 

TWtfgmpk O^ T. Ttoleacnpb Co. (10 
CSft Wkly, Bull. «>U ITU 

1U««np& Ca T. Wat (11 Am. Iaw 
Joor. tin 64. 

T«m Uftnu Eloe. U A P. Ox V. OtI. 
so&«* EIca L P. C^ (S Am. £L 

OM.tm»i 

T^cATkMui (ivA A TvIpt. TJ£h4 Go. r, 
Orr(5UATk.3lSkatC 

llieolMLJ V. Lot^«TJIkv rtc R. IL Ca 

(MMisw2:9^K.ico, na 

Tliec^luUd V. l^fKTtlk R R Cd (U 

Am. St Rop. tm. im 
Hunt A^tDiio a R Cck, In n (tn 

H. T. fMX t3& 13a 
thcnuu V. lQt«rOnnit7 St Rj-. Ca 

(t97Fn.St I3*l€at«i 
Tbofrifti T. W««lem UslDoTokit Oft 

(H$l> VbimL IMX V3«. ?«lL 



TABLK OF CABEA LtTKIX 



xU 



Baf M flfa «ra la 



)Wai|dEiD« T. Tkdgkio (> Bud. 146), 

Tliompua T. SiuuUrlvid Qmi Ga (T^ 

iL-ihLM. l>iT. 4WK 109L 
!Ilto«nM»BoQi(aa EUo. Ll^'it Co. v. 

Hapten <tt F^ Heix T^). 32. 
ttkmwdl r. HAndy^f\9 (30 (^ H. Dfv. 

CU (Dl X Y. Aijx Ct ^mi sa IIA 
nftay Y. XlDlt^i 8Ut«« JUttminat- 

fci Ca (ff? How. Pr, TJt, llUim 
ISwoe T. Qnal Swillicm Tel Ca (38 

tA AnrL wax IH lOft 

Tdtdo CbtifoJ. 81 Rj". Cc^ t. Toledo 
a»e. 61. ttjr. Col LU Ohld SL «03L 

MainBteft 8t Rj. Col *. Wortoni 

DwL u ft p, ctK (10 Ohio a a 

Taj V. Undtod Si&tM Ouirlde« Ca 

Tmcf ». TrojA LAiuinghuricb K K 
Co. tM RuD. Vift, |3<t 

ftit*"g"" V' J«nv7 Cilf (CO N. J. L. 

90ftil& 
bUerd t. Ccmaj lalnnil A R Tt Cok 

|18»- y. 8u7i|v aoi, lift 14% 
IbttM a T.Trva|4iQ ru& Rj, Co-CdT 

All B«(k, 461; » 
fMlM PMLRj.CaT. fi«»i«tt(«a 

K. X L. «ion m: 
i*4Mxea 

(At 5. J. I. AHL 3ai 
IWvpikfiCa r. A. ft E Comm^rf^l 

»*«« Co. (43 N. J, I. tHU 174. 
3brapik« Co. T. Jcakintowfi Bloa My. 

Ca (4 rw Dttrt. Itap. «). IM. 
Tvtaa T. P«n>alUw KUci^ (im Pa. 

fUUc *. OroNU E3m lU. Co. C^> y. T. 

ftap*cCiL46ti nun2. 

TkM «. toohttr (SO X Y. Supix 



Tf. 



D«gU V. Weal Oxul St B3-' Oik flW 

Unlcfi Pftct Bt. Co. t, Bonbon (10 Cola 
BafL Ct 394), ISa 

n. s ee4j, iwt. 

Union Pae. Br CC x F6lcj (10 Cda 

Sutx ct 390). 120. 
Uiibni PftCL Bjr. Co. y, Unrbaft 003 

Ciuon I'iM. Ry, Ca v. MclJoA&ltl (102 

Uniem likC K7. Co. t. United Stalco 
fOOFiHJ. Bup. 618ft IHO, l&a 

U&Jcjii SU Hj. Cu V. UujJtUui Xorth 
fijilfl KIhc Ry. Co. <3 P». DiA. CL 

UeiIor Trust C4v of N. Y. t. Atohhon. 

T. ft K. Ry. Co. ifi Now Moloc^ 

837), ITS. 
DnStoil SUitrt T. I7nr<m Plw. Ry. Ca 

(iflou, 3. mm 

DriiUJ SUkloa V. Wwtom Union 
rrclci^ Co, <U Pod. Etep. 28i loa 

United 6tAtoa UlumlnatJiitf Ca v. 
Gmfll [M iliin, a33> 7 N. Y, Supii 

Uiut«d S(au« lUumtiLfttiziK Co* 1^ 
llcM [a N. y. fiiipp. 777!. '3- 

UlJu T. Uttca Tiiteph. Cix (94 l|}p» 
l>W.^lJ,8t^40, 4a. 

T. 

V^drrbnk t. Uoodry (14 IT. J. U 

407^ 34W. 
VJUiUyko *, AUanUo Av«. Ky. Cd 

(a7 Fod. BOL^ 204), tffj. 
Van 1!orn« t. ifawArk P**^ Ry. Ca 

(4SN.J. F:q. 1SSI.87. Jm 
Vim Winklo T, AiEusncAii Ste^m 

iJoilor Cix ^ K. J.l« M0l24% 

Vivrnfin Cum (46 Ho. 4fi3). 33(1 
V«»xi« Ilnak r. F«i;i]io (8 WaIL &3^ 

Venango Cooirty Com'n r. Oil City 
SL By. Co, (S Pft. blttt CL Bopb 

ew.07^ 



^^F zlii TAAU or o^tisa oiTm. ^^^^^^| 


^^^^H n''*fci(^n m TO ■wtlrmL fl 


^H TboMDW V. CHffis&TLi' Gu Light Cc 


Wwtcm Unicm TtJftjf. Ca ▼. R A (X 


^H tUaiDdlUMk. 


a U Co. faO Fed. Rep. ftTn IWK 


^^1 Tom t. TfAW{>rkrt7tL EL IL Cn [44 Am, 


Wutflco Union TVIck- Qx T. E ft (X 


^H & La^ U. LL Du tfi;, lift 


Ti-iogi Ca <"^ F^ Htfp. laajk 

Wcfftnm Unbn Tnlf*& Cm v. R ft 0. 


H 




Tring, Co. fSt Kwl Rn|i iCk IW. 


^H IVabub. St Loiil*, otc Kj. Ok t. 


W«mtara UmoQ Tolo^ 0> v. H A U. 


^H LocW (M« Ind. «Ml. as«. 


TdoK- ft a K. Qx (19 Tod. Rc^ 


^H WnlHti V. Fltcfabiir; B. R Oa aU 


OfWk I7ft 175», IM. 


^H K- Y. Bnn,3AB. 


W«it*rn Union Talpg. <^ t. Hurlfng- 


^H U'A&di^woTtH Board of W^lc« v. 


U>Q A a Bj. Ox (11 t>d. Kop. lb 


^H L'nitoJ tbi«ii1u Ox [9 t^. a D. 


17a. ITS, ffTa 


^H oo«i. fld 


WMtftrn Unfi^n Ti»lt*|f- 0> ». CfmtrAl 


^^1 Wa&4«irortH 1)lH!tr^t BtmM Of 


VnUfti CV {3 F*d. K(»p. 417). ISO. 


^H Worle^ V. Vniird Tr^l^plL Co. <13 


Wwl<'rn Union T*!r(^ Col t. Ch&m- 


^H Q. & a i4e.eMj.fi7. 


piuD EIk. Lik'bt Ca (U Cuk 


^^M Wnnrttwnrth IhirtRi't T^^iil Bft,\r<I », 


Wwk Boll S«7J, tin), 


^H PfHtiiiAetor (4 K4r, A Maon, 3Dt^ 


W^flt'rrn Union Tek^ Co. V. ChtCBgC) 


^B 


oUl It It Cb. (8fl DL 2^, iSa 


^^1 Wftrri V. AtJnntici A Pac ThI'^x- Ca 


Wtvttora Chlnn Tvlo^ Co. v. City ft 


^H {71 N. V. niK Ti-:. ^'J6. 


Suburb&A Ry. Ox (S* Md. aoU), 


^H Wartmon r, Phibddphut IS3 Pil 8t 


^15. 


^H 303177. 


WMt-irn Union ivbi^ f^ v. Eyartr 


^H WftMOD V. Pvttlt C» H. y. Stv Rop 


[3 Colo. Ty. 141), aSSL 


^H Ol^I, 3»4. 


Wcfltem Uoloci Tde^ 0^ v. EJyoet 


^^1 WnWvllvl TiLrnptko dt It It On t. 


,in a a 4m 23a 


^H HnJtonHiv<>rTMi«ph.Cn,(tt N.Y. 


WMlJ*m nulnn Tft1«(t Ca t. Oq«tii* 


^H Siirp. 177). 3LHL 


AM^A Scu<t.Ur Kl40. Llic3)tCitk<4e 


^H Walk Mu r. Wi»l f hitls. Pmv. Rr- C<^ 


Uu. App. teO).dOl3&5. 


^H (1 >^ '>^"1- l^|v *f^y £A, 140. 


W«Bt44rii Vnitia Ti^l«2. Ca t. JanUiu 


^^H W«bb T^ <lhi'> CSnH riii*t Ckt (la Ohio 


[wnai. 3flexa«i. 


^H WookBu1L9in no. 


Wnrtura Union Ti^leg. Co. T. Lot! (IT 


^H Wvbb T,TiurmJit (19 C E T87>. 3^ 


Ini. »J^. ^80. S«a 


^^H W^lfars V. [^rKlun A Rrijc'iton Hy. 


Wntcm Ufiiott T«1o^. Ga v. Lo« 


^H Ca lU B. 4 Q. a 0931. ?;^ 


Angola [7« Fe-L Bot^ 178i UOi 


^H Wwt T. Daocrart i^3 Vt 807. 3Tli. 10. 


■^ox 


^H 


Wfrtrrn Uninn T^li*#r- Ca v. BUH- 


^H W<vt^n Union TcUg. Ga v. AM- 


olta d£ ContL U. It CO. (IS Olito 


^H bktiu (L3S tr. S 47Sh laiL 


St 341 laa 


^^B W««tf<rn trillion Ttilor Ca v. Amed- 


WA^L'<rn Uuion TVlpff. Ox r. Kjumfr 


^H <nn Onion Tel«i& 0> (V Bka. T9\ 


CTiiiMtUiiUl U.a40l29L 


^H lT«;Kft,18^tH18& 


WMUrn Union iy«i& Dx T. Ubm«- 


^^B WortJom OmoD TtL«i& Qx v* Aiu«H- 


oboi^tto ott u. a n.% iH lefli 


^^M can UcloaiTeld^Ca(lU<K 100^ 


Mt 


^H 178; t»a. 


W«rt.or« UBta TWag. Oo. t. Noir 


^^H lT«Ae;ii Uaiec Telega Ctk v. Aca 


York (18 fM, Rep. 5an n IfVV 


^H Atbcr Kj, Ca tM Pfld. Ka|v 17^1 


Wratoni Utdoa Tnlng. Co. t. Kormui 


^H l»ll«t. 


\T3 ir«rl lUjt in SOL 


^H "WfiUni UqIod TtliQ^ CU V. Att. ft P. 


Wcttera Utdoti Tc!g|& Co^ r. P«»41» 


^K Tel«ic.CuC7&lM.8«7>10Lta3. 


toA(]2aV.&HTViaL 



^^^^H TAftLK <tw CA«n cnvD. zliiE ^^H 


^^V ItlllFIFPII M tA aBftiaM ^^H 


^^■Nfft OnfoA T»T««. Cx T. m^Jht- r WctmarA w. Story (?9 B^rK Ul\ ea ^^| 


dtflphU CIS ASLU«(vmv47.&l 


\Vo>l V. U^UlfOki Cc^ lao CoL ^»), ^^H 


WH|«n Uokiii Titliw. Co. V. Bk^Ot 


^^1 


KajL. SITX ItM. t9S. 


WbAutdeld {Town of> r. ToDftWAcJih ^^H 


W«t#rB OdoQ 1M» €«. ▼. BcUd- 


suRr.CarnaK.Y.SurFLTffkffT. ^H 


BOtt fM TM. Itoik 8101* 340. 


WLE|iplo V. N,«Y York. R dC N. H. lU ^H 


IHnura Usloo Tela^ C& t. flMiar- 


R Co, (19 R L &8TJ. SSt ^^1 


Md (34 la SMX tML 


Wbita T. Goifro/ ^97 Mm& 47SJ, m ^H 


Iffvlflra Uaion 'Mcn^ G«b V. auie of 


Wbito V. tforthvoiiota A ^. Q R ^^H 


M4ttUo4 (^ H4. nax S3SL ihx 


Oa <ii« K. G aio^ tm ^^M 


37IL 


Wlotula«CRCav..Hinitti(UIUa ^^| 


Vtttcro UiJos Tek^ Co^ t. &t Jo- 


SAlXtlO, U4L ^H 


Mpk A W. K t Ox (1 HuCnry. 


WlotuU duburbaa Kf- Ca, Qon nf ^^| 


vmvn 


^Dittn^ (>niH Sod^wleJc Ox, ^^| 


VMtAra llUcm TBtec 0> t. Byrw 


Kail. Judo SO, iWPk flOft ^H 


ihmW N. V. duHL KML Tflo. 


WtgKi^ *. 1^1 dC LooU b^«TT7 CU ^^M 


WaOitni U^iJna Tt'bi^ Ca T. Tk^i^kft 


iiq; [U. aO)» 11^ ^^H 


UGlU.a Ul9Elt3tlL 


Wilaj T. W^t Ji^r^f Rj. Ca (44 N, J. ^^1 


TMrra UiLkin T^klt 0* T.Tl«8ftTt 


L »7k e(ta ^^1 


(uuu.«8aisvi 


WPkw(mtT« EL U^ht Or r. W11t(«ft- ^^1 


W««t«ni Unloo T«l«s. Gol t. T^bom- 


torru 1. U. A At Ca L^ Kuip ^^H 


M (t Bm. Unx 890l 


4TiO> 1 


^vvtvrB UtitoQ TdIor. Ca t. TexM 


WniiaaiB T. City E!ea By. Oa (41 FbiL ^^fl 


rioaa& 4*(Ti iiift,f»a 


Rrfi nna^ lat, ^^M 


W«itvrfe Uiuon Tulo^ Qo. t. Iliom 


WiUunui V, Cbogfa (S a ± N. 33^ ^H 


ttftPedlL«9.m\3tl 


^^1 


Wv4«n> tJfihw Tbbft Ca t. ITnlctn 


WUtiaiDK T, loutKbum fX Us^ ft ^^H 


PnoaoR RCo.0 MoCnF7.41tfX 


fViaer Cu (4;^ L& A&d. :nu;L 3BIX ^^H 


ttOl 


S^S. 301 ^^1 


Ttfom UaioD T«lcv. Ca ¥. W«Uni 


WiilJiiuL* \hl Ry. Ca t, Lykuu ± ^^H 


AUuUc R. B. Ca (1 Otto, 3s;i^ 


w VaI tiL lif . Ca (I Uauf b. C& ^^H 


1«IL 


Ki^fi ^a-^ tea ^^H 


W«-UTa Caiflt T»I«B. Ca v- WLl- 


Witlb V. Kfii* T«loe. A Tclcph. Oa [ST ^^B 


>«n%lMtVa««l8*,:o(L 


MlmL;547>, OT, ^^H 


*«(«» U&ioB T«^ Ca T. Wdl- 


Wti^ori V. Ut>« MoLnuG. O, A ^ H. Ox ^^H 


toiiiA (9 AoL & a Ooq^ ftui> 


(o; j»^i^ AWi, 1^0. ^^M 


aHKioi. 


Wilsou Th Omit da Tet«i>li. & Tdo& ^^H 


ir«t J«f«»f R7. Oa T, Cftpe Uaj ft 


Oh {41 Ul AofL I04J. 22a ^^H 


a 1. iL R. Co cu N. J. e^- 1«4), 


Windover v. Trjy City Kj. CCh (4 1 


til 


Ap|k DIt. C«3). S»1 ^^I 


W«it JvTW7 Ry, Ca t. CNoiitMa & 0. 


Winter T. K T. A N, J. Tnli-ph Ca ^H 


« W, Ry. ('a IW » J. £q. 31X 


^51 N. J. K 83). 40. »8, 1^ Hi. ^^M 


l«£,l4«.l«a 170. im 


WJDter V. IVUrv>a <4 Z>Ix &e4\ >» ^^H 


Wm inwr Tm<rUoo Ca *, CnsiiUtt 


WbnHLiifn Taint- Ctx v, JaowviUtt Sb ^^H 


Bom R B. Co, (03 N. J, 1^, IVy 


Uy. Ca INT Wisl T3X 4D, Sift ^H 


<&».!& 


Wifvonoin Tpl«plu Ca v, Enu OoAf ^^1 


Vv«VlverBrft1i^Ca*.DfK/0now.. 


Sl Ity. Ca Eiuil Spmgiic Qeaft ^^fl 


a ft. SWi W^ »\ 


Mot«irCa(3 ATn.F.lf^w.S«r,3IOL ^^1 


Vmi Skl« ICy. C(x V. tinniAid <I30 


Wuooiuin TM*plL Ca «- OBliJioat (,6iA ^^1 


KT. 51^30. 


vTLt. i3Sh 37, isa ^H 



ZliT 



TABLX or OAfiXa OITEDl 



IMisnnoMan to 



Wolfe Y. IMo Tele^i A Teleph. Oa (88 

F«d Bep. 830), 03; 228. 
Wood V. Diuoood Elea Ga (18Q» Fr, 

Woodoook ▼. GiUfl <fia U«. 948> 

S74. 
Worth V. OOliiig (L B. S G P- 1^ 

2491 
Worth T. Postal TeL CkUe Ca (7 

Ohio Cir. Ct Rep. aQO)» 9a 
Wright V, London A N. W, Ej, Ca 

(it^aDiv^aoaxfiia 

Wright V. Nagla (101 U. & 791), 

Wright T. New York Cant R R Ca 
(8VN.T. 5611), 857. 



T. 



T&tet ▼. West Grafton <a4 W. Ta. 

783), laa 

T«anle7 ▼. Sutuet Teloft ^ Teleph. 

Co.Clll>CaLB8e)^2aa 
York Teleph. Ca v. KoaBoy (5 I^ 

Dut Co. fiep. 366), 06, 108^ 
Young T. Yannouth ^ GnT,88(f), 38^ 

01* 

z. 

Zandgor t. WaTue Elea Ca (0 F& 

DisL Bep. 507). ISL 
Zohren t. Hilw&iikee Elea R ft 

Ught Oa 90 Wlft saib 100^ 141 



ELECTKIC "WIRES 



SO^REETS A2^ HIGHWAYS. 



CHAPTEK L 



UtTfiODUCTGRY. 



i I« QrcnrlDS Impftrtance of the i^tibJfict-'Wben it wbb 
Stmd that 1DC«8S£t8 could Uq sent, by mcfLna of electric wires 
iutcad of tbo pc«t-hono or tho roilrotul cnr, tiirnpilcca nnd roil- 
roftdfl irore naturally choaoE aa con^cEicnt places for etrotoh- 
\Mg tbo lined of tclc;^ph wirca from town to IovpTI »ii4 ctt/ 
ttnots vcn) lucd for the sfitino purpose- PermiftaJon was fiivea 
by fit^ktatc to DM the public lightB m the hit^hway. LitU^ if 
loy, daina^ was done to tbolAntl along tho lin^jandtboown- 
otdldaotthlnkltworlii while to ask tbocoiirti wh&tbor Uioir 
tegal rights w«re invaded. &>ol:t and Jarnat^Q in their work 
on t«lcgrnpb9> ivritUo in [S6^, refor to tbo qi^i>«tion as il muU 
t«r of speculative rather Uiiin of practlcul fntereeit and cut,e no 
fwes in which it is discBsseJ. 

Within A fftw yn^m pitst, hnwrvnr, ihn iiwin of f<l(*cf-rio wiirn 
ift str««ta and hi^bwayi or avi^y kind havr; Im^u gn?nL)y niol* 
ttptiod. It has bc«o fcmnd that the wiraa will carry the Bound 
of tbd Toieo and send spolccn an welt aa wribten mcsi»igc« ; that 
tbejr vill fmnish light for the streeta and hnilding^i, and will 
triiumit pcnrer for tonun^ machinery or for moving Tchiclcs. 
FuraU IbcteiiMtth^ckctrio current mnst bo duu-ibntocl from 
Miml iovoea and airnc<t by wires thron^hont tha ci^ and 
aorostt tbo coonUy. Tbo lines of wiro, thoroforo, havo groatly 
JnewMCd in nnmbcr. They occupy the streets of Ui« citios 
ind are stratcb^ alon^ all the chief hi^^hwaye of the coantr}'. 
Always moro or Ust objsaUoaabla to ownens of property, thoy 
hava become especklly obnoodoos by reason of tbo Increasing 
I 



lAi 



s 



ELXTTIUO WIAU IK STItEm AJfD SJODVJkTA, 



3, 



nnmbers of poles and wires The poles dJisfigura tli« apfMU^ 
lUCQ a&tl to jiomi> c!Xt4tnl olwtriKrt lUta hap of t1^ fttreet& Tho 
irires affect ibe acceu of ^cmcn to buUdinga in caso of 
tir«. Somo of them can-/ currcnta 0&agcn>(u and t^ven deadly 
to the trarelert in tho tttreete, and when there aro wirca of 
different kinds for various purposes, one cuiront is found to in* 
torfcro with tbo fr«o use of another For nil Uieee reoBons 
there has b4X-& oppodtion to the oae of olectrio wiroa in Mroets 
and hi^hvr&ys, and the contest has Led to UUgatton. Tho vrire^ 
howovi^r, arc too ttm.<ful to be dlsponaed with; the purpo8«# 
they subserve are public purposes, and tb© co&v^meiiee« th^y 
furntj^b nro pnjoy<*d by oany. Thcusi>of th(>in i» likely to In- 
crea3;o ralhi-^r than dimloisb. Their purposes, if not the siime 
as those of the highway itself, s,re closely allied to tlwm^ iDtt 
it is only by using Ihir IiighwhyK tlmf. thry ran fully »frvi4 thnir 
parpofies. Their relatioaa, therefore, to the public ami private 
rigbiB in the highways must be defined, couflicting rights most 
be adjusted, and tho manucr of a^Qg the strectat must be coo* 
tilled. 

The questions involved depend, of course, upon tho princi- 
ples go7omingthe use ofetrecta undlii,^ wars and tlie powon 
and dutiea of muuicipal corporations, and have been conwdcrad 
in tlio tcxt^booka upon thcso subjects; but in view of tho ro- 
c«nt di^OLsions relating espt^ciaJly to tho use of eloctrio iriw* 
and of the inoreaaing importance of the subject, it may be yrM 
to consider theso tuoa of tho stroeta by themsclvos. 

§ t. The legal relatione of the wires to tfao blghwnje.-' 
The legal relation of th^e lines of wire to the streeta and high* 
vays depkjntU to a gnat 4. xu^nt nj>on the question whottu-r such 
u»o acrvet Che purpose for which streeta and ro&da nre opcoaod, 
and also upon the question whether they interfere with Um 
U6<* to which tb<i »tnHit* iiavu btn-n corumunly puL 

The righta in the atreeta are both publlo and private. Hie 
streets are opened for public: use, but only for use aa atreeta. 
The titl<} to Ibe land^ v^ubjuot to this issc^ romains in the owners, 
or else the title \s Iield by the public for Ltiia turn alouA, and 
tho owners of adjoining landa luive a r^ht to tako p^ri in tlua 
use in oonovction wUli their lande* and to insist upon hmi 
the rottd used only for the public purposes to which it vaa 
voted. 



JIJ 



iTciiwaocTOinr. 



Z 



Tb« d£«ciusion, thoraforo, invo1r<w tho considcmtion of wbnt 
uv tfae proper nwa of tho street, and how izr thfCgc are aiil> 
terred by tb^ rarioiis nsee of electric mr^g, find ftlso what &re 
tho ptibllc or private nghu witU n?h-pct to tUu lilnx^U and to 
th« Lwe of them for theie purpoiios. 

With respect to the pui>Uc, the first qn^^tion is wbet1i*.»r nnj 
n[v^(-ifi] nxtihrniiy ifi rvv^uiri'd for irinkingKurl) tiKi? of LIlv KLrf.v-ti% 
and, if so, whence the permission eh derived and bow it may 
l)e ob4Aiiied. Then, sTip|Hksing the lines to bo put up und«r 
bivfnl nQtliorilr. Uwro iviH nfoittla qur«Uons with r^gaird to 
the re^latioQfl under which the privileges may be exercised 
tid thfl Umbilitjr For interfering with tho other uses of the high* 
Tf»y. 

With roepect to privitd rights tho subject inTolrcs the dia- 
cuaaion of the rights of tho owners of Adjoining land in tho 
Unela, hMi their rights of noccds and pa^viage, and their titto 
to the land iteelf and aUo tho liability for injurioa roceirod by 
huUridtiatfl in co&ieqQGnceor unlawful obstruction of thoatre^U, 
or by reaaoD of negligence in the construction and use of theeo 
lime ol wir<« for the transmi^icn of electricity. 

Otktr qooidoQS affecting private rights are those Involved la 
tke controv^rsi^ between persons or companies osing the same 
ltl«et0 tor p;tr^lel Utvii of wiri.* for ditlVmnt ;ippIi>jitJonv *>f 
elMtricalenergy^and between peryon« or coiiip^ieM using eleo 
trin wires and thoae ha.ving special ri^lit^ or privileges in the 
lama higliwny, as, fur instance^ a railroad or a lumplko cotu- 
paoy, 

( S. Arrui^enent aud dlvblon of the subject.— Tho di»- 
cvsion. therefore, may be arrangod and divided in general 
terms aomewliat aa follows: 

1. Pmn^c aiOBTe.— jfXtf aiUA&rity by and und^ trAfM Mtf 
^nfi hi^Aic^yi may h us^forj^oUi and wir^. 

Under this the quostions arising will be such as these: 

Ar9 the publio rights in the strcots vested in the mnnioipal 
lOufQti or In the legiilaturi> ? If tho power to permit a 
■Dw oaa of the streets most come from the legislature, is it 
bdnded in the OT^inary powers delegated to mimicipal corpo- 
iKdovt, and, In particular, are the telegraph and the telephone, 
•beOric light and power and the eleclrlo rsllway^ usm for 
which eitioa nnd towns may gruul the pririlcge of stringing 



mscnuc kiasa m rrjEiBTs axc aioBVAW. 



«i 



vim or Uying cabtea in the public Btreets? And a^n, IE 
tho pawof to Qso the strooU bd }^vcd by ttio Jc^laturo subject 
to municipal conKont, vbat concUlions may bo inipo^ by thd 
d^ and vrbat regulatlotifi mny be made urtth respooi to the uw 
of the francbiM)? Ucidor tbis vtll come quc»ticiis ftfl to tht 
pou'frr to impo<d liccnsie fees or tazea or to exact compensatEoft 
for the privilege of usmg tlie struts; and it will be fonnd io* 
tdrvsting and importnnir to con^iJiT whether wires onco pot up 
umliir mLmif^[Iml lii:f!naa juay be remove! by the eity author* 
Itlea, and whether and on wliat terms tbey may bo removed by 
tliB legislature itself. May tho win^ bo ordered to bo takea 
down fmiii the polest and put umler grouiul; and, if t^o, by 
■whose authority aud on what torms niay ibc compaaies tbemr 
scItcs inAiflt oti usin^ subways i[i5t<:rad of poka, and bow sball 
tho ufi& of dubwayn for rartooa kiciOa of wire* bo reflated? 
Thc6e and similar qucstioas are suggcetod; but to answer 
them properly ^oatd invoho tho discnssion of the wholo 
BubJQct of munioipal and legislatire franchised, and £ oannot 
attempt to do more than iHrf^r to tho ^oDcreJ principlcEj and 
loading caMS on the subjoct at Inr^ and then state what hua 
been decided with special reference to electric vnr^. Theos 
00099 aio not very nuricrous, and it is better in tha praeeot 
st&^ of devolopraent of thb branch of the l&w to Wi tho 
speak for themselves than to attempt to lay down rules, 

Anolhop tnatt^T involving public rights in tbo highwajB 
tlto prii'ik^ MM^urcd by £oi ot congrewt to all telo^^pb oon^ 
panies alike to use the post roatls of the Unlied States. This 
h^is £onio brJiring npnn nUU* arft imtnii ipa) «Tnrttrf>1, but Jt is 
mora fn^ijutintly diM^iivciHl iu i:niiut'rit:on iviLb MnfM alun^ rail* 
roada, anil may be constdenxl in connection with tho mntaal 
rights of telegraphs and lailrojids. 

^AuUmg ftntd and hie ri^f*^ in tAt sirMt, 

Do the screral tuca of tho ekctrio wires in the stnxts afTcat 
prirato rj^fata, dthcr by impoftio^ a new acrvitndo tipon tho 
land, or by inrringing the owner's rights in the street, so that 
cofApcasaUon must bo roado? 

This involves a disoaeslou of the intenettofr and difflndt 
qoestion, what the rif^hta of tho abutting ownco* in the stroot 
aiVp and what pnbUo oKi nay bo mado of Xha stroot wiibout 






I3-] 



umboDircroKr, 



affeetiop ttioso rights of tho Adjoining^ ownor^ The courtd hold 
dilfcrt-DL Tiem of tlM^ pro]>er uaeo of tbo artrooU and ob to what 
UDOoaU to 4 penrersioQ of tbo fmrpose for wbiob tho land is 
l4k«iL IKsUactiom ftro mado between tho*o ca«C6 in whiob 
the feo of tho itrecft is in the pulxlio and tboee in wliJch tbo 
pablio hftve only & ri^ht of wny. DouH has boi^a tlirown 1>j 
FKWit dttcisioiu on Uii.' soundn^^ of this di»itinctioQ, and tbd 
oomK u-6 beginniDj; to reco^izo clearly tbo right of ocoera 
ud light and air And cth^r pririJcgcs r>f ujljiu-onc^y to a stroot 
ts nbftAntifU righU of pro|H'rty, 

The queitioi^K of the piv>|>er uses of the street, of the owaeiv 
rfiip of the Boil and tbo rights of wljnx^pncy aro nil involved in 
Uio ditttii«diMi^ JuuL vro uAiiiiiiL itU^mpt U> driridfi wh&lli«r oqa 
or all ar^ stitBeient to givfi a firm haais of principle on which to 
decklo whether any or what rights of tho laDd*owiu;ns ore af- 
bcCed by tiie usq of the atront^ for electrio -Kites for the \ari- 
Mi porpcan to vhioh they are or may be appliod. The 6ubject 
Wlongv to tbc broader topic of tho emincot domain with r^ 
to ttroeta and bighivnyEi, and }» fully conatderod in tho 
dard t«zVbookB. Wo need only refer to the gcncrul prin- 
dplca and then wo nuiy tako up in d'^tiLil the rarious MA/t^ for 
•leetiio irirce: First, thf) b^lejirraph and telophona; secondly, 
Viectrio ligtt; thirdly^ electric power; and fourtEdy, the elec- 
trio redway. Id dwcnssing these £t wiU be noceKiuiry to refi^r 
to tho decialoas Dpoa other and annlo^^us uses of the atreeta 
and roada. aa, for uutanc^, far gas and oil pipos, fur stijEun ruil- 
roadf, bono railrcada and olovatod railroadft, for dummy an- 
giaet and for cable railways; and it will be useful to coTnparo 
tiM dooiiions npon one kind of eI«i?tno winw vrilh Ukwi ufjun 
aaolh^r, witJ^ Ji vii?w to macliing a cotiiinoii arid titabta baaia of 
dxrinfon with r^|>i*o& to all &Lich a»f« of the streets. 

Affaming h to be settled that privato rightn aw afTeotodt tho 
fMatMo wdl tl^en nrvaCf Hovr are proct^edings to be taken to 
nbject Ihom to public use on making due compensation ? and 
we mnstt thon^forc. examine such caaca oa may bo found on 
proeoedingB to conUemQ lamls or rights of property for laying 
out liDfa of telegraph and telephone, electric light aod othor 
electrio mrca. 

In oimncction wit^ this w& may consider tho ripht to coo- 
Mnot » tcl£3grupb Uno on the right of way of a ruilroad ooto- 



ELECTTBIC WIBES IN SmEIH^ AK1> HlOQWlTe. 



n& 



pany, and whctbcr such aright may kwfnUy be made esclcum. 
This involves tho act of coD<p^?aft with respect to poet roiuta, 
and thifl statute itself luis bet:i the tiubj^et of many intcroatin; 
dcciaons with respect not Qn\y to coatracte with mjlroadeom- 
pttnJoc» tnit vlso to the rights of ttatet and iDtmicipoiitics to 
mterfcro with this iBstrmnent of commerce between tbo sUt«s. 

Another question involving private rif^bts of property e-riseB 
cot of tbo raet that tbo use of the (troeu for one kind of cur- 
pent of electricity may interfere with the laso of them for an- 
other, and th^r« have been a number of decmons mode upon 
the complaint of the tc'lephone ei^mpanivft timt Ui<rir bi]«in(«N 
ie interfered with and their property injured by the more 
powerful ciirrtrnts JtJ^et} for the electric light Tied thd electric 
railway. 

There axe other qnefttions BUp|h1emetnt&1 or incidental which 
will rc^qiiire »omi> al.U^ntion, and espnoinlly tbo lidbility ffa* in* 
juries Euj«taiued by reaAOQ of unlawful or iinnec<fl0ary obistrUG- 
tion of the &lreet^ or by reaaon of negiigonce in conftruotin^ 
or operating lines of clsctrio wires. This will involve the 
qui-^tiou wliut pr<^c^tuUon4 the companies miut t&ko a^nsl 
violent storms which ms-y throw down their pole*, nnd to what 
extent they cro bound to prevent llioir clangorous cuntats of 
elootncity from injuring pei^ons and property. 

It ia, as I havo said, too early in the dovolopment of the law 
in its application to th<:«o snbj<rctH to do anything more than 
to refer to general principles and to collect the caset in whieh 
they have been applied to the use of thesd wiros. I have, 
therefore, stated the cases somewhat in detail so that these 
pages may at least famish the means of ascertiuaing what has 
been decided on tbeHe subjects np to the pnMunt tiine^ «veD if 
tbvy do nob alwii^'x sdiow th^t any vory definite basts of dmS^ 
iou has yet beeoi agreed upon* 



tm 



CUAITEK II 
FfiA»CaiSE8— LEGISLATIVE ASO MUWICIPAI* 

«r vaiT iscnoBm raz stiuxts uxy be itssd tob slectbjo 

S 4. Introdnctorf. — The qtieetioQ of tbe anthonty to lase tbo 
vtnets for eloctiio virv« is, of courae, a part of tho broader 
qaartioii of the control of ihe streets, and the rigbi to grant 
■pedal pvivilc^^ vrith r«'«|iocb to particular public asee. It in- 
Tolvv« tijo reUlionft of lije leg^isliiture ttnd the muiiidpal ccir* 
ponlkm to tlie atreetfl^ tlie extent of the poivrM^ delected to 
ttie local ftutbonlics, and the question vfhai are the proper tisrs 
of ft pttbtic RtxtK^t or highvAj. All these quesltons have beea 
full/ conud«red in manj elaborate ^orks on mumcipal corpo- 
ntiona, eminent domain and streets and highv.iLys, 

% fi. Analof:i«9 and general prlnclplca.— It is only neceaiary 
in d«alini: witii tLo nae of the streets for clee^rio wired to Etato 
bfteBj the general principLcf beanng upon U^e^ »at>jcct0, and 
to refer to tiio standard text-books and a low important eaacs. 
The oonolonona XhMX hme alroadj beeo reocbod with nspoot to 
■tfoot railroftdft or gas pip«« in streets may be nacd by way of 
analogy or disUiKtioQ in conaidering the electric railway, the 
talegrapb and tb^ tiwtrlo light, &nd wo may devote our atten- 
tion ospcctally to tbo c^sm decided with respeot to these uses 
of the iitreetA fer the tranamission of electricity. 

In Gcnsidt.'^ring the qiu-ctinn Uy whcM^i authority imrmtmitni p 
umy be granted, whether it may be given by the municipal or 
ether local government, or muiit come from the Icgisl^ttnre, wo 
nay ununo that tho same principles Apply to the uAOof the 
ilraoU for dectrio wire* as to the oso of them for analogous 
purpcnesL, 

1 6. Tlie power OTer the streets belon^fi to the le^hlatore. 
It it well MtUed that the nso of the streets belong to tbc pub- 
tin at Urgo ftB distinguished from tho munieipAlity, thnt tho 
kgislaturo rcproacnta the public, and that the municipality bas 



AT& 



iSft 



eootrol oTvr ih* ftiMCs «xe<pt vtMt s grran to H by the 



mtniiit, 
of the abot- 
■U pabliewmji 



orbr 

m»d nb)«et to thm propeny rglito sad 
tifl|rovBfiii) ftril **J pwii m^w it irthfri tj 
mad public pteoL* 

" TIm uiiharity to mdw lav of Uui pnbiio rti ^g to of a d^ 
for nUroad poipows pHmuilj rvsMjea in the state and is a 
part of tbo voTcniga pover. City mathontka hxje na power 
to gmtL tho rigirt, except ta so Ctr « ibej may be uithorued 
br tfao letfulataro, and then ooIt ia the '"■'»"*-r aad npoD tb# 
ooadilHns pnocfibod by sutate.*'' 

'The pabUo cueoKat ia' tho higfavaji^'' vyi Vr. Jasttoa 
Uagie^ ol Kev Jeney, ^^b Tcotod ia tha pttUlCr aad can bo 
di w rto d by aoUiiiig abort of aa axarcm of aovaroii^ poirer. 
The legUatavc;, represeatia^ tht pabhcmayrdcate th«paUio 
rigbt by racatio^ iKe highwayt may modify the public aso by 
gia&tiag a ligfat to on ttie highway for a hotse railroad, or 
fltty fcitrict tbe pidiUo aso by grmntfog « nght to ooct pol«« 
aad other obMractioos in the hif^faway. What the legitUCiiro 
can thtudo,itmaydo3agate iDtboritytodo. . . . 5orM- 
■oa tppean why alt taeh aatboity poiM«od by tha Iceubtuio 
may aot be tbos delogitod* But the d«leg«noa of ta^ powor 
mint plxinly aivjimr cither by cJiprae* gmat or by aocnaway 
implicatjon.*** 



tautt^ Hobokeu IaqJ Iiu|l Ol. 
tnA, T. HobolE4fk. 3« K. J, U KU: 
Om oftlM PhiU. A TrvntM U. B. 
Ccl. ft WkuL 39; Stat^ Jttck«UBvall« 
V. iAok«oiiviB« SC. Rf . Co, St Fb. 

>> DHL UutL Corp. (It^ cd.), S^ 097, 

'DitiwQBn V. Tfcifd Aw K R Co., 
lit It Y. 1«4. 47 N. £ &^ 977. 

*OWMAlc Td. & Tc^Il Ca v, 
K#««jrtr, «V 19, J. I. SU-ai4. £ Am. 
BL Owl HI (Iffir* B*4 obo Nov Or. 
Inns Ou Co. \. toTiL^ln-'ift IJclit Ook« 

CIL^oatf <^ Co. t u u. Si. Sen; N>w 
Ortoauu orator Works Cix v. BtYtn 
lU U. & •T4; OU^Ku^ Water Oik « . 



BtUfi^OTt HfA^ulk) Ok ai CoBK 1 1 
Emn PoitluHl V. Muttvouab, 40t^ 
SCi 8IHIt.Mus.Corps SSIMkmi A^ 
ImiUu atj W&lET Work* v: A Uurtlo 
CHr. i^ N X fji M4, m: i»odaM 
in AUauOo Otj WfltorWofhi 0» v^ 
CottHEawni' Water Ox, <« N. JL Bet 
417-419: 3U£« V. Iblvmokn Ow 
Ugfct Co, V W«i. 4^1 that*, Jaak. 
■MrriUo V, JadoODTtUt 8L Rr- Cb. 
38 Fla. 2«a 10 & &«EL :M: t1orM» 
Coat. A P. a K. Ca T. OmlA St 

KijOAvillo T, Afrit-H.TTFMB^ 

€7 U. A Apfi 74; WH^t ». Na*K 

im US.:Dlt:ui;CiljKy.Co,T,Cit- 

U«iu*8e. It It o>^, 100 tT' a 5:-?. 
Sn kowtmr, a DUL Hud. Gbrfi 



7-5.] nuxoDiKi*— LmmuTtric avd wnnorAU 



9 



U Power of inui]l^I|wll(j U onty vrh»t U ilHe^at^iJ.— 
Tlje eit«fil,Uiernf(>rH»,of Uiopcjwi^nif tt«* mtinici|mt]t}*i]cpi*niht 
upon ibe breadth of the cbarl*ir or statiiles authoH^ing imh 
aic;|ictl a<:£ion. Tlin IrgUIjtl.iini may pi'HiiijkS il^?lvgnt^ to tho 
miuudpal goT«nitiientalMoluLA ctmlral avvr thi? HtTT<i?bt, wit)i 
cxpraas powor to difiposo of ibo public ri'^hU iUiiann for \nih\h 
parposes; and tho qucstton whether in aoy particular cnso tbo 
local ftfithonLi«s baT« power to grunt & fmiidiLno muact be de- 
cided by rcfcrfincc to the local statutTs.' 

SB. Extent Aid limits of otdinary poner^of munkipalitj. 
Tb« povrcr of tbo mamcipaUtios ifl sLriotly connncd to tho pub* 
Ito rights; tboj cannot tfxcrcisc the power of cmincal domain^ 
ud tiusrefon) Ihtsy c&nnot do anylliing which involves tho 
Xftkinff of private property for public usee, and for tliiti rc^soa 
& full diaccKSion of cLo «xt«ntof tho powor of tho mutiicipality 
iavolvies a dlRooniOdi of tho qnoatioa whether tho proposed ueo 
of the stPoet is on« that impoees a new burden on the land or 
afTvcbt in any way tho proi^irty ngbte of owncre of luljoining 
land; and ihis quetiUoa mint \m euiiHiJercd hy Stni^tf nnd »C 
•oin« length when ire cone to deal with cbe private ri^ht£ sf- 
fivted by tho LeU^^raph und Gleetno ruilw^y iLiid uthor ViucB 
of wires for eleet.-Le |>ur|jo*.<^s. 

Jilt Tho same contiurti'd — MnntclpaliU1^4 cannot ^rant 
excloalre francliUes.— Tt ia well *cttli?tl that municip^iticfi 
haTo noc Che power to gmnl an ejccluaive fmnchlfte or a per* 
Aaueot pmilcgo in tho use of the street : ' and it is &o donbt 
becMiflC such pcnniislon to oao tho Htrc^t^ for railways or eloo- 
trio wires must, if tboy are to have any value, bo to a cortaia 
axUxit ojcclusivo, that ipociul provision is made by statute for 



lUk »4.l 9 ON; Korwkita Om tljdib 

Gok Y. N'onrioh Cilf Uaji Ijf lit Ca, 
IS Coiui. 10, vh<?ro it vttB hdi not 
mOf tt»& the vity b^d no powei to 
fiMiC an at^juivn propi^y i&t«fMt 
ii |ha vurvlik bat ^ko tlwt raeh 4 
jnai bj tbo PtAtc to a ^M coatfaaj 
far Lh» |itiTpfta n* Uylng pdpM wam 

If DUL Xitt. Cdrfk {iUi «d.l, fS «8^ 
Tia mud f»Ca» ckiac imur t-Asf^ 
> Korvtoli Gm I'lgtiC Ca. ▼, S9orwinh 



laniEk t3 How* (U. ai «»: TVright v. 
Nttglo, 10! U.&7irt: Jocktfaa CoLiQty 
HoiBO Bailrood Cch v. Rapid TriuiitlO 
Oh. M FfHL (U'lk UOO: aa^naw Gnib 
llgtrt Ca V- tio^fauiw. «» Kftrt. Rap. 
&SUi 8Cat« V. Cinc^ZDivfklt <JtLi.%1it 
AodCako Ga,l$ OthfofitaUi SU^i> 
T. BkuiTinn Waur Hnppl; 0\, 34 
ywL U^p. IVk Willi imjIa; UUioo* 
Miib. av[x l«Ui od.> ££010,00;^ and 
iii>u* d:tiix LDwa 6m nlw uctu It 
p. IQ, i^fta, 



10 



suBorvn 



ur a iEMara aetd hiohwatb. 



KB. 



confi^rring Icgijilutive Aathortty upon corporations orgaiLi«d 
for the purpose of eiBroUing such francbitsofl. 

The legislature, unless specially limitdl by U;d ocm^UtoUOD, 
has the nghL Ui grant mv tfidimlvtt, ioOtifltiite and irrOToCftblo 
fr&ncbl<ta for th« uw of the streeta,* although such a grant most 
be mode in explicit lAngooge, aod will acrt bo implied;' hot 
without ejcpre^a Ic^sl^tire autbority, no mQnicip&lity haa tbo 
right to grant an exolosivo, indofioito f mnchiBc,' and it has been 
hctd iu many cbma that a city has no right to gnmt mn eicln* 
Aire right, ovon for a timited time.* 

In Orand liapido J^U^ric Tdeg. Co. tf. Grand B<t^d€ Edimn^ 
€h^ Co.^^ it ^}}^in^ WiaXu city^himxig only ft fconcful poir<sr to 
light streets, adopted an ordinanoo gnuttiiLg to an deotno light 



ta DDL ICmL Corp C4tL ihL), ^ Ml, 
flU 0D4 «H *». «^ UQ'l Dc>t«4i El- 
liott on StTfvU p. 1C3; Coolcv. CmuL 
Lici. iOLU t^), fk JHS; New Oflctto* 
<Hm Co. V, I/hUaUuib MgM Ca. 11» 
U. a «CiO; L(nil»r^lc Um Co. r. Citv 

le*iu Wnier Worlu Cn, T. R1 vAm I ta 
U. a fU; OtivMu' Wflt»r C<il ▼. 
BrldRvpoii HTitmalEo Ox, AA Conn. 
1; dULe T. Milwaubw Oawlrvlit Gx. 

W<nk» Ox T, AtUntio Cily, 30 K J. 
Eq. 347. See^ Imwcvor, 3 DilL Mun. 

(^uUftht Ox T. JJorvioIi Cilj Gw 
Co.» Q^ Cotan. 10 tiS'tdn i^d <ui ti> th« 
efTATi of AxpnyM lo^UUto v^krraci. 

AtUnUo oar, 48 N. J. L, »7fl. 
<2 DilL Muti Ciiip> f4Ui ioil\ S 0^; 

Bfirti. 31; Cool^j Const A-nn. (Otb 
odL SM; UiUwi V. Sharp* 1? Bdrb. 
«U(I»VI1: &C..»Ftul\S2S,£TN.T. 
<lt£ Detroit Citimcf^ St Hy. 0\ % 
DMmii Br< Ox, ITl a & 40 (iSm 

> &u Dole 9, pb 9p iwd note 2L pt iQ; 
«]» Gtni^d JCApldft ia«ctrio ToId^, Ca 
V. Orvii Bik|il(li Bd&wD, «««. Co.. S« 
IM RofA 0» : U Llluiu V. Qt^r^ ZT S- 
Y, 6lt : SDiUi nf N'*T Ynrk t. narlcf^ 
MafOr Of >'«v York, 3 L>(»r, 110; 8t 



IjmiK a. ft T. H.1.B.0&T. Brflfr 
riiio,:^ UL App »0;PK^WMa By, 

Cok T. Uttmphk (TcoiL, imx la a w. 

Ro|L nS: dtimwr a. Bj. CH v^ CItr 

»y. Col« U FXL K*fc 74d (l^m U 
Kod. Bvp. eC7, IW U. a 07 ilW^i 
riukhuraC T, Cii;4Ul C^lj R R Cd^, 
£»Or««47l, as Pnc^ Rf^LiNK (1690): 
North BftlUiriOM Pu«. Ky. Cu t, B«l- 
Cimor^ Tt Md. S4T. 39 Atl H^ 4n 

Ox T. N«v OrltOAj; 44 Ijl Ann. 7t«^ 

na Bc^Te^1at>a)l CoiumbuaWfttcr 

IVork* Ox T. Gtilumbo*. 4S EwL. «^ 
5* Par. Riip loirj (i«B«jt Crowdcr ». 
tiutUTftn (Town otX tiW In.i, 480. tt 
K R Bop H 11»&I»: Hmdenoo %. 
Ojdnn Cttf By. Ox. T Umh. IDa 81 
Pftc KnF^ 8^ 0«9I ); iViKdt cniMur 
SLRr-Dx T. DHn^t. no M]ClL3d4» 
46 K. W. Ri>ix SH fltiO'l); ilibUrd t. 
Chiriipx i:a IlL »L ftO S, P_ B*.p m 
{Omh D«iroit T. Dvtrnt Citj By. 
C^ aa Ftid. Hici^ MT, H rod. Bop 436; 
171 U. S. 4& 

• Onn4 &ftr»^« eioct T«te^ Ca t. 
Onad Bapidfl EdiMO, otc Ox. 8S Fe4 
B^ ftW; aiAlA V, dnciiuiAti Oh ft 
Cok«Ox,ti»Ofa1i>St«e9|lM8t: Cll^ 
cdnnnli StnotR R C<i «. Saolth, M 
Olilo St £01-308. 

433 Ftd. Bop. as^ 0. a c a w. a 
Uioh. ;166^ 



WUAXQItVn — UEOIBLATIVa Aim XHVlCtFAL. 



u 



company tbo ojcclusivo ngfit to odo tlie etreote for fifteen yoora^ 
It wai bold that tbo grant wnt toM for ivjuit of fow«r. Jack- 
ion, J., inaiEted tbat> npoti principle and under tbo dMfflionB, 
tbo ftothoritjr to f^nt&n oxclueivo francbis^ involve the ex- 
erobo of tbo wbota BOTor^ign poi^or, nnrl tbfit U tho city bus 
pcnrer to make sn ^icIUHive gr^mi fcr fifteen years, h has tbe 
pffnr«ir to make vnch u grant for »u mdrnniU^ Umt% »m\ U it 
baa not power to Eonko tbe grant, for the longtr ttnuB, it lias not 
tbo power to make il for the Ghorter. ** It rcs|U[res the wbole 
cxcla»TO povror and control to grant citbvr ibo oao or tbo 
otber-" 

While tbo Ic^ElatpUro has tbo power to confer extensive pow- 
ers upon munKipalitics witb a viow to locitl adr-gcv<TrDm<;iatr 
yet tbo oonrta, for recioons of public policy, are inclined to con- 
Itme such grants very striotlj^andtofaoIdthi^tfxcliisLvc fron- 
obiMt tro not conferred unl<^ the language is espLiciL The 
•vprome coort of tbo United Sut<f3 in a recent euec ^ «iyB: 
"^Tbmt sucb power must bo ^vcn in Icn^uiLgo explicit and ox- 
prcag, or nooeeuirily implied from other power^^ is now flrm]/ 
flxed. Tboro nro noany reasons vrhich urged to tbis — rciuons 
vbiob flow from tbo natnro Of the monlcipal trust — even from 
tbo nature of tbo legislative trust, and tho3« which, without 
tbo olonrtiHt inU*niic>ri expIiriUy tlfyrUri'^l, inKixU^ntly forbid 
Uut the future should bo committed and bound by tbo oondi" 
tioas of tbo present time, and fiminion^ di^legatoit for piibli(^ 
parpo«<s bo panilyzod in Uicir c;ti?rci5o by the cxi»t«nc9 ot ex- 
clasive privileges" 

The qncfltion resolves itself finnUy into n question of the Qz- 
t«Qt of tbo power granted to tho municipality by the charier 
orotbcrlttwiiianyparLicnlarcase; and einco tbo same question 
a invcdvod in many otbor fronchiscit, it cannot bo dieonascd in 
delail withont gotag beyond tbo oases on oleotrlo wiros.' 

Where tbo coDsUtution of a state probibita tbo legislature 



Irct; Hj. Ol, 171 V. A 48-58 CUW7> 

tTU#fOv«r of >ii qnU* i|* 1 eorponw 
tfc* to Kniit ail oii;lii>ivv finif-lii-A 
Md oraau a cimk^fol/ ft iliM^iiitkhl 
la M Jla, A Eii«. B. K, Cu. tia, nout, 
«l«n lb» AiMric<i& dccmoxi* ore 



f S 0B3-OML ftDil iiot«i abo¥o roffimod 
la 

]ifiUiif« (it Uto Uf4 of iho 4trw't» Ifl 
i1i^i[«vl In Afi Artinip bj VT- W. 
Th<«^^a Iti 41 Alth Law Jour lOL 

Is CltLOMi4* 6t By. Ca t, Joibo^ 3t 
F^kL Rrfh m^ « fiEQii t bjr ft ci(7 <ir «» 



14 



riECTftlO WTBE5 15 STREn? A5D BIOnWATS. 



tsw. 



pom, and may lay pip^s thero for a public w»tcr supply,* So, 
aImo, " lighting citH** i* ho in*cnwsa,ry," 8u,va Judgts Dilloa, '*for 
the safety auiJ convi^ui^Tio^ of tbe mhabiujitfi that niunicipal 
nuttiorities «ri* usu.illy given more or 1c*b exloDsivc powrn ia 
rcApect to it."' Pow^r tnO liglit the str>5cts, of counte, mrolvea 
power to iii*t up Imip p^wU and lay down gas pipes for the pur- 
poAc of supplying the lamps with fuel; and there ia no doabl 
that, nnd«r lh« gf^ncrral jxftvirer to light the city, the corporuU<Hl 
may lay gas pipes for its own use or aothcriae others to use 
tht^m. Thofitreeta of cities *' for tDAnyycJira have hoea used 
for tho coiiitLruction of sowers and for laying water and gas 
pipcA, nnd no one biis cTor seriously qnestioned the right of tho 
city to authorize their use for such purposes, unil no adjoining 
owner . . . erer pretended to otaim oompensation for such 
uao;"' and yet, while coatom has sanctioned the use of the 
streets for plaeing thereon ga^ and water pipcS) it has always 
boon exerdsed under legislative authority.' 

It is because of the general r;][e that ''no person oui aoqolre 
a right to make a special or exceptional use of the public btgfa* 
w^iy not Gommou to all the citizens of the states except by 
grant of the sovereign power/' that it has been held that '*lho 
right to us© the public streets of a city is a frauchise which 
the stale alone can confer"* But whether such power to 
grant such a rif ht is delegated to any city dependit on th& ex- 



1L A. ^0; W«it r. DwicrufU 33 Vt 
fiOT' Although this not urultiputed. 
Dubuquo r, iAaianaf. 9 l<}n-u. 15a 
BccSDiU.Mi]iLCor|L<tthc<L),^rjUO, 
Bud cute Giiina '^a»^. ani Klliutt i>u 
Roads, utc., UOV^Ift^. vKh cotes 

«a DilL MutL Corp, iUh od.), % COTj 
Lcwidy Em, IhMa.. ^ l-nja 

"flDilL Mun-Corjt (4thed.), ^ fl3!, 
eW: Siato T. Cioa Uaa Light & <X 
Co., VS OJkio £l aOii a^^U mcliiuoad 
Coontpj' Dm Ught C<L V. MiiMletovhiw 
00 N. Y. fim in England u has b»n 
h«14 thAt ttio right to bj down goA 
pipQ« in 6 hjghwar cun onl^ tw i:4,rij. 
ferr^bylt^gi&UltTAaiLCharity. C^m-ti 
V, Cbarlajwrth. 1« Q, B, lOl* Aai 
tho niDQ is true ia AmircEt;^ of 
cuuulry hiifhwzk;^ BUwnirLAti & K. 



K. GosL. Ca y. CiiU(ii;&e3 K.Y.dSS; 
SlCT-ling'n AppwU, III P* St Ml 
Tha autbority luuot l>« purely iDoV- 
dentjU uid in furtlicrauoe of Ui« 
d^lit to ooutrol tha Httvuti Rioi^ 
naijnd Co. Gas Light Co, v. UiddU- 
bovtn, £0 K. T. 2SS; Doitgo t. C^ven- 

193-210 (lans), 

*8EAk. Uuiitguiuor? T. Trenlon, 86 
N. J. r Art, 70. 

A Jerfiey Cit/ Ooa Ok v, Dwigbtt 39 
N. J. Eq, fifS. 8m bUo Bottan ». 
HtiiliArdsoD. IS AlJviU. 140: Nonrlch 
Gftsligbt Co- V, Xorwloh City Gsa- 
JightCQH,£0 Conn, 10; Slat^ t- Cin* 
cinnati Ouali^Lt, etc Cti., Id Ohl^ 3L 




S»l-] 



FEAilCSUXa — LEOIfliA-nvK A1V£> VUXtClTAI.. 



Vi 



t^nt of the povr^nt conferred upon ft, anit thiK defi^^niTe some- 
what apon ibe character of ibe cily and the nature of the tiseft 
for which ils sIreeU niiij W ns^juirwl. 

Larger powers are givao to dliK% than to vUhi^^ji, nml the 
oses to nhich cit/ streets m^y be put are more nuiui*rou8 &iiJ 
Tirious thao tbo*o to vliicti a comtuoD highway may be ap- 
plied by the tovmahip ol!lccra> 

In all tbeso casos tbc authority of the municipality is cod- 
Ikked to ihooe thioga that are iDcide&tal to nml in furtlicraaoo 
of the povcr giren by flt&tnte to roguluto and control the 
iLreets, 

There b^ been soino qucatioa as to the r-lf^ht of a city, oven 
with the Biinctioa of the le^ieUtLire, to authonw a company to 
laygai p[pea in the iCref^tt for gom^rai nso without ma-king 
compensation to the land-owner.' Yet the better opfolon ia 
Uiat this b a Ivgitijnate use of the KtrE^oU, for which do com* 
pensatloii need be made.' And It U certain that unih-r the 
general power to light the city, the corporation may lay gaa 
pipes for it« own use, or antburi^o othorH to Uiy thiriii for that 
ptrpoae. 

% 11. QneHtlon whether the Tariona electric wjrm come 
vitkln tliC4e llnef».— Whether the various uaca of the ekctiio 
wiret oomo vithin these uoplied powers or not depends a good 
deal on the purpose for which tbe wires arc mod, and on the 
■Dswer to ibe qDCfltion whi;tbcr or not thoy ore within tho 
|VDper usee of a slreet or coc^titute a new burden upon the land, 
ThadfaciissioQOf this^ue«tioD requires a separate oonsideratioa 
ef Um aeroral oms, and must be leserred until later. The prin* 
dplas that goram this subject are diaoutsod in works on th« 
powvni of maokipal corporations and on street* and highways, 
and tn partieuUr ca»*4 the nnswer depends so much upon the 

tliat |i1pe» for nonT^ytuB nattinl gM 

fu^L cHxtDot ba laid witlKnit ovmpco- 
uu'ou to the Luid-cFWDer* dterliajf^ 
A|<|-^1, 111 Ph. St. aS; Kintmld t. 
In-liiinEh >'»t Qa^ Cch, UH lad 571 

li>iH 10 Aid. 3U Rep. M. l^ht *. 
MolroiHJljtan El Uy< Ox, IH K, T. 



tDUoU «D B«adt, PlZW; 2 I>ilL 
Ma&Gorp^iitJiM.XB^'B; L08latl«r 
X Annmk LS L R A. SCO (laO., 
m^ Ellaitt, X). 

■ IfiUiAa T. Blnrp^ » Barh 310 
(l»SD; Verwftoh GAili|;1il Co. t, iiar- 
vtafc Oltr OMftixUt Co., ^ Co&D. 19 
tHSO. 

• Uvia Eia. Dos. K l^ l^: ^ 
ML Una, CoriK {Itt od,X SCSL aoto. 
am! iw» cdCeiL It hM bocD held 



u 



mimcTtmtQ wittn iv arnuerrs xxxt uiOHWxrB* 



taia. 



languor of ehortCKS or tlaiubw Uiat It %aem» ttruic^esuTy to 
«jauaiiDO el08d7 mto tbe qtieatjon ^hatber, as a tii&tt«r of 
logal tfaeorj, a miiaTcipoiI corpoiution with onllnxry [>ow<-nt 
liu £ Hght to grant permission to ^t up t^kgraph^ telepbono 
or electric-Ugbt lin^ or to conatmct an overhead systom for 
fiirnfsHin^ clnfttrio [mwpr to thn uln^^t r»ilw-iy. Ak it nmltfr 
*>r r«i-t^ pniviftion i» generally tiiadtt by statute for chUuning 
9Uob franchise's u[>on complying with c«rt&in conditions and 
obUiirting a dcsigmition of the streets from UiC loca.1 authorl' 
tae«, and the question doca not often arise wbcthor, vritJioat 
apocial legislative authority, a grunt of power to u»c tho etrccta 
for snoh purpctscs m;i.y bo nmde by a iDunlcipal corporuticn.' 

% 13. Fowcr« of cititJ4 to grant tho privilcf^ Trith respect 
toth«soand8lmilfkr dscs — Sloam and horso rallronda^^It 
may bo well, liowevor, to refer to a few cbbqb in which it baa 
boon hold that thoeo or similar phvitc^sS may or may not bo 
OODfoTTCd by munioipal grant. It has fnfjui^tly l»ocn held 
tiat a oity cannot gire permission to nse the stroeta for tbe 
operation of an or<1inTiry «t^am milroiut,' With rt-spect to 
faorftc railroads there la some difTereood of opinion. Judgo 

• Tho Hxtrtjt of thtt powor of Uua 
municipiilitjrdopundft vfTj mnoH on 
tho loQ^ingo of tho chuttT or ntttt- 
ut«i AQil ID OQmpnrinc the dccurioon 
In diTfonmt itAtf^ It 1b iiiiiioruuit to 
ox&safajo tho NtAtut««i tioo JQoewn 
r. CblcJi(9x 75 Fod Hop, SS0-C81 per 
Growcnix J. 

>3 ntlL Miin, Corjv <4tb od.). f TOfl; 
Qx>l?T, Coriat. I^ni. (Oth od} ISO. 6^1 
at4vzmij:ib, AlUiiij & Oi^lf R. IL Oix 
T. 8h[4>K as Oa. A)i (ifm): kuc^ 

ltIonljC(<ii>C<t7 T- Trooton- 15 N. J. I* 
TO; Ctuuiil^c-l/iij3 T. KllAiMh|K)r% 
Ma Ox, 41 N. J. F^t 4«: B^k-J^i'n r. 
St. liOub ± & K Ry. Co^ 51 Ark, 4!il, 

ii&w. ibfx eoe <i«m b u ax 

I8t^ W Aid, ft Biw- Oi& 4aa 

Ah lo tTia nfuvcKll/ for tfvbtAlivff 
authority to laj a rxiboad in tbo 
•UmU ecxT PcnDBTKaniii lUiLroivt'B 
AppcAllia Pa. at 5141 Jene;Ctly 
ABMgm B. R On T, J. a « lfi> 
bofan ft S. Co^ 90 N. J. 1^ «1^ 



10 N. J* Bq.sas: Set) iUhi on tha duh 
UnrtJoD hetwi4«ii ttOAJu rni troa^E tutd 
hoTM luilfonda cb&pt«r X (Ctoctnc 

111 Kcnr-oolcy itcam tnlLrcmiU var* 
trttttcd in oarly cum a 
higliiray usccv Mad, * r&ilro«J 
pftay havlnf IcgWatlTe mithofltr 14 
ooniimct A TtituU mnnicipAl <«iiiiKrt 
tttui hoLd to give it autJioriij lo u» 
tbo «trwi» tjC M clly. Luuiirino ft 
Pr^nkrnrt H. R Ca t. Browti. 17 R 
3toQr.TCa 

In UliuoU ftod TowA it i« hdd iliftt 
oltin* iMAj ftutliorit» bli« l&jlng at 
nUaiii nLllnvui u«.oica tn tb» BtrcvtA 
Chloaco & Viaoenim R R Coi r. 
Fvopl^n la SI; Itilbutb r. OUkr 
rt»t-i^h R R Ox. 19 lov^ 340: Cook 
r. HiiriinKtoi^ 30 lown, M. fl Anb 
lUj^ 040, M lowR, «>T. 6«« 1 lUA. 
doll] ua fiiUlv8y« % TX and notM^ 
Glhod. 

tn nttiUnf- UiMOori com* It b lo 
be otioervcd tkftt »peo^nad iiAucnrr 



SU.] 



fftASCC^lClIft — Ltfll^l^-nvt AJtT> KrXldTAU 



17 



Dill<m xays ($§ 71T nmX 734) tbut tbo power mnst como rrom 
tbo lepslaUire, Imt that thf) orduiAry |)oivtin( are oiltn ample 
oumgh to antborize ciUc4 to aUovr the streets to be U5«d for 
lOQol tiAvel by vmmui of such rmilroadji, nlthough they cannot 
coftfcr corporate francbtses nor authoHu tAking of tolls.' It 
wm docddod in >'cvr Vork^in 18^9, tiiat an oxclasivo riffht 
«ciild not bo thus ^mntotl; but on tbo qocetioo wht^cr tbo 
nnnioipality mii-bt, by a m&ro Uoohm, revocable at pletkBuro, 
aathorko persons to build such a railroad, the jndgoa wero 
diflded.* The Kow Jcrw.\ir aupTCm^ court snUl, in 15T3> that 
tbe power had nerer beea e^cercisod in tbat state under a mere 
grant of pow^^r to n^nlate str^ots^ and that the attotnpt to as- 
sert it woitd douLtleu prorolcc tbo luott dotoanninod rosla^ 
aace? 

It in o'rt^iinly Inu^ thnt the* right lo opcrnt* ft borso railway 
isa prifil^gegiviagLhe want i-he ptefervnce in Ihu right of ivay 
oror other TOliicleSr so that a line of omnibuses, fop example, 
will AOt be allowed to run rt^gnlsirly tipoii iho tracks to ti\e ia- 
JDijof UiebuKincMi;' and allliough iiM wdl Hirttlvil Uiathorfn 
imOroads are a legitimale use of tlio streets for public travel, 
it ii osuaUy nccpssiary to bnvo epccial IcgislatiTo authonty to 
c^erato a Uae witb all the priTileges that are genanlly re- 
quired.' 



i 



pov«r with r««T«cl to niErc^ds b 
Civvo hy duutor U> tfae oitjr vf Bl 

<lddg9 Dilloo'i text wmit qi.i^t«<l 

tavli ». ?Jw York, 1« S, Y. 50a 
*fltet«k )lo«t0Oiiict7 peo&, T. Xrco- 

tCklnddC finnn H. It Cb. ▼, CEd- 
M^ Coftrli COh 3t H. X E£q. SUA. 

■Uvl&Hiu.Dim„St?3; AthiraDr 
Ovnersl r MMropoUUu R EL C^ 139 
Mml ait, £9 AliL B«tL SM; 8Ual#r 
«. Oammp'irt. d lov^, 483: niacrb- 
mmn v. Tbtenoa Hofaa a It Co.. IT 

ay, Ca V. JerM7 City ft nobokan 

Hhm iL n. ou, se s< J. Bq. et ; sutii 

Av& ft. K, Oi V. Kerr. 43 Tiutx 1HS: 
OCbVMitli V. AnoMir. i B«LL Ap|i. 

t 



Ovh S74: Fketoa t- Itidiiirdctoii, 18 
^MlrnatO; Soure v^ HuCHbnUtown St. 
Ity. Cn. a» lown. 7<a; KedA«ld on 

Oaabwick B. R Ca, f'l K V. 146; 
£[4!hitlH V. T^ikiunrUla 8L R. Co, 78 
IncL V$l. 41 JUd. Etop. »1; UiM V. 

tU^ HiL342.30 AiiLKri^aTI; Eycplo 
Y.fTBrlnr, III N. Y. I, S L. It A »\ 

13. Sir Oi>» 30 Uintk £80, 1 L. a A. 
4S3: Pmjile v.NewKm.]ttN.T.>M;^ 
8 U E. A- 11U; Attonter<len«raJ t, 
LoculAnl A Sotith 8t Fan Oj. Ock, 
a Ldi& lot (E^l Soa 1 W.KOuL 
4^: rvopV* fiy. Ca V, JUtaph^ 
(TcfiiLl, ica W. Rep. rS (]9»)t SUMb 
JockfoovUl^ T. J«ck>oaTlll« St Ry* 
Ca. 2D Tl«. Atd^ 10 a ft«^ AM. 

Bui m 161IB it la tlia w«lL-«att]«d 



BLEOTBIO Wt&BS t5 9TVCETd ASD HtQSVATS. [%% 13, 11 



$ 13, The fi&ne — Electric riflvAjM, — The electric railwaty, 
I MOW codunoalj ^wntAcL W tliO oviTheid system of polet 
tnd wirtt, differs from tbe hone mitwiy, not in Uie parpoM 
of Its opentioQ nor in th« mode of using the otreeU bat in Uiir 
foct that poles «r9 9nt npat inUrvnU nlrtngLtu^ larr-rlBmi u'irr-n 
an? fttrung i>vi*rhftii] TfH- \}w pur[)U!«i of sLupplyio^ eiactriciiy to 
tbe motors. IL Uaa hrfcn held ia many cues to which I shall 
ittTsr bereafler, that sinoe thore » do changr in iho purpose or 
TnfPftBT ot tbe use of tb6 streets, and since tbe poles and irires 
Biie tteeeasary and incidental to the cao oE tbe streets for this 
mode of public travci, there is no additional burden iinpoved 
npon the laad and no treapasa coinniitt«id upon tbo adjoining 
owner. The decision of Ihb question has an important bear- 
ing on the question wticthcr it is within the power of the mo- 
nkipality to grant siieh a pri7ilej*6; but since it is dovbtfol 
vhcthorevon borso railroads may bo authoriied witfaootspe- 
dftll^;iBlativG 8anetion,andsiaooth«railrc«dsareusnallyooii- 
ftrOGted under leflriaiatlre authority erf tome bind, we need o&ly 
reto h^re to the ca^ea cic«*>i and discnssed in the followisg Mo- 
tions of this ohuptvrand in the chapter oa the Rights of Abat- 
ting Owners with E*spect to the Electric Railvrar.' 

i 14. Fovpr vfnmnkipnlitj l« nutburiie Mn^vt raJtwa; 
romjianlM !• ii!i« pcili^ and electric wire?i* — 8up|XKtngthe 
legislature to have autitorized th« operalianof a &lr«et railway 
in tbe stmta of a city, and by tbo original or a cubsequent 



dodrfaa that cttia cur outbcniie 
tta uumtiULtlaa of Armt r«ilw)ij& 
DMDMtf V. Ljvn. M lowvt S7& AJtt^r 
of stfiuu TUlwftr^ SUfilorT-Dftrex^ 
ptft, H lov^ ML IT Aax, BetL SHI 
la iKUaaa ftUhM tha vadcr 
StSL BoTved StatalM (laSU 
CoEurpur&c«d cttf has «xcfaiiiT« 
povvr ov«r tfcwtt ndaajr ^raata 
taOvKj **— p*y po««r to Iftf iI6wb 
tnck*AfeccaadMcrov«ln«tA Kbt- 
s«rf.1ailiaMp»lki00riU.tia Aw 

■In OiHl r. htsUvUrr St Rr. Co^ 
m Mtoe. 371 41 Am. !>]k e»>;>«vT7 
T. Nw Orlmu* 3L & a Et, Ctx. S5 

■W'St. U7. Ca ▼, otr I'r- *^< ^ >^>^ 
TM. U8liedSm«<in:«iS9Wt 



Ibr tbe dirtrict of ladiaaa, 
of mn onliD4iu» viHii( an 
baaddM to aaalootno strMt nO- 
var ccnfaaj, the eoait iaU IhaA lbs 

^matoeUMrtghttoUMtha «! ■■ <■ 
fbr a rtfMt l att— j r waa nirjaaillj 
a l^iUati^ snst; Uiat tfao wa of 
tbvn wtlhuttl wek a gr«»i woulil bo 
a anliaaefc aad tfaat m Ki^, i& t^ 
ahsiBOt eta It^Uftftth* wnOt of ur 
(horilj to El, CMiaot cotifar aucb a 
ris'^t tt|iOQ asj eofi Tfaa ana e — o 
<ioiJft or tli» UattaJ jStato^ iB ravivw- 
iac tb» doal 4oc«w Is thi* oaa^ de- 
cUood totlacUa IbQ qwatfaa wtoabar 
tti>oo fii yii*i»aathada paiyetoal U aa^ 

MU&ssr. 

iCkll,ffiU-aiaad<^X 



51M 



rfe^Konuu — U3G]«LiTtvy ^yi> ^Avxictr^u 



11> 



gnnb to hare authorii^ tho um of clootrio motors^ b it com* 
ftfUmi (or th« tctmioipal authorities to pc^nit and regulate tbo 
ooostractdoa of what is calkd the overhead syetem for eupply- 
iag tho elootrkitj? On this question there hu been som« 
diff«nMlc< ot op^nJoa nmoo^ tho eourU. Under on express 
frmaC by the !«;:islatare o( the ri^^ht lo oae polos and wires, tho 
dt^oonncil woulil of couno havu povrer to ivguluto ihe itfto 
and dengnate the eise and location of tli^ poles. aDd so give the 
covnpaay their con^nt to the use of the sLrof^td in tho munnrr 
required ; but when tlje Ktatute prrjviili^ j^neriilly for Llio tue 
of decCric motors, the question may arise whether Uiig givea^ 
by implies tioiif the right to use tlii« mpAiis of gujiplyin^ ihti 
«U<(!tncity, am) th» iimy di*[M'iiit im wht^thi-r, at the Uiiia of the 
pUB^of ihaai^tbeusi^of xbeterm ^electric motor ^' in con- 
seotioa nitb street oon LupU^ the use of polos and wires for 
aopplyJQg tbe electricity. Before statin;^ the cases on this sub- 
ject £ may soggeet that since the right to coastruct and oper- 
ate has booD given, and such & railway has been held to be a 
pvoper DK of tiio street and no tre^as on thd Lam), and sinee 
tbe poles and wirea are used as Decossary or convoaient mcau 
of supplying tho power, aud arc not in themselves a greater 

itnictioD of the atroeta than lamp poata op hitehiofr poste,or 
le treed, it may ^ell be tLaif if powt^^r is f^Won by tbe k-gi^ 
ktoro to QM elocUicity, the local auihoridea, under their power 

fegolate street^^ may pennit poles to be set up in such a way 
in their jtulgment, will not intcrfL^rc with publie travel, and 

ly prorldo for atretehing the wires retjuired to faciliuto 

ivel in the street cars. 

Xho muim-ijuility Uur^ nut tW piwi^r ta ilivert thi4 street or 
any |at1 of it from iLi [proper JU/t^ as a streel^ nor to unpoee a 
new burden on the land, nor lo affect any of tho righte of tho 
hmd-owni^ in the slrn^t, and nhuU^f-r the lm> of the electiic 
milway with the overhead system docs ^Jiy of these Uungs 
must be the subject of a separate chapter; and in oonsideiiiig 
the rights of tbe abutting owner 1 shall examine all the cases 
nlstEng to the tiae 01 the alrceia t)y tlie oloctric railway. I 
BDod only refer now to tbo«o in wluoU the power ol tho lunniei- 
paljty boa been c«pooially eonsidered. 

i 16* Tbe saute sukdect — Cases— Ta^^rt t, Newport 
Street By. Co.— The question came before the suprome court 



Xt.ECTKIO U'llEES IK ftTECnV AITD IIICnVATS. 



It 



Of Rhodo Island in Ts^iri v. JVWjxTrf^swif ^. Ox} 6& a bit] 
filed by a property owner f^r injimct:o& against ibe erection 
of the ovorbead olectric ^stem. 7he act andor which the 
company tnts incorporattid provided that tbo road might bd 
operated ** with ateajn, horse or other power, ai the conncol of 
i\w dty might from time to time dir^K^t.'' The common coun- 
cil of Now|iorl p:iMi3d tux unlin:in^cf girJng the t^inipumy poi^ 
luLssioQ to iise tite overbeaj:! Avstenif with pok?s nlong the corb- 
KUine &nd wircrs suspencled over tbo traj^bL Tbe court held 
Lbat th(i ctiATLrr of the comj^any vAft broad enough to nullior* 
JKo the use of electric powi^r, and that the words " otherpower " 
were not to be oonEoed lo animal powcr^ bat ihnXy '*as tho 
charter wft» pntscd in tl^e ^intur of 1385, wbc-n the idea tbftt 
oloctncity mi^ht be brottg:ht into nee a£ a motor w&b familiaTf 
it Bucme probable tbut the words 'other power* were lucd with 
a view to it* posiiHecmploymcnt" TJioy nid the polee and 
wires were <liroctly ausiliary to the ordinary nses of the stroet 
in furnishing the power by which euwt cuv were pnjpollod; 
that the electrie railway did not constitute a now burden, and 
that the ordinance vrae v&ltd. 

§ 1^. The same— Ht. Jldnms & Kden Park InclEned By. 
C*. *• WliHilow,— In Xovember, 3SSS, it was decided by the 
eotirt of eoiUTHon ple:u of Hamilton county, Ohiov that poles 
ntid wirt-4i for tbo vl&ctric r^ilwuy W4:re an riddftlannt burdi*ci 
upon the land niied for a sU^eet, and that a land-owner who had 
not received com|)etiwLtion was entitled to a mandatory irijuno 
tion for the- rcrnioval of tho iKik*»,' On appeal to tfao eircnit 
oonrl of HiiTiiiltou eouiity the decision was rever&^rd,' and it 
was held that the ufic of the Streets for horae cars was a proper 
one, and that thu cbaago of the inotiro {>owor to oloctrkity 
taade no differeace, and the poles and wires betn^ used for tbo 
purpose of facilitating public travel impcaod do new burden 
OG the land. The pcnnission to make iho change, an<I to pnt 
np the polos and wires, was giren by the oommon council, and 



lT»g^rt T. Nowport St Ry, C&, 
JsmiUT W, im, 10 B. L GCe, to AtL 
Bop. SSKt % Am. Hj. A Coiph Bsik U, 
wfthaoco^iS JUXI.& en^RROuk 
tta, t L. K A. 30\ with Do(^ 8 AdB. 
ELCuaOl 9«adMtlil«caMi3uio<t«d 
<Vhi,etLX,Sia. 



> UL Advm ft Bden ruk ladfaiod 
Oj. Ca 1. Wlatfo^, » Wc«t SoIL 

taC.SOfaio CircuU CL Bofk 4BC^ 
OAulELQi*!^ 



SS IT, IS.] nucsG7U«K4^i.Eoi«i.&TiTC 4!fi> ]itn«ic;irAi» 21 



tbe coixH held that the plaioUff, an Abutting land-owner, vtm 
nol ciiuil«<l to an injocction. The riglit of the oommon conn- 
cU to ^TftDt the pcrmissioQ was not disctiasod, but it must baro 
bMD ikHtfumecl Uiat tho gnuDt vms salficicnt^ or clao tiitit tlio 
poiDt was not ooo vrMcb oould bo talcca by the adjoining Jond- 

OTniT, 

S 17. ThosAoie — Loo«r^n r.Lftfajette Street Ity. Co, — 
In Jjmirgan t. Za/a^ciit Stn/^ Jiy. O., decidixl by tho circuit 
conrt at Lafay^tie, Indiana, July ^, 1^0/ it apjwared that Ih© 
ttatnU> under whicli tho d^foudant company wns org:!ni:^rd 
proTidal Iht th« iiicuT-^Niration of Any " Btroe^ or liors« railmad 
comptmy for the purp(Kc of constructing street or hon^ rail- 
rocuU ibnaigh llw ftti\M>bt of tho oitifs v^ml towns" of Tntlijiii;i. 
The ai:t ir^u untttlitd "An H^rt U> |ii-iniile for i\ir. incoqKjmtion 
of fltrect railroad companiei,*' and ivas paused in ISSL Tb« 
Qtygavu Uio company lioense in 18^ to opemto tbt^ir road by 
koTM or elt;cim"J ]:iowrr Tho court held tb&i the kgiflLitura 
Bust bo rappofted U> havQ contemplated novr discororicd and 
mrcnttOQfl^ and that tboy omst not bo understood oa moaning 
to tiCoLodo tho now and umtnl apEslianccA that mi^it bo in- 
ftnted, and that the lun^-u-a^ ol tbo iLCt ^as broad enough 
U> cover a §troct milvosA, whothcr tho oars ftro drawn by boracs 
or propcliod by etcctrtcity. It waa hdd aUo ttiat tbor« woe no 
than^ in tho use of tho street, and thut neither in th9 neo of 
pol(4 nor by rcaaon of dangor And noUo was ibore a nevr »crvt- 
uk1« imposed upon the land. 

j 18. Tbo«ainu — LonlsTlllt Ba^-^liif; Mf^. Co. r. C4*ntral 
Pa&Ken^er Ry.Co.**A similar doci^ion wa« laade about the sfi-mo 
Uino in tlie LouUvlLle law and equity ooart^ at Ixinisvillv, Ky,' 
Ttw romjuiny wa« inrorpomtj-d in 18iSl An aot nf [hn If^gwi* 
Ulurv wiw jkm«-k1 in ISTl iiuliu>n£ing tlu ooinpnity and tbeojty 
ti) alter any coaLnict theretofore made in relatioa to tli€ inotiTo 
powor t«i lie lUi^l in propelling <^rs on ibt trucks. In 1S34 the 
lofl^ftlatnro amended tho oUart«r ao as to gmnttho company 
Um right toopficato its cars by the cable system or electricity, 



■I asi Tiil«'it<r<4 to Ur. John A- 
ViK.munwt fi^r tli«EillnnOt^ntnriJ 

V«« Tovb. for copi«D o( tbo oplniom 
k OAi ftul tfa» «vo /onofriiLj 



Tlie One twi> liav« aEito* bow to- 
l-ineit In a Am. KL Omm, KllL STIL 

CoDtial rftvwaioar Ry- Co, J«iw 91^ 



ss 



EILKCTUC TVIKl^ IN tfTJiKirro AXD li:011W&YS. 



[M»- 



OF each otb^r power &a might be Approrcd hy the genenl 
GOnnoil of the oily of LouUville, la 1&S4 an act wa5 jiaaaed 
anthoruJng the company to buHd and oporit© lines on ttw 
fiLreoU ajid routes grantcj tkroagh ito charier or byonlinanoe^ 
auch lines to be opemted by any power now aathcriscd in tht 
cbart«r as amended, and tho council was cmpowcTod tbcrcftfl«r 
tognmt "authority to build and operate liaot en rcnik^ and 
on such terms and con<littona *^ aa mi^ht bo agrotK] upon. 

in 16SS the ocpuncil granted tho right to use tho cablo or 
el^tnoi^ ftfl a motor on any oriUl of its Hnc«, and lo «raci all 
scooctary •truoluree and ^pplunces thei^for. It was held tliat 
there was no douhtthe company had acquired ]c^lntiv« and 
nmnicSpal ftancticn of the use ct f^li^otrlclty aa a motive power, 
and that the erection of posts and tb€ conatraction of the ap- 
pH.mtus ni?ce>4Har>' for Um aife appIicAtion And use- tjt vicciritAiy 
as a motive povrcr waa not a diver^oo of tlia KtreeL from ila 
proper uses. 

g 19. Thi> Hamo — Pvtroit City Rj. Co. t. Mills.— In 7>^ 
troU Cif'f/ Jly. (h^ V. MiUs^ in the circuit court of Wayne 
county, Mich., the action was broaght for cutting donTi a polo 
oroctod for an clcctrii^ railway, and tho dofcosc^ woa that tbo 
plfdntiS bad no right to put it up. The company was author* 
ized by atatuto to pTopul its cars by atcaum or other pow^ 
whcoiov&r the mnnioipaLily should uuthorixo tho athmc. In Janu- 
ary, 1839, it was cmpotrcred by a city ordtnanco to substitute 
lor animal power euch aystemof eloctric or other motivfi power, 
except etoam, as should eeom beet. It was held by IloiUyt J., 
that the electric railway did not constitute a new burden, and 
that it was within Uio powor of tho citycooneil lo authoriM 
then«« of polas and wires. 

This ded^on "vt^ affirmed by the fapremo coiurt of 3fiehigan, 
Uay 6, \%^\> And it w^ held Uiat under thb action of tho 
Ic^gialaiuro and ilia municip^Lliiy. the railroad company haul a 
ri^ht to uae the overhead system for propelling street oars by 
elootricity; uad in tbia caco, it will be obvorvud, tbo polee uul 



■antocl. (mU t^t\f nn t^i gnniftd UtAl 

itl00tlwlvAj^«ikf40l^ljr If \h¥f UM 

tiko OT«rb«Mi olectrio ijBl^oh ^ro O 



Dcrw bnf^ ofi thd Btrecl, tat wbtcli 
dunacM BUBt ba pftid ic ftWuiUiic 
(»r»nx rarafiill«rMii(HnAnictf tho 

03M^ tM St Ua and 1«^ ctw JC ^ V^ 



i 



J§dO, Si.] nuycni^Kc — LKonn-ATiYt ixn ur^nctrxL. 



S3 



vircft were not montioood in the ordinnccc, but are only im*- 
]»1iod in thfi ^oera] permtsioo to tuu oltxitridty 08 a modTd 
power. 

i to. Tbo Mine— Pelton t. East CleTClind B. R. Co^ In 
Pdt^m V. EoAt Cl^'o^i^tfid R. R. Co^ iho companr had oon- 
Btroct^d ft street psiilway under a f^jneml ordinance of tbe city 
of Olenlnnd rc^lntinf; the oonstructicn and running of poc- 
tnger out drawn by hortcft or miUe<. Tbo road vas built in 
lM9^aAd there was no statute at tho time atitboriiing tbe con- 
itiDCtton of street milroml^s Wt Urn company obtained t)i4 
coueGt of ibe oivnen of thd greater part of tbe adjoicing 
pro p ef iy in pnrsnance of the onlirmnce, Thf^ sUiLiit^ portain- 
inp to th«i milijiTcL n'^ct nut jitNvitl until ISfil, Trt l$7i} tbtv 
tompany ottained from tbe city & reneiral of tbe fraucbitte fur 
twenty-five years, bnt did not atik for tbe consent of property 
owDore. On July 13, 1883, tbe city council pawml an ordi- 
unce gmnting the company "tbe ri^ht to erect and m&int^n 
wir^ and mil necessary applian>*{^ for prodnoing and coELdoat- 
in^ electricity at tbo motive power" on & certain part of iti 
line, and this waa extended by resolution on May 13, ISSl), to 
the atreete in question. On a bill for injunction by one hun- 
dred and twenty-fire property owners, it viua held thut tbo 
thaa;^ of motive power did not eh£in£*6 the mannt^r of aae of 
the street, nor Smpoee a aew burd<^n upon tbe litna; tbal the 
provision requiring oooseni of property owners did noi apply, 
tad that tbe ordiDaooa and resolution were valid. Tbe decis^ 
ion of the oommon pleas was affirmed on appctit by tbo circuia 
oottrt, CaldweU, J., reading tbe opinion of tbe court.* 

{tl. The same — Ca^tm In cbiinctiry In Nt^w JcT^y. — In 
J7d!wy v> liajrui Tranril Sfjy<ti Jitf. Co.^ tbfi qtti-stiim rJitno be* 
ions the court of chancery of New Jerwy.' The railro.-if) c^m- 



Ca^CiirAho^CciiCkPleQAOhi<> [Jnlj^ 

mm. B ff^mk. Doa er, a Am, cl 

Ohs)^ Had bIia Statu of 0?klo V, 
B^ aot«IwQdaRQ>,SOhioCir- 
VMttOoiuri Rcfhaia 8£t qooM inlUi 
opiste, Id wnkdi U va* hM that 
Ite coDi«nt of proptttj cnniAni, liRT* 
kseuoa h«Mi flW>tail for tk« ccn- 
«r«Si«a of ft bdcM railnad. «A» laui 



raquiroil oa reQ«w&] 9f tho frUkoMm 
nvt on t)ie chanjcfl o( motlro pOw«r 
lofrlcti licit jr. &cr» bowtTOT.at. Hfeb- 
ftol'i Churpri V. Forty— road aft. sUk 
Hy. C<L, 57 N. Y< 8(i|ii^ WL 

)4TK.j. eq.sAa aoAttRvp-sm 

JUAnLftE^S^aRCu.7C>Ani. 
EL Cm sett la K J. Lftv Jound, 1001 



u 



mxTTMO wiz^ na ^be&ts a»d StonWATl. 



[J2L 



ptay bad be^n or^nizcd under u goncral act for tho fonniLtioo 
of atroel railway ccinpiLaiee which ptvecribcKi no cpcci^ mosiTfi 
pow«ir. Thoro was aUo i; luter statute nDthorkuig the tiee of 
fllQctrio motors with the consent of tb« common council, a&d 
this conaeDt had b^n f^ven by a rosoltttioa authodriag the 
flTcction of poles along tho curb line of certain itreets and along 
the middle line of tho broader streets, preccribing the cbEnusUr 
of tbo polcig and 1^ ring the locution of Uiein. 

Viin Flu^t, y. C, referring to the f;jet tliat the company wni 
orgAixir^ under ^ gt^neral statutu for tho formation of eLroct 
milway couipjiniL^ which in no wiiy ep<?cifi^] or limtt€tl the 
kind uf itiotEVtf power to \m u^^, ^id : ** Hence, under tl^e gen* 
cral grant of pow^ to ntaintain and opemto a street railway^ 
it would SQcm to be oLc;ir that a corporatioa formed under this 
statute take^, by tmctstary and unavoidable implication, a righk 
to use any forco m tbc propuUion of it« c^t$ that may ho fit 
und appropriate to that cud, and wbidi d<X4 not pr^^vgnt tliat 
part of the pablie wbiob desired to nae the street according to 
other ouEtoniary motbods from baling the fr«e und safe use 
thewot" 

Besides tho act of incorporution, he said, there was another 
statute oxprouly iiutli^nxing the use of olectncity fix & motirs 
power "xith the eons-^nt of the common councJL The ccnsoat 
had boon given by resolution, and a r«£olntioa wa$ sufflclent 
(no parci<mhiritt<idf> of giving the cocbieiitlwtngspcKnli^'d). The 
resolulion provitled for supplying the electhcity by inf-uns of 
ihepo]i3sni4i wirt-s, and in the present sbite of tbe srt^ as a[^ 
p(uir4 frofii Iht* eviilem^i% thewa uoiixLiluttT a jmrt. ot Mm best, if 
not thfl only, means by which elcclriciiy can be Kai--ic!iixsfiilly 
used for street-car propul^on; and, thconeforc, he bold the de> 
fondants had a ri^t to use the polea and wires to furnish thd 
motive power lor operating their road, lie hold, nior^xjvor, 
that they were uMd to faoilit^ttc public travel on the sUwi in 
tho cars^ and did not impcee n new burdtjn on tho land nor en- 
title tbe owner to oompongatioo. 

It la to be obtcrred that in none of these cases was the use 
of poles and wires expreealy authorized by the legislature, and 
In tome of tbe cauai ii woa not expressly meoitionod in tto 
mnniotpol ordloanee; but in all ibe wten U it luld or 



that the Authority to use tbe electric motor i» snfQcicQt author- 
ity for using thcfio rocaos of supplying elvcincity. 

$31, TJiQ «anio— Contran' dccMoti in tbo Ncv Jenv 
BQprffiiie Mjnrt.— The qac^t^oos nuscii m Iho lUlecy cn*o 
came before the Nqvt Jersoy supreme ccun in a suit on 6crti^ 
ran botwecn tjio Gsmd parties, and it tvu Uocidfld t^t tho 
oommon council lutd no power to gnini tU6 resolution sutbo^ 
!ttog tho er^ttoa of tiw polo& 3Co referonce waa madi? to tho 
opinion of tho Ttce-chAnooUoTf nor to any or tlio cusrs in otiicr 
9UUm ttbovi) citcil. Thn decision Tv;iit baaeil upon tbu oon* 
vUiKtioEi of thfl Rtatutd and upon the conclusion of tho court 
U]H>Et thnoviLlpncQAS to whulwwf intplicri] in l\w bvm '^elvotrio 
motor/"" 

Tl» conrt Assainei] it to be entirely settled tUaU mthoot the 
«uthoHtj of tho statatc, tho city oonncil bad no poorer to pe^ 
mit the olntrtiction of llie atrc^eU by tho poles, oven though 
tiie obstnicuon was incidental to the opcrjition of a street mil- 
way, iictemng to tho oridenoOt they i«j;id that it appearod 
tfatt onre operated by ^ho storfij^ battery had boen in v^ for 
trt years at the timo of tho pitflSRg:e of the ttututo, and Unit 
Ibcrcfore the i^innijwion to use oleetrie motors did oot ^ve, by 
faiptkation, the n$;hc to um poles and wires.^ The eoDclnston 
vu that the common council lia^^ no power to uulhoria^ or 
cooMat to anything more thnn thQ use of an &lei>tric motor 
f.ifi'.'rated by a siorage battery within tho C4ir), and tlmt the 
cnlin;Lnco aflvuniing, lu it did, lu ve^t in the company Che right 
{a pUre po]c« nn<l ^rin^ wlrcA in tie streets was a nullity. 

TfiecooftdisHnf^ishcd bptwci'u tht^rlortrtc nulwiLyo|>erAted 
by tho m-itrt:«uid KynUmi iind thn horm^ ruthray as de^eribed by 
Ciijuicellor Gn*n in I/oK&man v. Pat*r*mi> B*j. Co.„ itbove n>- 
(erreJ to^* and said it was only bccuuse horv? nLilvraji's made 
no ob»trni!tion in Um- Htreebt that tbey were considered in that 
cue a* being only a modilic&tion of the ordinary nso of the 

>ll BfqicanMl In tbA oum ihatUie IvTFijHt^ni wturljiw tho wIdIm- or 



w foQf »ra ia Europe Wow >SUt«jOi*«apro«-.»-TwDto^Mid 

IM aB4 ihnt tti* fln« cor wu 3Utv?. tUWy pruK, v. >Vw^(tL M K. 

Wo«ifit U> Ukta eeofttr; in October X Xa^.^X \^. l&X.<MAvJorLnini 

<l Ih4t ]'(ikr- Tl)«r4 wM ebo prvof 31 nail 1-^. «^itlk doEo ttutm^ thtt avl- 

on^Uipalol tlMl Av« inUroads la thi« dcncc*nd<]ttiD2Cuc& 

«QBBii7 v*n opontttd bf ih« tnl* >gD; IT N.J. E(|,7& 



S6 



Bucaruio W1RK3 IX flTK&ETS A^fD sioawxYd. 



[gSJ- 



stTo<)U for veJifclea; but poles and wires the cy>itrt held to be 
sDoh obstnictiona ba chsnged the character of Ui^ usa of bbc 
sIpod^ and could only ha pormitfrd hy fha cWrmt nx|WiR«noii 
of 1«g[B]ative iiitetit. Tie c^ourt exprett^ly said that iU conda* 
«ion rcstod opoa the intcnbion of the jcgifllaturo, as cxprcond 
in the act, and declined U> e^prc^ an opinion on the question 
irhether tbo rights of the ownera of abuttinj* I^nd were af- 
fectod. This decision was followed in the supremo court in a 
cuHO decided at tlie Febraarj teno, IS04.* 

S 33. The aame— Later eases in New Jerspy.— In » latot 
ofwe,' however^ the Buprom£» court ileoidod that wlien the poJea 
and mr^ are duly autbomed by the lef^idlatnre, tho electric 
railway does net %<» ehan^ the charaoter of tho use of tbo 
■treet aa to impose a new burden upon the land; but there 
has been no express reversal or modification of the opinion of 
that oonrt thiit an or(Unn,n(!o p^^nnittlrg Ihn tiNO of polea and 
wtres ia not Justified by a utaLute mert^ly authon/.ing the nso 
of eTectnc motorSf wittiout specifying tho overbcud systom of 
»upi>lyiiig (?lwitncity. 

TUa matter ia noir settled by a statute which declares that 
mnnioipol ooneent to the operation of a street railway by elco- 
trlc motors shall be deemed to include tho nae of polca and 
wir«s ncd other np pi mnccfl.^ 

Tho court of chancery has apprOTCd and followed tho decision 
of Vioe-Chancellor Van Flcwt in the UaUay ease. It waa fol- 
lowed by the chancellor in NoveQit>er, IS^I, in an unreported 
CMO,* and in 1!}93 the whole aubject was thoroughly con«id«red 
by VicMJbancoUor Green in /'oto'^Ort JRj/. Co. v. Grund^^ Tho 
company wa» authorhed by its charier granted in 1883 to uso 
▼ohLolea to ba opemted by such motive power ss it might deem 
proper. In 1S6$ the municipaliLy :?uiisenU!d to hiying raila in 



^Lenri* T. Pre«lioM»r9 of Oambct- 
LuhI CgchXS' V^a.S.l- 41& 

t KonfwUy ▼. Ji*n«5 C\\j, QT NL J. 
Law,d»e, »0 Aa R^k GSL 

«J«tMr city & B«iTc«a St H;r- 
Cow T, Jin*J CiCj. An erd«r waa 
wm^ TostnktDtckx %nr iot«rforei»M 
wlUi Uie cx<ii£fUucCkiu of m boo of 
pola* and wires to vblub U)« oocaavnb 



of tbo eonunen cooncll bftd b«a 
giTOD uDilvr tb»actof ISMabciPs r» 
f«rrBd ta Th* cbanr^lor nUowvd 
prooCt to b* pfoduc4>i C4> tHdw tfaat 
tba looJa of (WsainicUou of Uiia pai^ 
ticnlai' Utw KM d8nj:ereu^ bat ex- 
elndod aU oHd«ae« liinotod ftffaip** 
t^ MO of tbe overhead c^vtcot aa 
iadk 



wi ncBiiaiti— LK0i»t^7iYg Ann iiuK>cn<Au 



2T 



U forftliort« nutroa(l,ftniJ theliBOwas buHtandopor^ 
Afterwards the ai^t of l$S6, abora reft^rTx^l u>, gnro 
railway compaQieA permisMon to use electnc motors with 
the oovsnnt of ihts ciommon i:oiifictl. Oons^rt wa« gi¥»n by 
Dffdinance to the tiae of ituch luoLors \piUi [hiIi-h ahiI i^WLrio 
trirca The xicc-ctaJicellor held that the chartor of ihe com- 
[lany mud tho Act of 13S6 Tirete sufficient to ntitboriz« iho ordi- 
bu>c«. Uq sftid tho cbarter g».ve the right lo Qsd any modvo 
power tbo compaDy mighbdoom oxpcdicnt, and that tUxiB right 
VBs Umit^d only by the controlling ruk thnt tho tQcune ftdo)>ti>cl 
laast not obstroct tbo pabUc use of tho atri?«t id the acouslomod 
mumer, and that tho right of the compony iiadcr tho act ol 
1866 to D30 electric moton and tho proper oooosforiei thoreto 
msM Bflttied, 80 far as t^ rocord was cooceroddf by the decision 
ia Jt^Ue^ V. Bapid Trantii St^ H^. G>. Tlio vl«w« of tho vioo- 
ohnnoelior tn that case, he said, were sustained in a larp:e num- 
ber of cas>e8, and be rofomed to the authorities citod in this 
dnpt«r and chapCur X of this book. 

% t\. Th« s^m^ — Dpri>i]oii of tli^ court of appeals of N^w 
TorL. — Afti^rllm dncTision nf tlir Kiipmnir) court of Nvwr J^rwy 
in 0nMn V. Trtnlrm^ the? qEicHljoiL laiit^ btrfort! the c»3Urt of ftp* 
ptaht of New York,' whether the ri^ht to use electric power 
br meana of poles &d(] wires iVris impiioil in the cb&rtor of a 
Lone railroad company granted in ISC2. The charter gavo 
Ifae company pcnniaion to nsc "the power of horses, aninmla 
or any moclLankal or other power or the combination of them 
which tho company may choose to employ, except the forco 
sf iteaaa.'* Tho oonrt said tho choioo of motive po^'er iras not 
bdled oiprasly, except by the exclusion of steam, and was 
Bot limited impliedly except to exclude tnch as in its nature or 
Wde of appikatloa woold bo a publle nuisance or render clio 
piB^gn of th« streets unsafe for traTelera< The use of the 
ia^a trolley eystem, the court said^ was found by tlie refor<»e 
kot to be dangeronSf nor in any degree a. public nuiuatice. The 
set of ISftS could not be liinitecl to such mctlioda of operating 
Unel snrfajre niilroads in citiv« ^ hitd tlien lirrrn iiiTenUK) and 
TSfo thrn in iiclual un. The lan^na^ of the statulo InoJudeH 

l*ynaiS2. S. T 9Y\, 3? K. EL rtep 14a « Am. 

T^rapUw & Ky> Co^ 1» >:a* 



9S 



KLWTmC n'lltlK l» GTttECT9 AXD ■lOPVlTt. 



:% 



tmdisocwered as woU &s ousting modMof operation, ami it mi 
be presumed tlmt gt-nonU I^r^iaibtiva enaotmcDU Are nimiirut 
of tbe grovrth and increasm^ seeds of aociotr, and tbe g«)iieral 
lugaogG of thU Btatuto mtiAt not bo construed so as to confini 
tbe aelection of tin; niotiv« power to euch as had tbcn been dh 
oorerdd. It waa held that tho company wu lawfully atiUio>-] 
itcd to u^ tJio ^7i^cs ucd tbo E^lootric current, and tUut ai 
injuDcUoTi ahould not bo issaed against tb in favor of a tele-| 
pjione company having wires m tbo aamo streets and ollogini 
that iU current was Imorferotl wUU by iiiv tnoro powerful cui^j 
rent u&ed to propel the street cart. In a recent case in Nevn 
York' it w:is h«ld that on A ehango of mottvo power froi 
hoi^os to tbe nnderj*round electric eorrent it could not be ni 
e^sHrity inferred thsLt there oould be a permanent obstmctioa^ 
of 1\k\ «tn^<L ifr ;in ^xduKivi? iipjinijmtttlnji tif a ^mrtior »f it tOi 
other tlian cnatomary strt^et uatsi, aud that that would depeoi 
upon tlio speed &nd frec|ucncy witb which tho care wcro ruijj 
but tbab the legislative graot of tfie right to cprrnto a strcetj 
railroad by atcam, aniinal or mechanical power in If ow York] 
city did not antQcrizo tbo o^iien of the froinchlso to chang^j 
tbe motive poirer wltliout the consent of tbe railroad comaiit*' 
Bioncra or the property owncra. 

$ Vo. The Slime— DeclslODB In Marylan<l.—Tho court of op-j 
pcbta of i^Iaryland, in January, l^\% had before Iboin " the <iuoa>j 
tioa aa to tbo power on the ixirt of tbe city authorities to ponmitf 
Uw n*o of dootrioily for propelling «treHcarf," Tbvy estld: 
■*ThJs question comes before ns for the Jlrst time, hut it has beeb! 
fully considered by tbeiugh«stcourUcf otlLergtate«,iuid tb< 
COurt>^ tvitbout a single exocption, hav^e held it to be a Ic^l 
mate use for this purposi.^-"' nnd it wasc^widcd that since the] 
atatuto (Act of X^'O, rlr ftTd) wiifi^rnsl on tbo ntiiyur and 
council fail poucr to iEaU;orii:a ibe uaa of elevimtby, the] 
plaiuLifF had no cause to compkm of tho oleetric niilway as 
now st'r\'itud« on abuilin;;r lunJ, Tbo Une iva» to b& o| 
by the ovvrhead trolley ay^teiu, and it a^ins to have bcun 
aumed without diacuflsion timt under an act posncd in 1^74 



SoMnrl Bt iiir. Ry. CiX, 47 K Y. 
8upp. m f tsO0l. 
* Kodt T. 2foslH AT«aue Bji Ook, 7S 



M4, Sn &> AU. Ibpp 46a i An, BL 

llAlwy'H C-»v\ WiLtmaiiT Qu% 
Lockliftft'* 0m4 oit«i] ia ok X, 



5 96] 



mA?(CB»£8 — LfioietATiTB ASfi uuvrcirAE* 



£9 



gtTing the city povrer to ^tbonzc the uw* of electridty, it wa» 
«ompet«nb for tbu city to grtnt pcrmisBion to put up poles Jtnd 
wires; but thccoDstructictiof andovutt^droad bctog forbidden 
bj statuto, i^ ^as bold that sncb a fitmcture conid not be au* 
tboritod by tbo municipohtj. Tbia decision vnm followed by 
tlio flami> court in January, ISIH,^ and it wils held tlmt tinder 
tbo cih4rt«T o* & turnpike company, pafi&ed m ISyO, giving the 
rigbt to i^y milrodul tncks and to use ** any Tnotivo power or 
9yttam of trai^tion," tlie company was authorbed to use elcO' 
tridty, and to piit ap poles nnd wire^ for that purpose. 

{26. lliesHme — Decbfona In other Ktalei. — Thct suprctno 
court of Utah as early as April, 1^1,' decided tbaU under a 
MtiitQUf r^rorr^ng to steam and hon;>.^ railroail&f tho right of ecni- 
nent dumitin might Ijet rxtrrcitMHl im )H.Jt:df of ulrctriu nilwny^ 
udtfa&t^altbocigb a common council could not, ivithoQth|HNual 
Iqpdative authnnty, prnuit n Ntr»iii niilway to bo laid and 
operated In a city fttn^t, yet, by virtue of it^ giMienil i:<mtrol 
o«r the streetfl^ it could girc permission for the operation of a 
■treet milway in >aoli a manntT us not to interfere mth ordl- 
Dtiy truTel,&&d that such an oniinance referring to an elcotno 
railway, and permitting the u^o of poles and wires, was not 
latslid- 

In a case in the Philadelphia court of common pleas,* it was 
bdd that under a statuto pEkssod in iS$9, nuthort3:ini? tbc use of 
aay uoUto power '* other than locomotive,'* it wan liiwful for 
a eocnpany organized " to use and build a road to be operated 
by borvo, cnbie, or electrical power," to (^nvtmct the oi~crhcad 
i^nem of pol« and electric wires, with the conaeut of the 
aonicipal authorities And in nrmhor cavo* the EQim«i court 
mmI tliAt ibis act, thoiigb hnuif-I^ rxpi'imitd, wo[iM Ik- ifiniKlriieit 
ashicluilingerery prvsw?nt known poi^-eroflocomoUon except 
Haam, and therefor*) vroidd be tnkin to ntittiori^cc tlw uso o( 
akrtricity. 

Ittit where tUo charter pare no power, either expressly or 
by tmplioationt to put np poks And wircSt it yvcn lield that the 



Ck, 7ft Ut SH t8 AU i:*l*- ^^ < 

Aaikiactesoa 



» Tax r. Cothcrino A B. St. Ry. Co>, 
t Pn. DUt.i:oFiC07.4Aiii.£3oo.Cte 

tGUIoCtQ V. CboMtar ft 11 fty. On, 
£ PIL DL«L B«^ 4SQ, i Asl EL Cte 



90 



ixrasic wiRca 19; smxrr^ ucc» oicowats. 



[8s«- 



Domfuny cannot a<lopt thU method Q¥ca with mtmlcipiLl con 

. And m later cases the sapr&me court of Fonnsylraoia said 
it hAd not yot been docidod by tbcvt court " whotbcr a |M«oa< 
l*ier railway incorpomto^i vrith authority to xutts only bono power 
for the tr&ctioa o£ ita cars ca,Q be converted into ac eloctru 
railway oompftity by th<* action 0/ tlio mutiicipwl ftaiboritiet,'* 
an<i also that it w&» clear ibat a oompany chartered sinoe th« 
pn^Mi^nt constitution (1J*T4) could not, of its own authority, 
make any c]ung4» at lu moLiv<> power wbleh would increajft 
tho servitude upon the strict without the ntuiUGijMl conaentk 

Rut it wiw litiUI tfiAt a »t^litt<? Huthon/ing th(» munit^ipBlUy 
to provide for a cLan;|fe of uiittivQ [ww^r itt not loiytl or HjitM^iaJ, 
becnuso this aubjcct is 000 witbin tho proTincc of nmnicipaL 
l«palation. It nfrr^ to the regulation and not the authoiiu* 
tion of street lailroaUs,' 

In G^orgJiif wfacro a company yruB authorised by its otuu^ 
tor to construct a hue bt^tween two caw»^ and along or upon, 
any streets or high ways which the railroad &liould intersect or 
touoh, it wM held that with tlio consent of tho city of M ocoa 
(which po0oaatid the ordinary municipal powers over Birc^^fl 
t3i9 company had the right to constnict ita main line loqP 
tndiaaUy on ihe streets of tho etty for the uite of electric cars 
for the carriage of passengere.' The court said: "The oper- 
ation of the line by steam, in tho str<tcts of tiie city, might re- 
qiiiryimorvexplicltlegHtativs authority, but common expeH«ao« 
and every-duy obsL^rVBlion show beyond qutwlion that there ia 
a wido diffi^?nco tielw^i^u traiiu of mn dninrn by l^icotnotives, 
of which steam is the motive power, nni) the onliuary nh^tric 
jnaoeager car^ which is now in common ueo throughout the 
length nnd breadth of the land. In the one inst&noo the street 
may very properly bo said to bo burdened with an additional 



■IVatklni r. Waa PhlU. Ftam Bf. 
Co., 1 Ptk Dii^L Rop. 403: lUiMS v; 
Tiivi:itj-&900od Bl ^ A. At& Pa^ 
Ry, Ca. I FHb DUL B»CL KA 4 Am. 
£LClai.42. 

■Bmttw t, FIiUa. Jnctkn Co., ISl 
FlR.dMCR;FHtr.T.CrfoPMLR^Ooi. 
KO Pa. JiC 4T£; PolUit T. 8i3nuitna 

Tn0UonCEx,i7ai^ei&m-ars. hh 



lUiuFarTAU V. WlmihMt*r Ate^ R Co-, 
01 Conn. IK SI Aa K4T(x 747, 3 Aa. 
EL€b&aS; IVi««U v,3Cmx>ei & L& 

R. Ox. as a& siNi IT a & Re^ Ida? 

■PoirtQ T. Uacev db lodlsoft 
Spdiifi R R Co. at Ob, 801^ llfLTSL 
Re[i ian,4AED,ELCte4iltW^ 



97, S8,] tSAieCHtSCS -» LB0fSLJ.TT7S AJn> UTNICJPAU 



31 



Mrrimdd c&tinly iaooa^idtoQt ivith tho frc6 coo of the same 
by tfao poblio; ia the othor this reasoain^, in tbe light of ex- 
porioQOOt wouW sot npUy apply."* 

g ^7. Concluftfotis irjth r«*tpect to the clectrk raltiffty, — 
la vievr of tUu g^n^ral ccnooireaoo of judicial opinion, it may 
be lalil tbat ii ift Dovr well «%Ct1cd thut vrhen the lei^iaUtore has 
aothorued the tua of the sireecs of a c£ty for fttro«t f&tlwajs, 
to bo opcntml hy doctric motors, the city aathoriti^d liavo 
power to give pennlmian Lo m^L up i^tAtis ami wirvs for the pur- 
pose of supplying tbe electric current; arul ©Tea though oleo* 
tricity is Dut rxpimly mentiotitjd, yet if tbe power oonf erred 
by Uie l^isljUurv Is hnmd vtnm^h to inoloilu tbU kind of 
uotire power, then the city, under iu gi^uerrtJ iuilhority to 
regulate tbe use of the streets, has power to give pemiifiston to 
pot up poles and wires reJAonably m^t^eaaary for thu o|>cratioa 
of tbe street cars by clecuicity. The electric ritilw^y being 
operated for the same purposes as a horse railvay, and subject 
lo tbe same oonditioos vlth respect to the usq of iho iitn^cU by 
rehiolee in geuoTAlt Biakee a Intimate uao o£ the strocu, and 
it tbe operation of snob n railway is aathoriied by the teginla- 
t«re, tbe tnuiuolpaUty uud^r ita ordiD^iry powers may graDt pcr- 
Bilinoa to Mt np the neci-^itry |>ole« and wires. 

% n. Power of niDQJclpalltf to authorise telegraph and 
telephone lines, — Logi^ktive sanction, either given directly 
or mitdiAtvly ooiif^*rred thn>ugh proper munici|ULl uclion, is, 
of coarse, neoi^iiary to authorize Uie use of the streets for 
tlie poles and wires of a tcldgraph or trk^phone conipuny;* 
but Ibo qu<!»tLon rromins wln^thrr, under thn |>owtir3 gennniJIy 
conferred upon city goTermuents, they have anlhority to gnint 
pomusBton to aet up telegraph and telephone lines in the streeta, 
Vlietber this oomeA withiEi the power to regulate strcelfl do* 



*Tht mfinitiui ocvurt of tho niitl«d 
8M«b Itt Cit7 Af. C<L r. C jtu«(u< R a 
Ok im IX 8. fiSr, belli dvu ft olmc^ 
tt muH9 peww trvn hon^foirar 
IOfU?t7icilr was nldlod by a sub- 

•UlUtl% VtVU if it tTM not 

tW fiovtfir nf thiA laiinlnlrAU 
ftf l9 ftulltorUtt It without tiioh ft 
It *nil Um mpprsiQ court of 
la FC4t«f T. Sd^uiluti 



Tnctioa Ca. HO Pik St S7U Bfl Aa 
Hajl IS% hold tbckt tho Mmtfoiit of ft 
lioroiufU would bo prsiuncd m ftu 
ftciioot for ponunkl injurlw In nn luv 
Glicrekt ocourria^ ^va jmm ftftor tho 

■ Dm. Kun. Corp, (4tb al\ $6Mt 
£ut TvntMiiiMi ToL Col V, fiOMftt^ 
-lilk^ 51 a W. Rop. UOe {Kf^ iBPftk 
See aUu g S4 of tl;« (rnv^nt daptci^ 



n 



XLKOTRIO W1»H« IV «Tia»TS AVTt niGnnTATS. 



re 



pi*[i(U ft ^oil 0«il on wrhoUicr tho us© of th« strouU for uAi 
graph find tol^jilione purpose* fsa proper dtroet use or not, ai 
thiE cjupstion will ba discussed in tliB chapter on the Klgfita 
AbuUiog OivncrK witli nwp^rrt to ilin l4«1<^gniph iind ti<1rphoni 
It has been he\^ in many i(tat»< that thiestts 1m«^ are a no\r 
of the £trcotfi, &nd imposo an additional burden on the lam 
and if this is so it would rcqaire special legislnti^'d Sfmctii 
to juatify their confitruction, in New Jereoy, TFhcre the 
scQt of the hmd-oiv^rkcr to tbo erection of the polce is rcquii 
hy stut^t^^ it i»i» bcon hpM timt u city luirio^ liberal nb; 
powers bas not aathority to grant a tdophone company 
right to orcotand mainbiin a liao of poles and vnrc% in 
streeta^ Mopes J-i said the logiQlature, rcprcsentioj^ the pt 
Lie, may i^striot tho public ^ise by ;^an:in^ a right to 
poles and atiwr obn^truciionfl la the struota, and may del^tl 
such atJthority to municipalities; •'but such grant of 
must phinlyaupciir ciUwr by yxpwsB grantor by neci 
lm|J!caUon." 

In a cas.Q in Vissouri,* where \he telegraph is held to be 
pmp^tr ii?;ij rif tlio sl.r«rit| \s\rgi'. povrt^as hjul \}<Myi\ gmilcd to 
city of BL I.oum, and no r^ut^tion waa nuule ai» to Jta potrer 
grant tha n<^ht to construct the line of t«legrapfa> The 
Haid that the jiowcr of tho city of St* Louis to rcgulato stri 
extobds to nevuflea as they spring into existence from time 
Umot u ^<^ D£ to old ones in 090 at the time of tbe grant 
tbe power, and that t^ telephone was one of sneh nscs, Oj 
of tbo porposes of a stroet, tbe court said, was to facilEtal 
GOnnnnnicntion bet^roea the people, and tbe tclephoDo ao] 
this purpose while it actoaUy rdievad tho atrecte of tbo 
sago of men and veliiolew. Tho construction of tbe line 
bon-erer, in fact been antiiorized by siAtuto a< n'ell as by 01 



iCIiAffUirMlL And M« kIa ohAp- 
ten IX AikJ X, 

COl V, XAwnHr. 411 ». J, U AU USSTK 
S Am. JC EL Oi^ 14L 

*3I. LouU V, IkU lUopk Gc^. « 
Ifa 623; JttlU DmtjtlQfi Au'a v. Sdl 
lV«plL Ca. »» Ucx V3B. 1 Am. EL 
Oiaan. Soo QlgbU of Ahuitias 



0«-nen» TcLoj^plis %nd TcUphoi 
iitifrot obnptcr VJIL 

As l<i tbo Dflxwitr for IPVUalii 
iratbonty for untag the i»lrMU 
hl|;b vbj« tor t^kisnirh or ivk-pbi 
p^kt^ KO oUo Omuniuuwtfallh v. 
100,07 Mj»i.aM; R«GiBa t. Untl 
Kmgilfyia KXaz. T«J«^ Co, D 
Ctaa ITS l^i yeaagr.Yi 



».] 



9UJCC9IUK*— LtOUiaTITE AXD XrEflCIPAI. 



88 



oaaoo. TbU docUioo nas cited with npproral by the $npT«tno 
oourt of HonUna in May, 1^2,^ and that court luiid: ^'Wo 
thittk the nso of the street in a teasotmblo manner and to a 
MAflonabld eKtcci, for thii purpose^ is wittiin the tiscs tc which 
the street may lavrfnU? bo put, whoa such u%q ia sanctioned 1>7 
thtpoblio through its doly authorised municipal ai>enis;" and 
H VBt held that under a cliartcr &iithori:£in^ tlto council to 
lioonaet tax and regulate telephone companies, the city had 
power to giro pencisnoD to such & company to tiring vrires 
tnd flet po]44 in the streets. 

These decisions relate especially Ui privileges conferred oa 
oompaoifis constmcting linrst Tar biigin<?rBS purpow^^ btit the 
(dephone and tete^aph are liolti ti>j^ for muQicipal pQrpc}sos 
ta aid of tho firo and police departuientfl, just aa elecU*ic-Hght 
wim ore used for public lighticg; and it would seem that a 
city fcavir;» full police powers wtiuld have implied authority 
to set up telegraph polc« for such purposes, as well OS to pla^ 
firo-[4agi and Laiap-poffta in thu stix^t^.' 

$29. Fewer of the munlcfpality to aatlierize polea and 
vires for electric li^hliuc;,— Tower to light tbo streets tmd 
pobUo places is one of the ordinary powers given tomunicipali- 
tuB of every kind, and thig power involTea as a matter of coutm 
the right to set tip in tho Ktrcots such Lamp posts as may be 
foQsd oonrenient for the purpcuo, and tbe right of the mnnici* 
pality to sntborize tbe lajring of gns pipes in the streets and 
Ihtf erection of lamp posts for tho purpose of lighting ihcm has 
nerer Iteea cjueatioaed;' and when electricity wa» to besubsti* 
tatvd for gas, >t wa« mr^^ly thnt any question wns niH<l<} os to 
the right to set up an i^lrctriolight |>o1u insteaftl of a hiinji |r<wt 
for tbe gafl llgbt, nor tbe right to string the wires instead of 
laying a gas pipe. There is no difference in principlo between 
1^ two caie& The electric light may rt-quire some poka 
aonlj to carry the wires and not for the light itself, and the 



■ HI 1U. C^ 19 Hoot KSL so Pm. 
I Bi^ esa a» Am. ft Eaj& Corph Cu. 
~ VCL vitJ] nolv; 4 AttL EL Cal 73. 

■ Tvrr CMC« on tfau up^ BrAtogma 

mix. 

•Uvb' Ent DoniL, ) IS«; 3 DHL 

S 



Mtin. Corfi. AUt ed, % eUl, nolfi For 
c««M with ngud to gu pipM in 

Cc. 22 Eni:. Law ft E(|, &t8: GnU 
brt«tb V. Armour, 4 EtvH Ap^ Ou 
SS4, «nd othor cooet oitod ^roi 
oh-DCf l()e.Dot«, 



81 



t^l^lCCTKtO VrlSE» IX sriKtClCl^ A»l> UlOBtfATa. 



[MO- 



vrirGs nmy be overltead instead of atid<3rgrouii>l; but there can 
be no question that a city, or even & Tillage, baring pomtt to 
provido for the Ligbting of iU £lrodU, has llio impltoil powcrto 
set up poles and string or lay wires ia Its &trcc-U for Cbe [MN 
pose of lighting those streets by moans of eloctricity. 

Th(? only rjriPsU'in arise?; w\t^^^\ iJie Vmrj^ nn> Uy in? ush**! not 
merely for public [>iirpuses, but alsu for the? [mrpiw^ of supply- 
ing privfite buildings with liglit. Thpy are usually put op for 
this purpose an^ «rc openiUil by pm'nte coinpnii'^ for thtir 
own prallt, and it has beoa questioned wbetlti^r such franohiee 
may bo granted mthout expeas legislative authority, wi 
ir bother the fnct that the poles and wires were used for priinito 
purposes rendered them Illegal in tite absence of Icgblative fio- 
tbority, 

§ 30. The sumo — Cases,— The powers of villogo tnutoea on 
not aa great as tijoao of a city corporation, and it baa beea held 
in New York that the trustcofl of a rillago have power to ao- 
tborize the erection of poles for ligbtinj; tbo Btroot* and public 
places by uldctricfty, even if not for ligbting private buildings: 
but that the fact that a pole is ua^d for private purpo^efi also 
(Joes not justify the removal of it.' 

And in a Inter ca^e, the aopreme court, referring to thig, 
inclined to admit the power of tho niuTticip.il authorities to 
Chorize the ose of poTe'9 and wires for Ugbtiagull prlvaCd b 
which shouhl rL'tjiiirt! ther lights The court, said the owner 
the soil u;ki}^'[it have a right to compensation, but it did notfol* 
low tliat \w [iiid 4i.ny otiwr right, and «n injunction ngniiub his 
(titling duwn tbe pok'h \vn» allowed, although the poles wem 
part of a system inteoded for lighting an adjolniag riilago.* 

In another ca^, however, the superior court of New York 
made « dtatinction between the use of poles for tbe purpoee 
of Lighting the streets and tho use of them for the pnrpotfe of 
lighting private dwellings; and wht^ro the eomiuiny's cbaiter 
gave It tlie power to faraiab electric light for both purposes, 
^e cenrt held ttint it must ehow tJiat tho poto in question (ob- 
jected to by an abutting owner) was neoeasary or highly oon< 



iJohOKM V. Tltooifroi^lloutteit 

T^Ktjrki a&. U Ft&D, 4031 ? M. T. 
Scrp^ 71^ « .Ua. HL Cm. fOS (1899> 
&w also £2I»U oo EbofeOa 503^ 



>BliKtric OouCmctAon Ca v. Hc6 
rnnun ^nji Cx.\ 13 >c Y. Sop^ SMt 

G9 Uiia, 0(0 ,i^jo^ s xi& et Uib ; 



IJL] 



r&^^fOBtSBa — LEOiaL&TtT£ A»> MUNICIPAL. 



85 



T«oi«ot for tbe public an w«ll as tbc privAte ua«^ or du the 
i^jonctioQ gTBLiitcxl would bo aJlowc<! to stand.' 

In JkliMoun, where spociul |»owflr» arc gircn to tho city of 
SL Looia, It wofl held, in ISDL, that under the pow^er to reg:ulate 
tbo U90 of streets that city kftd authority to permit ^nrcd to bo 
ttmtg In tho itroeU for iJio jL*<^ni>rul inirpoiai of an clo^trio 
ItgfatJiij; companr;' and this declj^ion wm followed in Blinota 
in n caso of n villa^ having authority undor its chart«r"to 
ng^lfltti the stre^U.*** In anolhorcas^ in Illtnoiji ruLinidpal 
aatborlty akm© was held not sufficient to justify a company in 
UmnsmittiDg oloctric light powor over tho vrir^s of aoother 
eoapmy beyond the limits fixed in the charter or legislatJVd 
grant of the formor company * 

|ltK Tho sanio — Ca^p;^ In Inwa. — In a n-r^nt u&imb in the 
1TBil4-d Siatei circuit oourt in Iowa,* it became n«ctfBsary to 
decide tho question whether, by virtue of a g«^neral gnini cf 
power bo light the »trc>(?t%cittesliad authority in Io;va trogi-ant 
f^anohiseA to use the atre^ta for ^as pipes or «lectnc4ight wirL'S 
for tbo purpoaa of lighting public anti privat*^ plocea fiuch 
fnaobiflca hnd b^^n grAnt<.-d and a<:t4:d oa \rith reapeot to gaa 
pipes, and the qacetion of their legality aroae in a case relating 
to an cIoctric^ light fronchuo. The only express icgislatiTo 
power that had been given waa tliat oontainod in section iilh 
of tho code: " They (cities) shall have power to lay off, open, 
. . . eatablbh ami hght fitroi.it:«, alloys, publio grounds, 
wbarret, landing and market places" and the general power 
oonlerfed in section 4S2 to make ordinant^es for ciirrying into 



iTltTMiy V. Onllwl SUtiw lllitrnU 
HbAtf OXt it N. Y. 9up«r. iX S^ 
Ct«k t Am. EO. Cka «». 

TCow tho TcwiaportalTOD Cuwifunr 
IMS Iaw Off Nsw York, HntionvS^i.SI. 
mlhonjoi cifies^ tiUax«» nod towu» 
to ftvftl to olvcUio llfcht companioa 
tt> rff lit tc< t-ntH pilp? %Ti'} wira fn 
l^<Cr9aU for rumitbtD^ UkIiI, bMt 
■ttd pomtt to ptivotlo boQSO* a» v«U 
asfBbUo boil Jlnpk and itili has booa 
hiU to bt Dot A^aiwt fmbUo poUof, 
■kbea «D •batting ownets «luFa in 
ll« taiNrflt of iho ImprorunoDl 
vliiDh IninHi Um banfarn upaa Ibe 



trio Cd, ISS K. T- 237. as W. K nc^^ 
loa?. n>vftnlna W N. Y 3ui.p. Sa^ 6 
A(«p* niv. la 

' W»u UiituD TkiL Col r. tlneniKj 
A SoiicldN Kl. LiiE^it Ca, 4U Uo. Ap[v 

> Diok»a t. KnmntHM EL UKbtOuh, 

•Cfaioa^o -r. Ua(, Etoa L dfc R Co.. 
» 111 Apfh 1% 8m also Jachaon- 
vaio EIiK?tTl0 Light Cd T. JafikMO- 

« L«tU ^. Kfrwion {Q C SL Dl lowftX 
75 F<a fi4.p, Ctil e Am £L Ou. la 
tI83ft>. 



effect tho powers and dnticd confcrrod upon bbem» "wid moh 
Af sbflil 960ID neccasar; nnd proper to provide for the sof ct j, pro* 
6orr« tho health^ promote tba prodpesrityt tmproro Ibe monki 
order, comfort and convcntcncc of such corporadoa and tli« 
inhabitiiDtA thcroof.*^ Tlio court saultbat it hud boon docidod 
in majiy well oozistdcred caees' that the pcirer jfract«d to * 
city to light it8 Btreets not only authorliea th€ city itself to 
furnifth tho lighting, but aUo cmpowurv it to contract vtiXh 
others to do so; and it was decided that in vi&w of tho legido* 
tive and judldal acqmc>GC6iLci? In tho practice long Qstablifthod^b 
lona, hy which &i\ch frunchisi^ had Ihjoq grantod tojpa D<^^| 
puoira and watod upon^ the coort would ttot grant a preliminary 
injuacttoTL itgaiustthu urwction of pok« for electric lighting, 
even tJiough the ordiiiuuoe coiitiujitHl jirovLuuns Lbat mi^ht be 
void as gi^anting a perpetual francbiae. 

Tho orJinnn^s did mit (.^xprc-ssly purport to grant tbe use of 
the pUntfor lighting the pablio slrt^etdf and on this objectjoa 
ttting urged tbe ooorteaid: ''Wliile the cases are not anlfonn 
in their holdings, the great weight of authority »eeins to sa*> 
tain the position that ttw furoiabin^ of light to citizcoa gener- 
A.l]y is a anlUcLent public use to sustain the right to use Uie 
streets for the oporataoo of tho plant furniahinj anch lijjht;" 
and it was hold that oven if tliia were not 3c\ and thoQ^li the 
lighting of tlio streets was already provided for, thia court 
would aaaamo that this ordinaneo was Intended to inoludo the 
public purpoao necessary to make it a valid act of the mu&ioi- 
polity, 

Wfaero mnnicJpalities were pvcn by the le^^idature gencxat 
power to light the BtTiH*U and to erector auihomo the erectiOAi 
of the nocccnry plant for electric lighting, and this authori^ 
was aooompooied by a proviso that no such works should be 
erected without the approval of a mnjorlty of the ToU<rs at an 
eloctJOD, it was held in several oases in Towatbat^wlthoat such 
approval, an ordinance gr&nting a company a francblaae to nso 
the straeCs for poloa and wires for clectrio iigbting for gene^ 
puUio antl private nsea waa void-' 

iOin««an V. ChloigDh? BtaaiSe. 10V7;UClit»v.Davwipd«tU1i 

fUC^I?o.5SU;K*irpoiiT.K(Hr- 31*: Davwtpotl r. E<jLk7,7 
pxt Lixbi OEwdiKy. t17: 8§maoor Ihasoiiv.Wui. JLHtialerEI 

Th Aa4r«w,83lowi,li,47X.W.E£«fk Uglit CC^ 6S low*, 72% ^ X W. 




33, SS.] nU3GCfllSl»— LKOIgLATlTC AVD UU!<1U!l'^U 



3T 



§32. Povorornniilclpalitj to orcctUs own electric l%lit- 
bf plant.— TbG po^orof niuaicipalitieftU>oivcteI«otHa light 
pUats of tboir ova has been <ti&ctis&«d a good doal in recest 
eaiet. It tevolves tbo qu««tton of the tu« of th^ fttn.'Ots for 
doctrio wires, bat it depends apoD tte local atatutes; aod&dia- 
covion o( pnocJplQS mvolvwl belongs to the topic of momci- 
fa} oorporatiotu, and wu will only give itjfer&acDs to some of 
tliA later caaeaL^ 

$S3, Oor^min^prfncipTein oil tlac^^coMeK. — WithreEpect 
totho (»u of Uic s^rcut for clcctrio vrirtrs of every kind, tho gov- 
trmng printiipli^ woold aaam to he, thjit uiunicniKU corpomtiona 
ctanot grant exciusiv e privileges, cannot divert the atnwt from 
!u proper wos t9 a atrc«t, and cannot tuko priratc propcrtyi 
wbelbcr iacofporeial or tangible; but tht^y Lave the povrer to 
rognlate tbo a» of tbo street and to determine in the first in- 
sfauioc, at least, vrbether or not anything is an obstruction to 
the pnbUo oae of ih<i street There ard many purpcace of a 
pvblio aatitre for vrbioh strcete have been employed by cus- 
tom, which are in no wayconneoted with public traveL They 
haro been used for sewers, gas pipes and water pipea. Tbey 
haro boen incumbered with lamp poets, awnin;^ and hiteh- 
h^ pofta. Tboy are oonvcnion t avenues for distributing vrator, 
li^t, beat) power and otber tbings of genera] necessity or con- 
venieooo.' If, therefore, tbu uj;ii of vli-ctxic wirr*, whiitiicrov^r 
tJie street or underground, for any particular purjkoae, does servo 
apurpoee for wbicb streets are ordinarily oscd^ docs not involvo 



IM (IWh S) ^^ W. Vtep, SI n803li 

lEaoluk r. Ft. WayM El«atric Ccv, 

M Sam, 07. 37 V. W. Bcp. AH Ll^M k 

iCmvfor^bvtlUv. BimdaB, ISO Tad. 

m^ w. twbodx, 1&3 uak ltd. :^ 
OmsTfUa tt a a t n a E& R»p. 

«M nf**i^>: Thncuoa-HomUm E^teo- 
IrtaUjihtCa V, ff«wton(UaCa 
li>««X C9 r«L R«fL 7S3, S Am. O. Cm. 

«:(i«M>; Howoii V. Maitii^f^ea:?. 

J. L. n so AIL iti^ e»|; r^evU r. 
5««l«a. TS Fed. R«Tib 0H as r«L bp. 

iM; a«iUcb*tT. oirphMitr^ s^p^ 

OL, t<«7i tf7 aU. BeiL SUj MitoheU 



V. N«fcaunML SIR Mioh. S»0^ 71 N, W. 
Jie^t^i 3hfiffl«Ld COFTb -r. Bhe(fi«Id 
Bloctrio LiicLt Gu flSOdb 1 Ch. S03; 

JacknoiiTi7L(\ GO Flo. ^^, Ifl S. tE«p. 
077; Cilia wood w. Jloa^batK. 01 l^fek 
ISI, Gl N. W. R<^p^ 8rVl: IIilIj/ilc v. 
Lordly. aO lAui. Sup. CL Rffp- W5; 

beato r. woiitiLiii^toii. US n. a e^ 9D 

a IL B«^ S«l: Ibeno Wftter, Land A 
Lighi CCh V. Oiboni. M Pnc 1U|x MA 

■900^ tiowoTor. a ijis(.^ui«k)a otihtt 

-1ji«1ttnuhlA ITrh nf 8lnwtK, RaII- 
roftJa And Kl»ctrlc Wirva." by J^aho 
L^wii, a Aju, K. & A Corjk bt^ wa 



dft 



ELECTBIO WtaU IK fflBEETS Ain> UIQUWAVS. 



[8M. 



B,a exclusive fmncliije. &nd dopis not AfTmrt priT»t«i ri^bu is 
the fLdjaiaiiig 1imds> and does not (tlKtnu-'t |»u\>IIc travel, IB onj 
finch case it would &eem th^t a mitnu-tjinl rorpomtiuu tuiglit, 
under lU implied powers, give authority to use the streiet for 
dec trio wires, 

§ W. The paramonnt aathority is In the le^hlature,— Th* 
eubjoct. howerer, belongs, aa I have said, more eai«:cialiy to 
the lawof municipal corpora tlotis and ciunici pal franchises; and 
without discnaaing it any further, I wiahonly toemphasixc tbo 
fiwl that the power over the streets belongs to the le^&laturoand 
not to the municipality. The legislature alone hae the power 
to divert them from their ordinary usca, or to limit or extend 
the uses to vrhioh they may bo put. The streets, as Judj^o 
Uillon aaye, **do not belong to the cdty or town within whiOiEt 
tfaey are situnted, even although aoquircd by the cxeroido of 
eminent domain and the duma^'i h ]mid out of the eorporatioi 
treasury. The ftiithority of municipalities over streets, they 
derive, as they derive all their other |>owcrB, from the logblft* 
ture — from chanop or stalnte.'' * 

It is alao important to bear in mind that^sofaraa therif^te 
of the public are ecnoemed. the power of the lof^islatnro over 
the Btreetfi is absolute. Subject only to making con>pcnfialion 
for injury to private property, — that le. to land or to rights in 
or relating to land, — the legislatuitr, representing the public, 
has absolute power to dispose of the public rights in the atieeta* 
3tmay release the public right* eiUier wholly or pirtinlly; jt 
msiy vacate the street entirelyf or authorise it to be used wholly 
or parti&lly for a railrond or telegmph or any other purpose. 
It is only with respwt to tlie private rights of owners of land 
nlong tliH Btreut that any i|Ur-stiou can aria? w^th regurd to tlie 
authority of the legislature, or the municipality daly antho^ 
i7JC*l by thr li-gi.<hiture, to cluuige the uses of u ntn-et or divert 
aay part of it from the purposes of public travel lo any other 
purpose. All these qncstions witb regard to the diversiOD of 



IS Via Uun. Corp. [4th »d.^ | tm, 

Apiml 115 Pn. 5u AU; Oom oTthe 
PhUBwATirvDtonE. It.Ci&,a WliorL 

■ibitfL: Dili GUI MitiL Cerjw ^ 05T; 



tr«wark. 40 N. J, L. St4-S40. It ma? 
Itnut tltfi right U» n.iT'rtl.riiL.^L b atrs^t 
ruiiwikv In » «lrp«l wittaout tb« c«a< 
fr^iit cf Olc municipality. Chi^nf^o v. 
liliuijb 9U«1 Co, W m Ap|K QdL 



5M.] 



FBAKCDISEt — LXOIfLATTVt A3GD UCMCtTAU 



39 



the fitro«t8 from tbeir ordittary b«* will bo conaiHonsl fa deal- 
ing with tho rig^hts of tbo o^vaors of atuttin^ lands, aixl wiih 
tfad qnosdOD wbotlior elcdrio i^irOB of various kinde tn&y be 
pat op in tbe etreoie irUbout tnitkan^ compel nsiiUon.' 

S S5. Aiitltoritj^ ^^rsoiui^ kind U ri*quired for vpecEal u&^n 
4>f the )ctr«6t, eten though they ar^^ jiroper street imeti. — It 
haflbeenargned tbittif ;heU8(.><jf ilm win.jsur mis vr uny»tioh 
tiColKirive Qso is H {)n>[M^r mi^ of tbtt iigUvvuy, no unlhorJly of 
iny kind Is requinwl, btt-aiwe liie highway in open to any one 
who wishes to use itasa tij^'tiway; aj|dhQnc4»itisinsirt«d that, 
it legUla-tdro autltorrty t* rnjiitml forany parliciildT use of tho 
highwjky. Uiis i» enouj^li lo prove that it is not a proper use of 
ibo bigfairay, bat a new use, for which coEnpcnsation must be 
made to the abutting ow&er.^ It may wi;U bc,% however, that 
Ui« Icgbiature has a right to diatributo the apaco ' occupied by 



Ovtton — - T<Jc<^:npb ^ai Tt^IcpJioa*, 
EI«ctdoLig1il.E1cctric IUilwfej,at«k 

qaote<l bobw, ch. VI, £ ft. la Loqo> 
^a r. I^aj«Uo dU Ky. O^. cirx^ult 
tt»n at lATayotuv Ind^ July 0, ir^OO, 
LaAjidoB, J., saof*; "TIm um of & 
■met hiu» uie«»a»puhlki awda bavo 
nqvirad, KUhdlvMadp and fMrtlcttlar 
portioM of pnblio oi^ bar* Um r«- 
«triotod to otftais d«AQi*d limits in 
Um atiwC n« i1h3 nideviUki arc d<^ 
vdUd to foot pMBtDgarit uid tiio 
tafkiumJkto ^laeoi loaiumaU *ohi' 
rlM_>iw1othnr uMik ThoKrcAtcruiij 
tmtm OOmpAftI Ui» Uv« b>xvimr. thci 
fafifiMHOttmni to foinBar um* b^ 
oooia Kraalvf nod i»o«v doliiiotL It 
t> ODCi tbm, «v«r7 iik'^xivpnlfiaofv hn- 
pOnoaat or curUl1m*st of lti« ciW' 
%am^ry aoooioowJfitioAa of tnjoy^ 
Manit ol iba c<neiml pubfio, or tho 
«b«tCar, tb«t will miflkv lo coasti- 
Mo a leRALly ftppf<e<*i4blo ileprir^ 
Ikn of a ruEht of cithct^ To tleUr- 
flUaa wlivliwr a tiw of a stiivt b 
vtthool tho orgicAl puUltr isiw- 
H k i)uil« plain t)%»t Ihc U- 
iftftlaDOi oouiplaliuMl of utust bv 



tantamount to a mbsiantjal hnrttixv 
moat of tho putilic utv; in oilt«r 
vrordflt that tho vuo of the streol la 
JcftCj&yud Of cfuivcTtctl iJito » a«w 
nso. yutT«Aire of iXs onginaJ por^ 

For a <l«tAil«pd >tAtoin«&t of tho 
Ia VH of Fill tha aUiM with mqwrt to 
rnjio)ii#4fl for tho tuto of tb« fitrmtiL 

ReludHifttt ritftfrptmitrd Oo^ajHiait* 
OpfrrtUng Under Munu^jj<il iVan^ 
chuf*. by Allen R Foot^ and o^lilisl 
by ChaJrl» E EiTtrrtt iRobrrt Cktko 
4t Co., Cln4<liiii&tl. 18UJJ> Tho ut> 
count of the stAtutos Knd doouions 
of cnch KUil« iw [ETi-pared by aa at- 
tnrnoyin ihftt tuu*. mud, hflTtcg my- 
mU had A tUDd la pf«^afing tho 
I^nv Joncy McUoQ. I know tb^t it 
b (00 mur-b to utt^impl lo dbuun 
th« 4lAt»t4a of ftU tha iht«1d4 In tho 

prataat bookon Elooirio WirM. Stv 
hIso d^itucnoa'a Corpunidon Lr^at 
^amitU for tho rum<nl yvur, edjit^ 
by CbftriM I. Bomm^yv* ^od po^ 
bated ftt riaiofi«I<a. Ke^ JcrMj< 

In Ormt BntAin tti« ttH of tba 
*trtot« t<a oloctnc h^lhttci^, for i^\t^ 
grnph end tcloplioc^ linm oa4 fof 
»Lr«ol railwuyviaoArufuIlyRitfubled 



« 



m^sjcriuo ytxuvs nr irrsrKTd Atext sionwirsL 



[§35. 



a street and ^ppropriiiU) tho 867dral [larts to viiriGna uses, anil 
ytl %h%t individnaliA ciuuld not do tliiv vrLiliuut Icgt«UtJvo mno- 
tioa. If tliere are various public iiaefl to which streets are of* 
diiunly put, the publm uuth(>riti<^s jnny provido for them ftll^ 
i9ome to be fixeroised in. oiLe purt und some in ajioLhor, so tbal 
altogetLer tliey sliaU serve all Um purjiosa* for which the 
street ia required; aad yot^ without this prorision, no poiBoa 
would have the right to reserve to one Epecial usn tuiy part of 
the spacfi dcTotwl to the general nao of a alre-et. 

However this may be, and whatever the effect of tho dcoiv- 
ion upon the f^uestLoa of oomptaaatien to odjoiQing owners, it 
appoora to be woU sctttod that no fraochiae or privilege for arty 
speoial use of tbe streets can be obtained without tho pcrmi*- 
sioii of the public authorities; aad there are no eases in whioh 
it is held that poles and wires for the telegraph, the olootiin 
light or the eleotno railway may be set up in the street* with- 
out authority of some kind. 



bj etatuUk No ptTvoa or corporn- 

iioa ie p»rDUi(«d to itto the »ln»^ 
for such purpofloa witbout authority, 
^d the ftuthorltf U ooaforrod by 

flrmnil liy purLlnmaat or by tp^oUl 
act ConaftQb ot tb^ Jo«kI fluUitu-lIIm 
to uaeally lequit^ttd and ml«a «iLd 
temilatloiw are made by th« hnnriX 
of tnutor Slre«t I«flwiky4 jkr« o^o. 
etructotl 111144^ tb« lV«aifvajs Aot^ 
IBTIX Elieotric Iii£htiaic is KOtoruoJ 
fcy tbo Elivrtrlo T>l;rtHmK Ac**, l»*4« 
end ]dS& Tho Jiao *:<f th« Estroob Tor 
Col«gnpb liiwa (fonaerlj oponit«d 



by oompv^csta bnC now by th« poot- 
mmtur-goaerml) U n^ulvcad by bbe 
Telegraph Act* Of IWS, 1970; !«&, 
l&Oe. Somo acceuAt of tfaeae ttat- 
uC««ftDil tli« dvcbtona (livnwa im&y 
bA fixind In UiA Kncryelnp^dlA at U» 
Lttwv cr Kngluad, «ub^itl« HXm- 
trie LiQhtin^, f>:kgnipf'*, 7VcifniDaf» 
Thi4MCtttlb«miHliT«aracul]M7ted ia 
Chltty't £asU)ih SUtoU* (od ISM), 
TclfriftQiita. Tb«naoMreouitbeeki 
on the ElvclHo LlfbtiDC AcU V9 
CDnyDit>ijLTO«v I Ws Bow«r ft W«btw 
1800; and Wilt, 180& 



OUAPTEB m 

MUNICIPAL CONTROU 



C05BC7T or LOCAL AUTHOBmSS — OOHDlTlOItA AlH) BTOOUinOTra. 

S 86. GrautB aro nflaallf mode subject to con^^cnt or con- 
trol of local lutlicrUleB,— Tho lr^jjinl:itiirc hiiF.jttf Umvi^wiid, 
tho powCT to gTAut lo individuals or oorpomtions the ri^ht to 
^itciaJ pn7]L«gQ8 with r^poct to tbo us& of tho atr«<dU, lim- 
iting or modifying tho gencnil pablie use. £uch priviJogeit ara 
only granted for p-jbllo Daes, and in many of the states they 
aan b« conftTr^l thinly l#y gun^nii 1uh-m upuu Ujc^u wHq comply 
with llio eoadiUooa prescribed. 

The Bt&tnLes granUDg auch privileges csually mako tbeni 
nbjoct to iho consf^ot^ or at least to the siiiit-rvJsioE), of the 
local authorittes. In aoroe atatea tbero are boards of com- 
maBionerA to whom sacb matt&rs arc referred i in others, tbo 
i)[Qeaiion of tbo propriety of allowing certain francbiscs is rfr 
f«md bo the probjitd court, which beara evidence and decides 
to A oortain extent judLoiallyJ More commonly, the rcgtUa- 



i|QOIilckCoraTafnp1a<nniiH' Upx. 

Ibt BicdQ of UAO of itrools ■hall bo 
wcJi avrfuU b»ai|fr««(l uponlMtwimTi 
th« ttigaiotptJ auUioTLtloi And tba 
fJUJiph caMfmy, And Ifaat if ihoy 
OUDOC aci^Mw44d if ttj«f uUinuKHi- 
ahlj ditbif tA PAtAF upon an ftgrnb 
ttMit DCifti«t th» JBds* of tbo prutau* 

Mwt of Um oovair shftU dirvol ia 
what noila th« telegraph Una tHoM 
I* «onMroct*d ftioaf t)ie tice of the 
ito<««L la tb4 BKiM tlaba liw county 
OMBuiiviootn uv toa|ipouitiH)ptuu^ 
«i «r damacn of |«maot over wliotM 
talognfih UiMa shaJI l«» or bo 
AcA of FolitoACT ^ IdiT, 
lft«^ataLttt7,SSM01-at VlUin> 
prdtotiaMfordMlHo UgbtlNM 
Ml fvvm, U k dfioland that tlk^ 



th&ll tiot ba ploooil ta the Atmeti 
nithoat iho conHiDt oF tho iDUiiioi* 
Juljt^ !U(ci'UflT.&tQLlde»7.|f34TI& 
til Omaii^tif iiL thn MiUatmBnofoDf 
town, tUa comiDon counoU of my 
cjlj, fiiid tti« vvtir^UQ And burgotKtfi 
of AUj torough «A glTOQ full dlrw> 
tinn nn4 rontml ovfvr tliA plftftlnj; 
«fiK7tlOQ ftDd mofntD&atioA cf oleotrlo 
vrins ail J fixtUTM (Qftik SUt. § 30431; 
aail no cotnpattj luiOK elftotrlo wfrm 
rna^ «c«TOla* anj of tfae poir«ra ron- 
fcmd upO0 it to unut wjito unj fix- 
turn owr oi ooilcr an j pabLio liifib- 
v«/ nitlirjiit tlio oon»«at of tlio 

A'ljotfLitij^propriotor^or.iiiokaoaacb 
c<?:uoDt camiot ba obtainoil wttbout 
Uhi ouiusDEiL in ¥rrlUag, of two af Um 
coanty r^omiiii«foaar« aftarheatiiig 
as J botioft G^a. SUL, g SftUh 



ti 



MLxcTTKia vcinxA i» tmtiatm ajko iiigbwjlts. 



[§!W. 



tioQ of tbti mutUT is delected to a grott^jr or lea fixlcnt to 
the muoiclpality where thd stroet* an located. 

With tfa9 iDCrrDnse in Ibo use of electric win's, cp<!cial prOTiv' 
ions have b&*ai ximd^ for the rcj^ulalion of tho fretting up aod 
maiiitaiDing wires in ike atreeU for TarJoos purpOBes. The 
Btalutest luifliori/ing thi? consinrMiyn yf UiU-^aph* provided in 
miinj raM<» for the ttesigrinitoji of llie slnreel^ by tbti oonnnnn 
councils of tlie tovrna throcig'li which Lhe line paGflml. Special 
oflirers are miiall^' aj>poifit«d to suporviso llio putting up of 
fil«Gtrio-tight wtres, and boards of dectricAil coDtrol h&ve bfiec 
constituted in some targe citloa, with cxteoaire povrers orcr all 
electric wires. 

It IB very Gommoit for the le^^slatupo to mako tho right to 
use the street conditional upon obtAicing the consont of a ee^ 
tain proportiou of the property owners; and other con<Iitions 
ore imposed either by tho lugifilature or by the local authori- 
ties. 

The question, theroforo, how the privilege of using the streeia 
for lines of eluctrit; wire may be ohuined, iavotvea a discussion 
of the power of the local authorities to withhohl tboir conHunt, 

CtiH vftriouA etttt«« rvUUnA to t*l» 

Uivt cf ttu U Di Md SUI««. 1 toIuhm. 
N«w York, 1990; ToI««nfili Law» ^ 
thi*t Am«rk-uD EUitm ftnd Otoui^ ] 
vulamc Nuw York. IBWi &ad »dd«o- 
dum IS^ tprnparsd for the qm ef 
tUi^B^Hi mora & Ohio ToleCT9f>h* 
Atnmonn SlstnrcH Rt*liitlD^ to 
phoE>ca CoUoOtodi Borica of urticlo* 
in AmorlcttU Iaw BosOkXct <N. &), 
vol 20. bx J. a Ufalo. 6oott A Juiu> 
ffin cm lUaj^ph^ jmbluhvd in ism 



In DlmolB, tlie contHTDt oltivo tuwo 
or ooiiiity H«thorilit« U nv|iiii*it. 
Huril'd R<w. SluL 1S(»S, oH, 134. la 
UmoolraaotM. the location of tbo 
poita la totM ■7H>('inc<l la wrlllnff by 
th« ma^riuid iLldeimoa. I'ubkSULt 
oU.lOl'. $a S« abo Ibid. ch. £7. on 
to ilitt |i»w£irs of tha mtiH-iincD. eUv 
SAnlu) in Nav JcrRA/n t<!li>griiplk ftnd 

to U/3IS t1i4« htj^livi'ih^h fcr the puTp<«o 
Af NT^nrlng iviIm oti oblntcilng tbn 
onnm>nr, i& writing of Uio Owimtv cE 
th« «of], nad tbft^ ttn Tvqdnd to ooaUina ac ajrpoudlx of itatutoa In 



apply to (li« Ui^bilfttlTe body of any 
inuakipality tlitougli vhicb tbtiy 
1MJ pan for a dcvtgaatioa of tbo 
■tneU lobe used and the looation of 
tha polm OuL ftUU I^ S4Aa Pn^ 
yitflotk m mado for appHoatJoo to Uie 
oifcoit oomt Ja oaod the owiMni*iiU 
not oocasut. or tha bovn asthorltiea 
will not dMdgcuU tlio ctracte E«% 

Fora oolIeotbD of iba ftatalo* of 



tomt at Lliot Uat^ Sw alio a dud^ 
b#r of ttnlutaa qootad 1b Thompua 
on Ebcthdty, cK 5; art. & 
caroful itatvaent of U»a lawi 
the ttaM itt Rcard to imisMi 
eonieat to elMUfo vine la tiie 
>tre«ta> mo Eccsobdio L«<>*l«tH»,bT 
A. B. FooCfL with tJas law* of Ibo Mfh 
anl ■tatn.e^litod byChartw&£v» 
ctti BobortC;aiU&GohpCS]hciiukaiti 



J«70 



IfUEHCn-AL 0(»rTBOU 



43 



tad what coDdiUoiu they m&y impose eitbor ftA the pnce of 
tlwir cohm-dI or I17 nay ol rcfgolnting lIie^ u5(» of tbc Ktrvcte. 

I S7. PowfT of Binnirlpalltj to withhold fonsent and im- 
pMe eonilitions,— The autLoriiy to uic tlic streets comes from 
the 1(^aliitur«, bat tho lcgifilat:irc maj delegate to the local 
aatlkoritioi the right to &iy upon what con<Iitiona the power 
loaj be Qscd^ or it may givo only tho right to tlotcrmiDo tbo 
nanncr of the a»e. la tbo former case, thcro ii^ a di«tiDet tlelo- 
iratioa of kgislative authority to ^^ntnt the frnachiac; in ibo 
latter, there is only % grant of the povror to rcgulato* bat not 
to withhold the frinohittK 

If the les^ative i^Dt is made conditional upon themQoici- 
conKDt, 90 that thostatnto amounts to a distinct <leU-^attoa 

Ulliority todeC^rmiDO crhetherthe line shall be con^traeted 
or not. it is probably trae thst no authority can be obtained 
without Ihi* of>nttnnl, no muLLi-r fi>r whiit resison it mjiy l>e witlj* 
ke!d; altitoti^-li ihet^ are decisions wliich Hiig^'&t that this m 
ta eUert Ic^slation, and that it ia wry doubtful whether tbo 
IflgidatiTfi departmett c^n dd^giito to any other authority the 
power to gnnt ancb a fraochi^.' 

lb has hecn held th^itt where the right is gircn upon obtAin' 
ing tbo con^nt of the municipality, tie luttcr i» not Hmitod to 
pxing or refusing consent, but may annojE conditions ts the 
prieo of ita consent;* t>iit there are oascti in which it ia held that 



■; 






R C&. 10 WtiL »W (ISeO^ por Clif- 
bid. J- 

tta MiuuvifolEt^f Ibe n^^t to ma^ 

aad upon vlut oondjtjcms th« 

■UbdU majr bft imd. £ DilL 

li lita Wo beld Uvit the <o«uont 

ttet 4 itfAtinQ fJiHlk ha built or ttiat 
IWaUnvtUioUUpaMd CSDiJlMiLO. 
CwtL MUi »L ¥ TMi aad coK* dUid I 
Jmr ClljAK R RC^ ¥. XCA n, 
RRCa,-QKJ. Kq-CLBSOKortiikt 
a «lnrt tbkll h« icr*d«il Aad a cmvk^ 

b« b>tii a»). & ciik R n. C<k V. 

LavHBoobarf;!^ M Imd, BOI. ; UuL it 
l0Oo«otiVB ftliftU net b« iiMtl 



(Rirhmfffld P. A R Rj, Co. v. ttlf-h- 
nci) J, W U. a SSI : Dolrolt v. D(itro>4 
FLIt, Col.«ISp W.ttrp.447>.ot Ihat a 
tax AhftJ] bp paid na th« dWldniKlii 
aoiJ tiiAt lh« raEA of C»ro ftha!3 b« 

A 5i Ry. Cij.. tao Ptt. su 4n, se 

AU I^iv £(h:J): hilt (he mimlcipilfiy 
OftDDOt by withlaoliiinfc oonK'<iit J(h 

bl&tfire t,3rr9fij City A B«n:vTi R R 
Co. ▼. Jeney Ctty & U^bokon R R 
Cc., 20 N. J. Eq, <h Jerter City t. J, 

a A a a B. cii.»n. j.Bi, 3bo: Pat- 

onciii A PLUAio n. R Co. t. Pnlcnoa, 
21 N. J. Eq, 154: Am. Uiikm 7df«. 
Ool T. lUrrifOD ^owikA 31 X. J. £q. 
«2ft, I Am. FX Qw » 1 ; AlUMlc aty 
WiLtar^workaCo^v.Coimmori W«ldr 



4A 



SUBOTSIC Wl&£8 tX fff&EXTB AXD BLOBWAY*. 



(§38. 



tho GoaaoQt cannot bo withheld turbitrurilj, bot that it is tbo 
«zercjao of tho police power, 4d<1 must bo oxoret»<l io a rooion- 
abld manaer and to &d not wholly to defeat the gnnL" Tbo 
powors of municipalities in eucb cases ar^ dlscossod in the 
standard text-books on moftlcipal corporaiions* I need only 
refer to the oases rclflting toe!ecinc wirea. 

Whore the legislative grant is di^IinitOj and aathorlty is givi-o 
to use th» fttrooto for a pubUo purpoci) upon oertafn oondiliona, 
it IB not la.wf uE for tbe \oca\ Authorities to impose other condi- 
Uons which would ini|>air or (kfci;t Llio franohiftQ* 

§ 38. The flame — Municipal toiinent as a condition pre<^ 
dent. — Where a statute giviog the prlrilego of ploA^iDg eleo- 
tno wircft in the highways olcurl 7 provides thattiho privilego 
id granted upon condition that the conient of the loc^ author^ 
itics be ohtainod, thon this consent is regarded aa a oondition 
prooedeat to tiie cxorciao of tbo rranchtsc> 

ItwaaaobeldinNevrVorkinlSi^O^intbecaM of an oleotno 



Ct^, 44 N, J, Eq. i«T-($S; btit Me 
FtaokUa t. Nutlcr W^tti Ca, A3 N, 
X Bq. tCU Sftddlc RiTvr v. GiirilHtd 
WaUr Ox, le N, J. Lav Jcmr. 3^4^ 

^Ktod though tho cOQoont of tbo 
city bo rcqutrod cu a oond^tioa pr^ 
oadnDtt tha nonrtA luTn pnwnr to r» 
now tho doclAtoa to pravoot o|>pfM 
•Eon and fmiJ. Gt. Loui* By. Co. v. 
SMllMrn By. Co> (Mu). Id R W. E«p. 

TomuUp r Qftifielil WfrUrOx, U N. 
J. haw Jour. 334 (1865), wli«rD a \k^ 
UmluurT Injunotliin wiu Ht^nU^ ti> a 
towfwbip vbioh app«ttM<J to bu viUk- 
heddifls Ua cmuent for thepurpoMOf 
roquETiaiC coniiipUBaUoa. 

iUtll Mim. Corp, (4tta «43A6970iX 
1Wi91fliaadflottia 

< WlpcDiMiti T«leph. Oft r. Oibk-M^t 
83 Wit. :<?. t Am. EL Ca& fi^ HMIi: 
Elofildcj fty. Co>. V. Unud I^apid*. 4^4 
Mb^asT.U Aic EL C» or (ISOOd 
flimunlt Tovniihlp v. Ifew York A 
W. J. T»l<|ih, Ca, &7 5. X tq. — . 41 
Aa EUp.4$a BnllTdefh.CtLT.TUd. 
33 Ma Ap(K l»* t Am. t:L Cu. l&l; 
HaealbftI ▼. HMatiH A Kan. Tol^h. 
Ca«SI Ito. App. :!S;8 Aia hX Cu. IW; 



MeridUn t. W««1«fii Uoioo T«l«9 
CcL. 73 Muo. 010, 5 Add, EI Cm. M 
tle^}: Ac Xjitik v, Wariorn Uaioa 
Tffto^. Co. lU Vcd. Ke^L 88, S Am. EL 
CWhi3(iea^ 

*A bora* laDwa^ prohltitj?] try 
■bitutfl fromiudagaiiy r^bntd. turn- 
pUto or aruarriftl rood wjUlouI th« 
QOEuoab of |)'(T |iariiir« owrjkijc tt* 
SMue caAUi>t Liy tut rsil» ori ih« 
XmrmA Ktnata of PlilbidcfpbJ« wtLF»- 
OiDtthocaDtuntoC tboocmfnon coaz»- 
oil CommontroAlth t. Qaritnhl PMa 

Rr.ax.a3PaSt.aoa SMoivHiaiti 

T. Chloi^ UoTM ft Uxitamf B. Oa, 
tai in. 830; wboro Uio riKbt U> m» 
tUaitrevU for a »tcaiu rUiiuid ws 
alven only <ui pAtainn of thfi ffwnMS 
of ob^balf Uio rncUfco of tha n^ 
joining laiwl Ai>d in niincaa it la 
iieldtluiia citjr bKlchuut powi-rto 
t^fHDt tl:« uM of a public straot for 
cailroai parpows. «xo«pt apoa tl* 
ptttiUua of properly wrrnei^ aa 
KTib<d Irj vtatotA North 
8t Sr-Ca v.CaMtlAitvS6 
014, Gntj, J*, d^odtiru^ 
»[at«BiidiMUr EUotrte Itf. 

LBS K. y. su, Si K. K* >c«^ S81. 




«S8.] 



WTviciTAL coxraoL. 



45 



rfiitwftj andorobaptor 3M, section 3, of tho]avBMlSS4. Tbd 
court iiLid ihftt until snoh coox^nu woro obtaiaod tho rtgbt of 
tbe €orpor&tJO& to esoreiso ita frtodiuo was Bdll incboAt^i, and 
tbftt ft had no power to uko proooodiiif<s for tho oondemiutioa 
of iho rlghu of Und-on^en. A tlmil^ declsEon was mado hi 
Now Jeiaej vnth regard to tbe right of a water companv to 
nse tho stroots for ita wnt^r pi^rc^,^ Thr^ cmirt said Iha 1eg9- 
UtuTtt httd exprvttty ixuule tb« coDsent of the muaicipjdil/ % 
condition prEC£^'?iiit to the exercise of the power to use tke pnb< 
Uo slnwtA, aoii it was held ibnt the tovmsbip wns cntitlod to 
aa inJoDOtJOii. Aad in tbft court of errcm in Novr Jirrscy' it 
waa held that a court of equity would decide on the validity 
of oooscnts gircn under tbe statute proriding for tho fonnaticn 
of tracUon coropanioa,* and that if the conneDt were invaild an 
lajonction would be granted against tho constructicm of tbo lino 
«l stroot railway. A subsequent oot d^larcd that no corpon- 
twa oreatod nndor tho act sboald enter Tipon any highway for 
tbe oonstrucUoo of now linos of railway withont tho consdotof 
tho body baring eontrol of the higbwayn; i;nd tho clinncellor 
bold in a later oaae^ that this waaacoaditiooprect^dent to tho 
right to ose tlwhif^hway,ftnd was applicablo ton street railway 
oooipuiy vhkb bad aoqaired tb« right recognized by tho etat- 
oto to oonstriKt and operate lis hue upooatonipike, Jind a till 
for an injunction at Uie »ait of iho attorat^y-g^focnd was suft- 
Ulnai 

In Kew York, where the milroad law (section 91 as amended 
by chapter 645 of tho lairs of IS9S) forbids tho cxt^^nsion or 



J 



WaUr Ou as tL J. Bl( ff)l, 3a AIL 
Bi^asL 

* W«* J«rM7 TW^IoaGa r. Oun- 
du OonD R B. Col. 53 N. J. Kif 103. 
6 An, KL Cm 137. 8»* alM StA-b- 
l«Q T, Kcvtfa J«ns7 BLRf. C«h, 54 N. 

■UnltJ. 18*3sli.S4a 

>aiockU« V. AllBnii<* ni^Mnndi; 
«b& Bf. Co, 03 N. J, E^ 416 {XSVrih 
faa abo TTvnLon r, TMlva Fmm. 
BrCouTT AtL Ee«fi49l<18»S): Gnr 
^ It T A PkiU TnuTtwi Co. M 
fl.JL&»«53,4>> AU U<T|k StnWfJ 
w, UjuUm Oowity eiecolo 



Coha3K.J.lAw. — >a7AU.R«pt«l8 
(IMi); Btmna r. ChkAgo, 7n rml 
E«|v %I8V: Tunnqiift A L. St Uj. Cd 
T. laurc^iictj Ht. Qj. Co^ 31 All 

Wban tfa« rlfihl to COMtni^ th« 
lice baaadcoMiclittonal apuaoUtain' 
Lnir tho DomasDl of IIm ovnen of • 
oertaSn iirc^ionlriii of ttw In&d front* 
Ins on tb« itlr««t, Ih4< rliilit to build 
tho tia« ii oo( ocquintl until thia 
uurawiit b olrluluvil Sti Uiuhad'ta 
Charrk t. rnrlj-M<NHir| 8t cCc\ ftf, 
C<^. ); X. T. 8«pp. aau Sft Miux KofL 
(RTOOOlOfittV 8ea«b.XL 



40 



XMCQlftlC IVfllEn IX STIton^ Airi} firflnVTATS. 



[S3». 



opcnt:cti of IL strict tnrricc mil vrny wltliout ihe con*>ent of the 
local uutliorities, it waa held tliat, isefore anch a railway com- 
pany can acquire tba ri^ht to ojicrflto il« line thnjHgh »ny of 
die stn^cts of a ruLy, tt riiu^t [inJt'Urd tbtf coitwnL of Ui^ local 
auLitoritlea;* and In another cam it was held that a city luy 
obtain an injuncticm against a tot-rrphonc company from crecU 
ingits Lincf^ upon a »tr<-ei in violation of onliiianc^ prohibiting 
sucb ercctioa without the city's consents' And in Pennsylvania, 
nvhcro t.bo constitution contuins a similar prorision, it was held 
th:tt Doitlior tlie Ic^ialaturo nor the courts can tre^iiasa upon 
the disorotion j?iTon abeolutoly by tho congtitation to tho local 
aatboritics, and tbat u munioipalilVt in ^rantint: con^wnt, nuy 
impose conditions under which the ri^bt may be enjoyed ; * and 
the court said tbat a city, in j^ntin<* ita consent, mij^ht fix 
the maximum roto of faro and in*ifit ui>oa foe<>ivin'^ a ot^rtain 
peroentage of tbe dividendB. Xbe crdinaace provided that it 
should not go into f>ff<?fCt until iico*>pttHi by i\it» propor otfidalgf 
and Cbe court Kai<l thnt thii vraa a eondilion pr^^ct.Hlf'nt ami mu«t 
be perEvjrm«d, and that no amotint of hardship would alter L^ 
rula Tbfire might bi* Lni^wfal comlilion); irn|)osed, but it wnA 
doubtful w1)fithH>r any n^lit L^tmld 1m obtained wiU^out tbUtTMi- 
seat, and public policy r«qmrod that railroads should |)ay tbo 
cities for tiio iisc of the strcctd,^ 

The same principle was maintained by the anpr«nio cmirt of 
the United &ta(«s in tvro cngos^ in which it was held that the 
city of St. Louis [harir^ lor^c legislative powers) might law- 
folly iinpoat^ upon a telegraph company a obarge of dvc dol* 
lars for cflch pole by wny of rontjil for Ibc uso of tho streeto.* 

§ '3\K Price or conditions of municSpnl coa^fiC— Whcro 
tho right to pat np electric wires in the street is mado to do- 
pood upon municipal consent, aud the consent of the local 



>Oiloria1 CJty TTH^t^or Co. t, 
Kinptoa Cilj Ify.Ca, u Ti. V. !^upp. 
799, la ApFH DiT. 105 (ISDT); Sc 
HwliMil^ Church T. Fort J Se^^Dii St. 
mM\ "kr Cti. ^T S. T 8upiL «*1 o^oot. 

f Ulii:tik V, Utio4T«lopkCo.,34 App. 
Dir, iS. Y) ^U i3 N'lT- ^P9^ SIS 

(isan 

* AUigbvDj Cttj V. TXna A Shaqiv- 
bar«: St &r, Cc, tSV Pa, St 411, 3» 



Atl. B«fv S03. dtetTD^^ubhlDg 
biuT'ri Api-m. 11^ Pi- St. 4. u^ 
inf PvopJo T. fiiraird, 110 NL Y. 51 
<8«0 ftl» Fed-'fal St P> K. Rj. Ox 
v. AllcRharj, U Pitt^tL X^og. Jour. 

Ox. t«d U. a OS. I Anv EL Gw. lot; 

8aiM pviiiM. lo u. a W^ i 

ELOkft US, 



S«-l 



V;7NICtPAL COITTBOL. 



4? 



iQllioritiec is & condition precedent to tho existence of the 
right* t]ii*n It would w^rni to Ijo cttuir that any t4jnnH thiit Diaj 
be eiBcted aa the jvice of this consent mmt be agrcAtl to be- 
fore VDynglit coui Im obtalnfH); nri'l thu municipalities mny 
require a inftyuient of a iJ«finit<^ mhiu or of a curtaiEi jiorrnion ot 
tbe ^rcBB earnings, or niiiy ic^tHt apon the ti^ of |KfT(i:t Eiml 
wires irf 4 certoin kind, or thnt electric cars shail be of & cer- 
tain character aod run at certain inbervalH; tLiiLt a |KLvi'.ni<*Dt 
tbooJd bo laid botween (bo rails of a street railway, or that cer* 
tain nU«s of faro diould be oharged' Indeed, it U usual for 
conditions of this kind to bo imposed, and Co avoid any diaputo 
it ts proTidod that the orJiniLnco impoain^ the conditions bo 
embodied in a contract to bo cjcocutod by the oity olliccra and 
bjtba officers of the compaQy that is to have the boDotit of it 
Some ofthMe oxaclions may amount to an a^nmption of 
tiie taxing pow«r which docs not bciong to a oily, and others 
may bo unlawful for othi>r reasons; and yet if the conetnt of 
Um city fa mad^i a condition precedent to tbe Io^'isLejiUvli ^unt 
of a franchise Co usa the Ktr^etK, it is nec^^jtry for th<f roiTi' 
paay desiring the franchise to nccept the conditions^ and whea 
tliry am rnitKNiinI in a contrttrt U is dillicuTt to c(.>nt4*Et the 
ri^t of the city U> ia^xiae them.' 'Wljcn, on the othttr hnnd, 
tho right to asc tho stn^ts for & toic<^jph or other lin<^ of 
olcotHc wires is gires by the legjsUiurc, subject only to the 
pOTTcr of the municipality to regukte the mode of luw, 
as will be »bo^rn in dct<til in another chapter,* the power 
to regulate eannotbosoa-tedusalto^therto defeat the grant 
5 40, I'oner of niunlclpalitr with respect to tho de^lsiiia- 
tioo of the route.— 11', on tho other humi, a ngbt to ugc tbe 



L Oy. C<u tOf MxiL SM. GD ?4. W, 

EL Bj. Ca T. &niLi Cllj. !SS U. a 
m flHW5(|!Hvllig}: KtPVatsd Hf. Ca 
«f Onnd BuiiliV T. tir ((id UapUi^ 94 
Xkk 9ST, 47 IC W. Bn>- S9r 0680) 
(fvrfafr poicvi. HtR.>: AOAnliMcy Cltj 
«. HJUrllVh l» 1^ St. 411 IfAnt}; 
W«l 9tU Br- ^' BsrurJ. m K Y. 
IV) i&ns); Adiioia t. Uiikxi Bj. Co, 

>ta fit Loaia R^. C» v. Soothen 



Kr C^. 1<U Ma OTT, Ml tfi A W. Gflp. 
am-ms. cbo court uicEt -"Diu dlA- 
cnrtlon of tho muaiclpnlitj nitti t^ 
ipnct to giving iU cx)(u»ut Ualway* 
mibjitCTt howBTpr, t^> mviflw by th9 
coorlK to pr«vunt o]>po«[tloa and 
rmti<l." &n ]HtL Muo. Cbrp-> S ?00; 
IbillmftJ Ca T. !>tti-r*rivrorttv 1 DiL 

ca]t«p.3»; JervyUtyABMSvv 
IL R Co. T. J. a Ji Bobokea & & Oftt 
» N. J. Ei]. OL 



M 



BLXCTRIC VtBBS llf ftTRXTTC AKO mOHWATI. 



(§«- 



Streets is panted hy the leglslatuT^, snbjoct only to tho Ocrig- 
DaLion of tbo «r.n!eU or the Locution of ttie rotito by the local 
Anthcrities, theu the consent cannot ha wholly wltliheW, ThB 
designation of the route in snch a caso is a Tn:Lrt4ir of rrguluttoii 
&nd cannot he nsed to tlefe&t n. franchise gnistud hy ifae Icigifl- 
lature. 

In a cose in Ne^ Jersey ^ it appeared thrit tho sUttitc granted 
to telegraph companies organized &nder it the hglit to uite thft 
public hij^hwcya of tho stale upon iirat obtaining tho consent 
in writing of lEic ovrnera of lht> «oil, with a provtto that no 
poles Bhould be erected in any direct of any in(:orporat43d tovra 
"(vithont lir£t obtaining from tho town a dc^i^ation of tho 
ettoetd in whioh the poles should bG placed and the nuinnercf 
placing them. The pm-poeo of such lefri&lation, said Vice-ObaD- 
c^Uor V&n Fleet, "is to invest telegraph companies ivith the 
fight to u«e Uie Etreete of an incorporated town for the purpose 
of erecting their poles therein, subject, nevertheless, to snch 
nmnicipol control as may be necessary to seciire to tho pabllo 
sufely, conrenienc© nnd frtWorn in tho u»n of tbt? ftlroetx Tho 
mnnioipa] authonties may say what streets shall bo used, at 
what points in tho stTvoU tho poUis shnll ho ercsctiTil and how 
they sUaW be planl4-d umi st^run^d, hut they bavo no power to 
lay an embargo. They Lave a right to regulate} but not to in- 
terdioti and thdr rcguktions, to ho rnlid, niu«t bo n^tsooabla 
and fair.*** And in akler cose ia the same court nndor tfaa 
same st&tnt4>, it wa^ held that the town could not impose dow 
oonditioo* nor rct^uiro tho consent of the town commitCoc to b« 
obtained before stringinjf wires across the stroeta, Tho Tio6> 
obanocllor said : "Tho right to tiio nso of tho streets bos boon 
expressly grunted by the legislature, and tho poiror to prohibit 
or interdict this use so giaatad cannot be inferred from the 
duchinai<jn in tho^>fm>t«o annexed to tho gnmt Uut tho nso 
shoold be subject to such regnl&tlons and restriciioas as may 
!»> impost. The rostricttcn intended in sneh a^protiso must 
he held to be reslncttc^nft in the nature of rcgnlstioas, and not 
ratjictioajs which shall prohibit the use or impose m^w condi*^ 
tioos lo Llie ]Kiw»r to exercise txuj franchise." ' 



■Am. Vakm T«k^ Ca t. IUtiIkkl 
(Town ofuBl K J. Kq. ttS. 

•Sm alv Utka v. VUct T>Hi>ta. 



Ox, 24 Apfi. PtiF. fH. V.) an. 49 3V. 
«Siuuait Townbip T. K T. ft H, J* 



5tai 



XtmOirAL OOBTBOL. 







It hu been beW by the siipraine court, however, tfcal Ihii 
fflAtiiU: aj^jklm ooly to U^mugb liac^^ Tb(» dutj t^) devgoote 
<tre«tA b icDpQsnd onljr oa a city or town ** Lhmu^b vhtch it i% 
tntoadod to ooutrnct « telc^pb lino," and it is not intended 
to impoMT this duty wiUi rccpoct to a local eyatom of telBphoDO 
lines. &'odistiDci]OQ waa madd b&tvredn tlie tetegrapti and tfao 
Mephovo; tut tho ooort eaid thtd^ woa ^ood rcaaon for dis* 
crimJiiAtJii; bctirccn through Uacs and those intended for locol 
porpoaefl. Ai to th«fte tho government wua Ivft to itB oivn di:^ 
cntioii, and vas under no oblij^^tlon to dosigpaatc streeU for 
iho local ttlopbono Un«s. Tbo diKtinotion Boems to bo cuiKutis- 
lutofy in vi«w of the nee of the locaJ telophono Unce from any 
point for long^isunco meeiaj^; but the deciaon is meraly on 
the ooDitmctiott of a 2C«w Jor»i>y ^tututo. 

Undor an ordinance aothorizing a Telephone company "to 
nm 4L&d mainiain iu vrires ovor and through the streets of a 
dly ... for thu jmrpota oreftLiblUliing t^'Uplionu; coin- 
miuiication between ita patrons and between its exchan^ oSlce 
Mul the pnbecriberH Lbcrato,'' nod impo«Dg a« & condition only 
Uiat it ooni|i]y HJth all ordinuiii-t^K ^* regulating; or in any man* 
ner controUing . . * telephone conipamea m the use of 
ilioetB (or « . • telephone purpom»,-* it baa been held ia 
Peniuylrama that the detr^rmla^CJon of wbat atreetd almll be 
oecgpied ta for the company, ojtccpt possibly in the case of some 
Hnet czcoptionnJly silu^ttcd.' 

Etoi Ihoui^'b the town may bo bound to make the deeij^Cr 
tton of tlio strwtfi on npplicntion, the making tbo appLioation 

«vfir, vliciboTttio dodgnfttkinJadlfr 
cri^li>>iiary <jr way au^ ooulltlett 
CoiJlil \a- mi|i«M^L Ita^cmnc v. N. V. 
A N. J. Ti^lMiih. Cix,fl| N. J. Uw, iWt 
W ML Mttp. 395 (UOT5. it lui« buu 
l»ld !u Nev JerM7 tliaC the orJi- 

tMt «;i«cifj \\w locktton of tli« polM^ 
thia bciu>c left to tlio ^iaerutirai ol 
tho aompanf (trtUi Uie c'lotfvat (>f the 
lAndowiianx undur t1i« coatnJ of 
tb<^ oii!cf-fvlDohu:g*«f the«UecCit 
MiLmUall r, D^oui^ Bft BL J. lAv, 
101,34AaBe|ul0aa 

)CommoT[WOftll!i t. Wajwk'k, ;d> 
?>.8t.^5, tQAtLRo^93(t8»»^ 



Cix,t7N XEq, — .*! AtL 

L ft P- Ca r. Qvl OiaiiKv (N. J. Eq. I. 
UAtLfi^sa»(l«a«>, 

«Ib^<I Ad Bejt^ta CDdortUs 
Mmm «t«tiiUi Iha cfrraft dcniit lifts 
to sudM » daiffnaUon «f tbn 
fia l»lliir<« «( tho town to do 
m >ttd it 1^ faofi iwld tiiMl ia w> 
AriiC ^ cAOMit i»aI» ■ odiitTuri or 
tftdaa* ttiftdttlox tn U» ordftf. «vQa 
llu<(h 41 w^ A |«rliftf* tvquira tho 
ABifMM* of an crdkMtiro «ii ft 
CMdUMK^ iU MICB*tlc& o< tbft 
U vMj be dcnibt^ hffw- 

4 



fo 



UJCOmo VIUC3 rx vncxrra and ntonwin. 



41 



!» a GOttdition prooodent to llio right to sot np poI«t and wire* 
in the streets, and ao Injunt-alon will be graottU agafrtst it at 
the fiuit of persons peculiarly intetvst^ and of the altoniejr- 

g 11. Tti«) !iam€ — FJertrlc-1lghtfflr«!i. — Under & fttAtute 
doal&riiig tb&t a stcituto directing towns to desLgtiato atreeta 
for iL'Kj^rapii lini:c(ahcutdui>i>ly to clectriO'ligbtconip&&ic0''flO 
far as applicable," it was held ia ^iaasacbuaetts that it was &ot 
imporatlTo Qpon a tovro to designate Atrccte for cTcctric-ligrht 
ivirca The uourt aaid tbo u^o of Uieftc was local, and a refuaal 
to allow them in tJio atrccta of a towa woiUd not defeat a bu^- 
BOSS extending over a lurgo territory, and it could not be aop- 
poaed that the legislature intended to take airay frota the 
local authorities the power to decide whether wires for U^Uta 
iu the town wero siife am! proper or nocts&irv-.' Tbo ctatate 
relating to telegraphs declared that the mayor and atdormen, 
or selectmen of any city or villngD through which a line aboold 
pitM, ^'Khdl ilesignute the sirtM*U*^ where the Itno ahoold bo 
pnt up. The court fiaid this ought not to he oonfttmed tM Impels 
ative, nor as taking »wuy from i\t*j local authorities the oon- 
trol iVvrr thn Ktreets. 

TTnder the atatate in Kew Jersey the supreme court baa held 



»Now York A Nsbc Ji^rwy Tela- 
pboiu Oo» r, Eut Oniii^ To^A^Dsfaipk 
43 K, J. i:-!. -m; aiat«. Brwnje 
pmt, V- Naw York A New Jwwy 
Tdop'Jono Co.. 40 N- J. L- eU\ *L C. 
no N. J. L. -fiJ^L WlDtflr T. K, Y. & 
T4. J, TMlAph. (>3.. Al N, J. I* aSi 3 
Dill. Miiti. Corp,, i 7^ (t(b ad\ Sm 
PranktiTi Ttjwotihip t, NutU*y Water 
Ol. as :t. J. Eq. OOL 03 AtL K^p. 5^1 ; 
»Jta^ktoa V- AtL H. Rj. Q>. 5fl N. X 

Eq. -i^s, aa AtL Rcfi. €ea 

Oc the qucsUoa what is mr^at tf 
ft rtty At t-Mrn tbiTMi^h whlcJi A line 
mif pac«i It hiu bMEL bttld that tha 
word* TcCcT to bodios IvaWdi; ooiatrol 
ofnUwitu wUbout mfAronco to act- 
eal inoorpomikoa N- Y, & N, J^ 
TUspfa. Co. y. Eft«t Oniasv^ 4fl X J. 
B^ M; Dr^XlrBf■ v, :(. Y. A N. J. 
Itf epfi Cd, M :t X t. m4. Hot Mw 
Ibt4L, SO X ;. L 424; aad Suniuit 



Toimibip », N. y, * N, J. T*l«f)h. 
Co., 41 Aa IEo(k 114-14& 

^SuburUv U^t A Pmm Co. t. 
BoiFon, 1-Vt Miu& £00. fl Ani. KL Qtl. 
«a 10 L. a i. iLT. with note (1801^ 

Then: \fi a lE^tuk ^ Ohio prorid- 
tag fnr thn joLni ti» of virw hf 
<tl«Qtnfsliglit cMnpaui«ft Tli« «ls4* 
ctory coudttion* ^n conaC«md is 
n^un Lijrfiiinic Ox t, Jgcta Bn» 
Kl^lrla Co. 9u|«r, Gt Olikv » 

9ee abo Dcuih ET«inc Iiii^t Ca 
V, JoD«eBrothi^niKT»7itrte UgtitCa, 
ilaiatlton tOhW) C^to. FlMfttt W. 
UBulLSai^vberv it vu holdtWl 
■ f rapchiiQ miwt ke obUiitfhl iinil«r 
R«TliMl 8taliM«^^Mai.>»0^ 
Ali^oQgb ttatt oompugr hod 
ft ptruUl f raob t^o board or 
pinwance of a aiqr ordicHAce, 






H«VOCA 



Sg 42, iSJ\ XUXIdFlL CCiATlLOl^ CI 

that «lectHc-liglit compark^e cutunot erect poI«B in any city 
withcxit fint obutining from tli6 glW n [>artt0utjir dt^Miguatbu 
of tbe strvoU in uvhlah the same ure to W pluctiiL' 

§42. Power to revoLe frunrliUe nnil n-rtnuTe polffs atitl 
irlrea. — Tin? dHftf^iatiDH of nU-wtii, tf onL*e auturl on, is not rey- 
oc«Ue by a city, A company liaTing by legialaUve aQl!ior> 
ity Mul maDici|)al convent obtinnrd tho pnvilcgo of iiiitig the 
street has acquired & fraachidti wLkli is valujtble property. 

Tho If^gTslative permission may of coarse be made oxpreasly 
blc,biil ilioom« tbat inunicii>alcoii»CQt oaooiictcct npoQ 
tbe oonfltmotioa of tforUs bocomua a blndlB^ oontracL 
Tbcroforot if lines haro been coDstructod under Icgiglatiro an- 
tbority, and with 8Q<ih mumc^ipal consoDt as may bo roquind, 
tlie monidpal cffloera caanoi remove tbem Qolon the main- 
teoaftoo of thorn bas been [luule expr<itisly subject to such at^ 

tiOCL* 

Tbe sabject of le^lAtirc and monicipfll contracts and fran- 
diiwe huM btwn fully diMTussed in th^ xtundurd work* on mn- 
tilpipal carporatlona and con^ituLional law. I need only refer 
bora to the caso directly involving thrj um? of i^liiRtno wir^i. 

§ 4S. Til e name — CasPH relattng to li^tegrapli and t<^fe* 
fhonft wlr«!i,— In Jlwtmm Tel^>/tona Co. w, Jerg&^ CUj/^ the 
qiie*tx>n came sqnarclj bcFov^ the supreme conrt of Xctt Jcr- 
■ey. A l«kphone coi:ii>Any was authorised by statute to use 
Um bigfawaya along the line of it« route, upon dnst obutin- 
iaf boai the incorporated cities or towns a do»ignation of the 
ilreeCs in which the pelca should bo placed and the manner of 
[Jactog them. An ordiminco vras parsed by the coiomon oonn- 
dl of Jersey City t^LTing the company permtssioD to erect 
potei <^ lay an nwiergromd cable in certain etreots on certain 
OOQditlons. The oompaoy set np poles along the routo marked 
o«t by the ordtnaEicie, and then the common cotmeil repealed 
tbe ordinaBce^ This last actlea 6f tbo conncil was brought 
iMfon tlie KUpremu court hyo^i&r^rL Tie court (tiy Kaedj J.) 
■tld: " I am of tlte opinion tliat, as a general nilo, & deaig- 
natioQ of sttvet* by a city givi-« tin- n»nipany an irntvix'jiblo 
right to U9BB thealreetAJMdejtigmit^dforthe paqioAes Indicated 

tm Cn, «U 7<. J. U asO. AT All Ke[L >4»H. .L U B03 Cia$7> 



» 



VLECTVO WIBXa lU 9nt£rm AMT> ZIlOllWATa. 



[8«. 



in tl]€ Kta(at«. Ccrtuinly. after U:o eKpenilitore of m<mtj m 
ih6 em-tton of poles, mado in reliance apon the munidpal dcft- 
i^DAtion, tho company obtains & vested ri^t of irhich tbej 
c&nDOt be stripped by a nobscqucat rerocation of such dm^ 
naiion. The notion tiukt n corporatioo wbicht under provifr- 
ions aimiUr to tho present uct^ Ldj* upon tfac strcn^Ui of a 
pormieaon to tuo o certuiE roQl4, spent Uiousands of doUarB m 
la3riii; nllvray traxiks, or eubtorranc^n eabtco. or in erecting 
poAte and strotehing wires^ is at the mercy of tbo city aatliori* 
tioa oontinuuily and entirely, la not to b^ oator^ined tct a 
moment;" and it was beld tbat the power rraervod l^the Ug- 
J^aULTft to ro;Kml all oUartcn did not apply to a cotntnoa 
oouncdl ; and Chat as the act under nrhicb tlUs company was Ia- 
ooTpomtorl ronferred no power on tbe mnnicipality to rewdia 
a |H?rm]itMi(]n onix- ^ruiiti^lr the grant was anbj«cl oaly to a n^ 
peid by itie legislature; and ^' when that corporatioo tad ao- 
qnifi4 V(«tid rigbte in the mode decgnated by their charter, 
it certainly w^ut not within Um: |)ovr«r of a comnion oouooil to 
atrip th«»m of any right ao acjuii^." ' The court raforred to 
O^AtMnucfoliA V, JJoatwh* deckicd by tho Bopr«nw judicial 
cotiit of M&nachoaetta. 

In Oify o. TdUf|r^^p^ d^ Tal^pA^n^ Co^f a city made a grant 
by ordianitco to a pailicnJar oompnty to use the streets for 
lelegtnph and l^kphone wires upon oertjun ccndiuonj, snbjoct 
to snch ortlmariocis as might thereafter be passed. It was beld 
that tiiia w«& not a mere rdfooabte permit, bat a binding coo- 
tract 

In JTvlvo^ Uni^n Td^^raph CV.t>. £^ica^*a telagrapbeom- 
pa&y bad er«otod poles and strung wires witJiin a city und^r 
ibe permisfflon of an onlinanee which prorided that tbe prir- 



> "the poww of a cumuoo coua- 
oll- aiji Mr. JtfUos Hnd Iti Uml. 
•en meytiPttS Ctoh t. J«nB7 Clt j, 
Hjiro. "to irvoktt Us pvnniiftka 
(CLvva bj rtAtHtofj a&tborUj to Uis 
iMStloa of a nitnvKl la Um itf^M* 
cC a citr> *u «sFiv«lj dssM la 
ths^ertbs r^ofiMFUMser 
By. Qk T, BaUwia, rspon«d te ST 
ljC,Ub<HaadfiDtli««issctf 
Drakljii Ctetia] B. B. Ga -i;, Brook 



As lo iba paww oT Iba lecafatora 
to taqotoa (A« wrtow i« bs tafcwi 
dovtt sad pat sateivvMsidL see ck 
VI 

'rVs«.aai fiMeh.T,fSL 

ISSLa. Aii«u4lClSB^ 

MSfVLBs^aanfln Sm sis» 

1» (WT^b nirnW to la ^ IT. 



$"■] 



KTVECirAi. ooarrioo^ 



53 



flegt shoDld expire on m certain daj. After Uic tiow bad ex- 
pdred, Uko m&}'or, of bm Ovq motioo And without notice, |>ro 
caededto cot doimtho poles. Thecoart^^raiiU'dAiiiiijiiactioii 
ifCainst tliift, but said that if proper notbc had b^^cn gircn, aad 
tbo maTor b«d been &utiiorized by th^ commoa council, his 
UU wovld haT« been iavfoL " I can baro no doubt," siud 
Jod^ I>ni]Qiiiond, **tbat it is «ntir<oljr competent for tUc city 
tntliOTitun, tmleoi ih^y nre bound by lome aliftolute oontrnct 
pornuttiDfi the polea and wirce lo stand Jia th«y are, to have 
them lemoved, imd put an end to vuch nnAigbtly obstruO' 
tioQj jtt tlMBe polcA now ue in our stiieeu. There mmt be 
powetf I ttunk, Eomewh^re to causa tiiem to be removed and 
to regulate and control the iQCinner in wbict* ti.1<!grapb tine* 
ikaU enter and pa» through Uie oity/' 

In iTanniM v. 2/is^uri <£ liatuag Tel^^raph Co.^ U was 
hild by die fit. TxiQ'ft c^ottrt of apjMUila thiit h. oity will not bo 
allowed to enfoi\« an oMinitnca peremptoHly dii-etHiu;^ a tele- 
plume Gocnpany to roli^x»te its potos in an im practicable man- 
•or, after the pole* hare been lc>cat«d and ;itLowod, irWn it i^ 
aaiUier arerred cor abown that tLe e:ii&tiiig location incom- 
modes the public^ nor that there w<m any good rcasoQ for the 
femora) of tJie polea. 

f 44. The aame — Cases on cloctric railway and elccirte 
tight wires.— In LLIinois it was held by the court of appeals* 
that the Hgbt conferred in consideration of strvici^ to be 
mdered to the public to lay tracks in a pablie atrootand to 
epCfftto cars tl^i^reon is a pn^pi^rly right and held under cortaia 
ooAdittooa. It may be forfeited, bnt it cannot be taken away 
boa itfl owners^ either in whole or in part, by the mure wlLl of 
tke legislature, either for public or private use. 

And io the United States drcutt court in Tetin«see' it was 
kdd U»t the frvnehise of a street mil ^ray compuny, when ac- 
eeptod, becomes a oonlr^t InvEolitblo alul] irrevocable, and the 
ooQsent of the munidpalhy, when ooice given, csmiot, unlets the 
itstitttf pravld^id for ^rithdmwjil, be withdrawn eiUier as to 
lAraeta actually occupied or aa to streets included within 



in Ma Apr o nvseu 



> AlriCA T. ICfuurilh^ TO Fad. R«pL 



■CbifiNCO OcAonI Bf. Ok x, CbU 739 (IS05|| Some on sppeaUVT Fbdt 



» 



KLECTilEO Wtft£4 IH 9TJ1KVI» AND mOIlWATS. 



:Mt 



th<t gcnvnil plun of tlio coinpa&j^ roat«s vliicfa it inkudB in 
good faith U> complete. 

80 also in Vcrmoat ' it wns hcH that an ordinanoo AOtfaoru- 
ing a telephone companj to mainUm lines od the fflr«e4a of a 
cAiy without Umiutioa as to time, for a stipulated ooastdoration, 
beconfcoe, vrbcn accepted, a eootract which the city cannot altw 
without tho cotiEK^iit of tho grantvo. 

In Colorado,' where a city uader leg^alatiTo authority rooog- 
nixoil and afllnneil a gnint it hod previously made without 
authority to a £tretit laiLn'ay eompaay, and the company in 
reliance thereon epent large fittms of money in the eonstrnctfon 
of fta lines, Jt waa held tluit the city could not, wblla the eon- 
sent remained unrevoked, deny the right of the ccanpany to 
complirtiT thti work olrvady be^uu. And tiie fe<ler%l court ia 
MiasBOun,' in (-^msidering n franahise gnLnted hy the city of 
Bi LouiH, which has large legi^atJve powers, held that a grant 
to a telegraph c<'mp;iny t« use the Ktreets upoo the perTormance 
of certaJu condluons becomes a contraet wht^n tho»» condiliona 
have been performed, and cannot be nicdified at tho will of (he 
city alone. 

In Zevii t. €i^<f Nc^toti dni £to:irlc Cb.,' in the United 
SItttci circuit court in the aouthcm district of Iowa, 0. proUooi- 
nary iDJunctiou was granted agairst the rcmovid of Lho polea 
andwirce oCan electrio-light company from the Btreeta of & 
city; and tbe court 8ai<l that under the decifiicnfi in Iowa a 
xaero license or pcrmlftsCion to use tlie i^treols waj» subject to re- 
peal; but thatunder an ordltucee lawfully conf^j-riog the tight 
to use the sti^oU, and coataininjf ne reservation of a right to 
repeal or cbangEj the ordinanet^, it was not Inwful for a dty, 
witbout good cause shown, to rapeal the ordinance and destroy 
ituT fninchiM; of thi^ eom[iiiny and thv^ wrtirlty of iU en^ditar^ 
and th^ta temporary injunction a^nst removing Utn polea 
and wires should be granted. 

iRntland EL Uj^ht Co. v. M*rble 
Ctly £L tiifht C<i. «4 Vt. 977, se Aa 

BcfkeaaiiaaS). 

90 Cel& IGa S AsL a. Cte 8 (18»4^ 

* 8l Lorjis r. W«aUni tJaku Tcl«« 
Oa.e3F>-l.lt«^4^aAi&BLClu^tf 

vUw of lb* decviou ef the Dalt«d 



8tal«i VBpt^MM Mttrt b«tw«cft the 
ttim« rorliot, botdii^ that Uw d^ 
tiHtl « riiclit u> FiAOt a rental lor Cte 
tsa of ibe >&re«(a ]4Si;.&«Cl<» 

>7t FedBeikSSie Aol BLCte 
13 (LiMf: nfflriDHi 00 ■ppul.76 Fad> 
B«p.T:a»asac A^ioL 



««•] 



UCXtL^rAL OONTICOC- 



05 



li CU^ Ry, O. f. CUistnai' Str^ S. S. Cc. tho supromo 
ooitn of \he Ijnited Slates hold that thd right of rop^ ro- 
lerrvd by tha tutiit^r (Laws of ImliAna^ June 4^ 1^1) was not 
dtiegttted to th« city goToramenl, and iliiit an ordinanco giv- 
ii^ \ franchise to a street raiit^u)"^ ivhich bad been acted on 
hv Lhn LAKUi^ (if Utiidi^ and tlr oi^nKlriirNinn of Uie Llne^ w&d a 
valid contract, and OiaL a Mdiit^^uuiit imliitiiru^n ^'ivinj^ a fran- 
^Aaat CB tl» Mine Bitywtfi U> another company was invaJidJ 

And in New Jtnwy, whtro tbu »t-ituUj gives clcctric-ligbt 
eompanMa the right to erect ixilea on highways pro%'idcd tht> 
pomision of the municipal authoritiea be £rst obtained, it baa 
been held thai whrn permiMioa baa boon gircn and wifca haro 
been strung the cooapany has a preaninptivvly pcrpetnal frao- 
Mrn^ subject to tho cxcrciao of the polioo power, and not a 

In another coso where the ordinance of a toTvnHUip provuit^d 
that tho frAnohtM 6tiOQl<l bo forfeitod if certain conditionfi \roro 
aoi fallilled, and the company had cxpt^nded moncty in build- 
hig iu line, and trnforoseen circnoutanoes bad eaUBed delay 
whicJi vorked a forfeiture, it was hold in Ndw Jereoy that an 
ordinance declaring a forfeiture and directing a sale of tho 
eonpany'sproperty injudicial in lU character, and that equity 
hut \im Kunf? jB>wrr In iixU'VSA'tify. Jtnd ^\M{^ v^WvA tis it bus in tho 
cam of a forfeiture declared by a court of law * 

Ed New York it was hold by the appellate diTision of the 
npmne court that an onlvr uf tii*^ board of r^iilroad commitf- 
sioAert prantin;; a street railroad the rig:ht to cban^ its motivo 
power from horses to electricity, under the authority of the Itail- 
road Law, g 100, after due notice by jmbticntion, and on a show- 



nas n. a ai^T oami i& thu com 

% eaftB£* of ooiiT* pow^r trcm 
lucv«a lo alectrlcUj v^i htdd to bn 
cMlfled hj a wakmt\mot MaIhia hJiil 
te wort d«cHaad eo dociiW ihM u^ 
ctaacs ooDld noi h^w^ b«m miuW 
■MfcjMJ sUtutorj astbodtj. 

BMtOtmacvfK.XBq.V4l Ail lUp. 
!BO«ie> 

■HvihJcneTrSL Rj.Cu r. 3i>uib 
OW^I (K X Bq-K 43 All R^p AS 

(H W)> The wipr— »a twurt vet utdo 



an onlinnncA proviiliiig fnr Ihn unn^ 
mtiry Nmovot of tk» track* aT att 
olnctric ntrfi;( nEtwAf, it apitwiina 

lUliiiA un^lvr claim of litfht tvt|l:<^ut 
ob^ootioa ciD Ilia part of tlio dtr- ^^ 
that iIa or^inauctf hifl Una pamd 
mitho^iL t^iTln^ tl]« n:iTn I An; aD op 
pfTrtunLtjto tw fa<vird. C^po 31a7 Di 
« R & & r. R5. Ca T. Qipe Haj,fi8 
K. J.Lavr.OOa; afltnuctl^n. J. Law, 




d tb« repoal«( 
tettekMoC 

ifafMiil In MnyljMd; 



tiov £nM iIm flHjor that b« vwld 
tbt OlrfiMMtfta aoc iUUMt^ 
IteUKfa. HMoovt^ditta 

a» w«Q lA in Sew York, that & ci^ 
Cf dw fltwiU fir mntnirt-" 

1 4ft. F«weT oftke lcsb]Maret« rtvake fruiclilw.^»TbQ 
power of tiie lepiUtaffs itietf to r««oka & fmaduiB, sod to di* 
W9Ct BwB of poki and wires to be ranoTodf ihtoItcs differmt 
iwmriifciiMnin. uid tiifl labjoet m ikoi wttkim tike aeopcs of tbo 
pnewt dk^ter. It depefkdB epon Ibe queatios wbetfcer tbe 
gTADl ii ft contract which is innoLib!< tmJcr the c oa rt it e Ci oQ 
«r tlie United StfttM, and wbethcr* if it be ao^ it le ttUI mbject 
te ibe «vprc«i or tmptiad iteerrabioa of the ooatieajiiff power 
of tbe icgi«Utofo to rcgiUftl^ and control the lue of the puUic 
ftreett, 8omo important cases on tlus subject are referred to 
in tiM> chapt4;r that treats of tbo ranoral of wires from poles- 
orsAsad and Uw placing Lbcm uMlef^piniad** (Cbeptsr VX) 



'Piopl* Vp Board of lUilro^d 
Ox»>vnf Sue* of X<w Yof k. 51 N. T. 
8o)>|X ?HI, M App. IHv. «0 41889J. 

«LAka BcUDd ei Bj. Ca r, BkHJ- 

iitrn^ Oityh4Mteba«i|iof)p«drnBi 
skfaninc forfdtnn of a fkmndiia* ot 
sn aUctrlo Uglit omnfonx^ Oxn- 
Mtinlil KL UghE A ^irflr Ca t. 
■Dwons, M Pm. B«fik DM. 

iCitias rec-plo V. CDrko. t il N. T. 
1; Dtrl» ^ 7l4kw York. H X V. tM: 
MlUwi V. Shsrp, S7 X V. 011. dl«. 



ti&caiAlnjC New OfEouvh Mc & It 
Ol t. [Wunoni lU ir. A a>L 

«IA A <«M fn X«w Y<tfh rttlAUk« 
tothcTftltiooftho lat«n«lof Al«b- 
EnpU ooni|suj in tbe isnl uKujilod 
by lU polet. Ill* court of sppMAi aiid 
Unt tba risbt finiil<d V tU rtstnto 
atiil the tuaiiict|iKl ooosccil totmtbs 
UreeiB fur plAatiiv the fnlea wwa, 
mvrq bocouQ^ ravocablo bj tha l*8l» 

TeUg. Cu n Dolftn, tse IT. Y. IM 




\ 



CHArTER IT. 



lEU?ifCiPAL CONIUOL CO^TINUEDl 

Geaeral ^w^r of ^Mce roRulatlon wlhh r^prrt to 
And wintit — ^TIiAt c<iiiUliii>n» may properly be i«i* 
fiMad-'^ETi'ii tbough the I^'grnlative grant Ift not made ex- 
pTMsly labject to tnonicipnl control or the a^ent of thi) local 
uLlnrilMMi, Uio grhntmuHt Im Utkeri U> lirf xiibJitiiL to Iho gt*n- 
«il oontrol of ra«aii;ipul cor]x>r%tionH over tiLrtN^U.' n»d«r 
tkft ordiiLarjr power to regulate stnicta, and id the absence of 
oxlrmardijuiry jminunSlies conferred on ttto c<»tn£KLny Ijy ito 
«tuuler, Giij ^v^irnindDto, no dou1>t» lia.ve the rif^ht to supor- 
Tiao And control tho erection oE telegraph lines ajid alL lines of 
electfio posta and wirea in tbo atrectft, with a viow to public 
aaCa^ oiid conreoueaoe, and to aoe to it that iho poles are not 
ao [dacc^ oa to caubo unnecessary obrtmetion, that the win?a 
ara atrnn^ to high oa not to inlerfere witlt publio travel, end 
Uiat tbetxatem iasooongtractodftanottobedanporoiis.' Tboy 
najr prcaorlbo tbo siie and ttiapo and ruiU-rials of tbe poles; 
tk«y may deaignaia the Btr«ets aloni^ vhicb the Ham ahall go, 
and T«>i|nir« a statement or map abowing tljo location of the 
■•ri^rd [HiliM to be submfttArt to llio propi r tiHicor*. In sliort, 
they may regulate tbe nLanner of tho nse of the str^etd. ^nd 
uki3 <mrv Ui«L tho powi-r gmitwl by the Ingtsbttmi to ubo the 
aLrvi!tj( frir Uli-ms pnqiOHi<K ist m> ilvhI am fiot to tnUfrfitns n-itb f,[»i 
other lAvrfnl naea of the atre«ta, and not to caoso danger nr 
iadoDventeiKO to tlio pnbLic 

A municipal oxdlnaiKO prohibiting any peraon from ftiupr^nd* 
inK wirea mod for oondncting electricity over or a^roBa the 
Mof of aoy building hna been held to bo irritluo tho proper 
liDiren of a eity, in & eaao in wbieh It appeared from the erl- 
dtaco that tho strotdung of theao ivirca orer baildiuga vaa 

tf Din.HuiL(:iQnLf4«li»lX6 V<>- GOl ▼. T»vn or lUnln^ 31 N. X Ei^ 
>1 Dill Una, Cbnk(4ibttd)b low, VT.4ML 
mA uotia oo pk SHi Aok tJik tUet 



fie 



XLKCTIUC WlKtS in KtUZm ASD HTUEIWATH. 



[|«- 



extremely d(;ngoroufE, both as being likely to origioato flics 
and as interfering mtb tbo estinguishm^nt of flree othorwire 
originate<L Tlio court said, moreover: "lE(U*e<l, tlio O&nger 
ia a matter of commoa knowledge. We might alnioat aft well 
require strict proof of the danger of storing gtinpowdifr or 
dynjimite m^ under, xtpon or aliout otir hoii&i^- Even if Uh-mt 
wires c^n be bu jfut ujj and Insul-'tUrd as to b^ Haf» in th<j modis 
enggested by one of Uie oamplaiiULiit*E witnossc^ Prof, Eoith, 
it ha* nni hn:ii i3fmtt," ' 

§ 47. Cases on this pofnt relatlog to telegraph lincft la 
cities. — Even in a cnec in wliicb immumty was claimod by ft 
tolcgTi^ph company ha currjingon commerce botwcco the statM, 
Dnumnond, J,, aaid: " Kot^thatandioi* telegraph li&«« may 
bo in^rumcnts of commerce, % city ho^ the right, as I belicro, 
to dclurmino how, in what manner and upon what oonditionfl 
a tolofrniph oompany shall enter and pass throuj-b it for the 
pnrposi.1 of allowing thcf citiz<^ns of the country to commonicato 
by telc^rraph one with another.*^' 

\k Philadelphia v. Watem Union Tihgraph Ok? it vraa held 
that dlics have the rJgh&to regulate tho coostructica of VnW 
graph Unes within their limits, and to insist that the crectI<»A of 
tbcm shall h^ tinder the siipf^rvision of tlici superint^mlent of tbe 
|x>licM urul rim-alarm tel^^rapli, A1J gnint^of po^rrr Uj prirata 
corporabiona to carry on bnsine^ in Philadelphia were made, 
tho court eiiid^ upon tbe impliod condition that thny shoold be 
Biibjt'ct to any ^^och ri^sooAble restriction as llic; city might think 
aeoeaaary, and that they should obey reasonable ordlnanoee; 
and it ytos held that th« company, not having applied to tbe 
5uperintciir]ent for directionaf hhA no right to put up itd liac«* 
The court said the city made no claim bo prevent the runninf; 
of th& hnct bnt only to superTisc and direct it and to nxiuiro 
plana and locaUona to be snbmitted, and this was reaaooabl^ 
and proper. But while the coart thought undergronnd wires 
wore entiivly i^nicticablcs it fuud that, m the legislature hail 
authorised the ose of both methods of construction, it witt not 
for tho court to conSne tbo conipfijty to the use of only one. 



^ Elodti« larpTi Ca t. Sno Ttkot 

SDAOTdl lbi«L. AW. IS L a A, l«1 

■Uut Uckia Tdcft. Oix t< QiiciuEDb 



teFod.B«p.S0»(lSS3X Beeckin, 

abkd. 

Ml PUh. Eq^ (P^ Cn, O Loi^ 
InLtSKUrn 



M«-l 



UCKICITAI* OOKTBOL. 



59 



In & Uter e^3d it vna beld by she staprcme court of rcrniur^l- 
Tuua^ that the city of Philadelphia has tbo ng:k% as & matter 
nl [)olioo reflation, to ftupcrvi^c itnd control by ordinonco tho 
fRctiou of poica and vires in the sfj^ols. 

Whero the city cimrtor proridcd that no obstruction abould 
be pUocd in the atreela without a written f)vri»it from tbo 
board of puUic works, it was beld in a recent oa«6 in "Wiacon- 
Ain that ft telophono company hafl no riglit to placo polffs in 
\bo ctreets except nnder the direction of the board of v^orlcft, 
fjOk tlioagh the iKiard had p»b»>d no ordinance relating to 
ilion* pol<«-* 

CsMM rvlatlng to viectrlrdlgbt wires In cities,— la 
'Swof wiiy^forriixrfrur Jiglitirg, wliitrh is a matter of local 
roncoTD, tar^-r disirruUim \» criltnunly left wilh th» ]oin{ an- 
thoritl^ than with respoct to ths telegraph and telephonic, 
whidb an of wiil«r interr^t and nSTcci the intcrcourEi? between 
different towns; and it has been hald by the supremo juilictal 
c^rt of M&asacbn^ttfl' that local anthoritles have the power 
to deoido whether wires for local lighting aro aafo and proper 
aad Mocasary^ and altbongh tho statute relating to tolegrapha 
^re penniflsioii for tlio croctioD of poLca and wires, and tho 
Mk) adootmon ehall desi^niit^ tho atrcotK for the purpo«e, and 
anotber atatule declared that this act '^ so far as applicable '* 




> Westcra Uawo Tdejc. Ca v< PhEla- 
hfytdm (Pa. Suiir. (X January £^ 
ItatJb U AU R«fv 144, 91 An. A 

Dat a Cll7 has Tmoii IuH liable for 
In remonng vir«« from 
top* kud c*)iyiaK th<m av&y 
firing thm cnrocc of tao 
vfeM aa offMTtuanx to iwdftte 
tt«nk CUotrio POv«tf Oo. t. Nev 
Tvk. S9 H. T. Soptk 400 H EOfn. 



Witb rwpwt to the poUcu power 
ovt^r BtrMlB. MW ConsrindatHl Tnii> 
tbn L<i. T. Eliubftth, Mj N. X l^ 61», 
ai Atl P^p. UGi Capv Mar IL R Co. 
V. Cn|ieUiiT>fi»K.J. LSOa 

As to the pcw«r to raqnlre tbe 
poico to bo pftintfjd, or tftml^ poka 
to be subfBtilutod for crooked ododw 
wee HArJviuk V, Vormcnl TfJng. A 
TatoptL Ca, 79 Vt IKU, tO Aa K«p. 



A pnJlrallur7 mjoctton vUl not Ok (Wl&X TH >'- W. K^t^v l»l (IHM). 
%l Uta itttt of ft town to ecjoda Svo abo> lui to l^jisimJ |i<rioA, Com- 

a3a,4o AIL RAj^atL 

^Sixburbut t-iaHit A Povrir Cc^ r. 
BmtoD, 1S8 BUM. 900. 8 Am. EL Cm. 
^ lOl^R A.49T(18P1). ABtDtOny 
tTir> wlrw of anj ktnd orer Ih^ rooCa 
of bouaee^ *et g 4^ ^opnL. 



IfeiniBaioffolBBfAcicldo wirvftc/(«» 
artf«MBtth« hH^hKof tvpclT'flvii 
« lUrlf r«oU wbvN th*ro U no or- 
Jlmw Aj^imii 1| add it ikes not 
l««ltfe irHJi Ua vm uf tbn fiireeU 
iWatkllaa V. noUfto^ TruM Gx ^N. J. 



49. 



«ppl7to iliiifciiil%ht I1IMIM Jill il II liilillliiT 

rtflllMr 9 M( AMlmti of tkt dif iboaAd 
hf ^BBttMkjklMf ooapnte «f a }oEal dBDioCvr, 

■apnott ecian of tte l7Bllaa SttM Iw Md* ttei «M. 
wfl] ■otiiiftio wnrtt m ftr w to eMw l MW Wg r topgrmit 
Um byiDg of «i«ctric wirw ia m mi t vbm Uw ccnnpaiiy 
Um rigbt lo laj Ifaa wif«i vftboot im^iljlim with the 
poUie Rgotaiacn of Uw cttf , aad is* sot to fiul 
dSeivd to coDtplj wiih waA tji tfao n^nlstioao u Are UvrroL 
Tbo eoart held ttut tbas rqgdoliau did doC fanpair tbo obli- 
gutfon of tba oootnet ooalAiaed ia ^ Ij^tooi^ttay^ dharter. 
AJbfld^ tbo docBRon of Um ioprenft oovH of ICvoori,* Ck^ 
iortioo FoUertaid: '' Coiuld«ffiD£ the dukger to lif e And pc^ 
orty rroGi eioctbo wins wh«n chArgnL it atnms to the ooovt 
loo plaia for ti^omeat t^t ttic citv ibould h»To the ri|^ to 
dinicCtho manaeriD whkli tbcir QM tboaidbeeXtfrctKd. . . . 
If the oompany, as it ii Maerted, poa aeo wd tbo right to placo 
oloctnc wins boocatb the sarCaoo of the atnols^ that right wao 
sabjoct to aikcb naaooaUe r^:alatio&a a^ tho city doeraod best 
to tnaka for tho pobUc safotj and coaTooieiic^, and the dmy 
mtad on tho oompony to comply wfLh thsm.* 

$19. Ca»««r«HKtt»9 to the electric raU«gy*—£]ootdo street 
railways, although ftalhortzod by itatuUaDd byordisaaoe^aro 
s^Kclatly labject to nuoicipal control with reapeot to the 
atioQ of the cars and with a tlow to the safety of ptibUe 
The powrr of & city in thiH n^nl w disoovaad in a wvl 
ar*Ml caA0 in N«w Jeney/ and the mam prin«iptea an a 



'Hm «Uo EdlMO KL DL Col T, 

iMteovri V, Mmitij, 170 tr. a 79 
ttdU^ a««ftl»Uiicar.UU<«T«LOa., 

MS (IMT^ ITDdar Uw cljsrt«r of 
-QM44r K«rvVo«k,"aaeiioba W4««ia; 
0»ml dAK And lAwi of vm <tliftp> 
ur BCX atoGtrto4lalit oonnantoi iab- 
aoi aract polai or ilffna vItm alona 
1^ anoiBaa of % |*tk -vrltkoiit Iba 
ooUMOl of ba4h Um park iwotui*- 



ao£p«f aftd th* <»omrniiriooof of pub-; 
UaboUdiai^ flfaachj t. CImm^ «^ 
K. Y. Sc^ip, looo a«a»v as u> ibal 
DMflUittig or * DTDtiw^ taqtilriit; 
locAtim of UgliU to U 
bribe towobcatd.MoBmnxi 

ClMdo Co. T. TC«w York« 41 
&ipp. S961 17 lliM. IU> >N. V.) 43a 

• LttcMa Oarilght Ca t. Umpbr* 

laaMatftoaHv 

«09f>9 Mv It &CcL «. CapalUf, 
5»H-J.L.S1C 



HsanorAi. oomi»m-. 



«1 



bio to the consbtifitloD of the liacft of pole* and frirco. It h^ 
lifxm held id Lonidiana * tbat an ordinance reqiiiriiig splices oa 
deoirio wirev to \m iDsiilatod nas a proper oxerase ci moiuct- 
p&l control; ai>d in l\'i»coaHia Umt an ordina&oQ providing for 
pmnl wip» QT«r the Bervico wiios of an clccbic r^way whoro 
tbej eroMod unilcr other wires was a roiuoDaUc potico rcguLa- 
lioa;' and, alurr citing thcoo and otliorca!M>9,tbeftii]>romQ court 
of Xovr J«r«oy said: '^Jt most at tliid dny bo concodcd tha^ 
Bnnioipol atttboriUoCf baving tbo rogtUatton of tbo uco of tbo 
bare the powor to paaa all cvdinances to reaiooably gOMtd 
Wfcmv orUinajy public safe^ and conreni&nce, wheth^ ia 
relatioo to 11m> coostnictioti of the roiui or its oquipmADt-"* 

I M. The power U regulate does nut Imptj- the poirer to 
lap ra nnbargo, — If^ however, the legislature has distinctly 
cunfifmyl iln? |viwiir to tuMt \htj KtnrrU^ lL» power to tv^u* 
bto is noi Lbe power 10 Uy an embargo. If a le^slzttivo 
fnnehiaD bas been gnicti^l, & muoicipuJ corporation uiiiDot> 
ttfl^or the guine ot a regulation, pnjvi^nl tho rxiircliw of L];o 
fmncluae. Th« power mubt be exerciaod »d tta to regulate the 
laaiinor of tho use of iho fitreeta, and nob &o &a todopriro a 
oompany of & fmnoliiae conferred upoa it by tlie Ic^slatura.' 

In a caso in >'ow Jersey * the board of works of Jersey City 
■p|»Uocl to tbo chaDccllor lor an injunction against t^ erection 

of k muiiiLilpalitj i0 poiatod cut** 
Mfv Ur. Juvllce Depod Is lb» tap- 
inor cam " in SUIe, Deuaiii prcA. v. 
Bohokeiv V» N. J, U %0^" aatj tb* 
sune J V Jffe diooanw tho mAttcr fiillx 
Su tbd KortL HtK^^puti Ctx Roilnsjr 
nka# AbOT* <4t«rt, »nd ivfiin to nunj 
codes and (bo Mlovring tOEt-bookt 
an cioiloctodi Dor* 



> WkMsoealn T«£«^ Ga T. J»nMTlU« 
&B J. Co^ 87 Wia Ql Sva alio eh, 

r<^p« Mur K. R. C«L V. Cape Uaj, 
»K,X t.40a. 
^Sortli Hiuboa Ca DT' ^ *< n> wbore ll» 



b3k«Q.41 :f. J. UTlilffTm: Uahlna* 
faRMfc T. OjQiaiteiof>cnk €d N. J. U 
Wi 8«nuaJfc T6vii*hip t. .v. Y. & 
ILJ.tWapk Ca.:i7N. J. ^j. ISlLll 
aU H>|L l«a (MS9SH lUclintDnd r. 
HawUwra BaO T<toplwa» GstP rod. 
B<fLta(CClA,lWQ. 

"Itaa dlictlactltti bstiwea Ike 
f9mm$ of UxatUn for tev«aa* and 
prilce pow4A vhloh are snnfcJ for 
Un omtuli^nMto^ of cnkx- and tbs 
fttmictiuaciMi of Che laten*J feffjua 



otiglu eo Ikxallon. AM: CD0I17, Comx. 

UnxaOL:lDili Mun. Ccqx '«th od^ 
K H91 ; Cocti^)- on T&XAtkn. -tOa 8o«b 
lM>w«ii'ar, fcT A <iuui i>D iImt otU(»r hIiI* 
of tlA lIcDv Klnno^n t. I'lutnHolil. U 
K.X L. IIS, whoro it woa botJ thA« 
Uia iiowor 1^ tax ioi to^vrjvu wm 
rcnftirrAd vIUl tlw power to llJwa 
tha«iJ«oriic|D<ir- 

^JerwT Chjr r- Jt<m7 CilrB«tea 
0U Ry. Cu. 13 X. J< Imw Jmii& 109 



«3 



i::.KcnMO wieks ix stheets asd bioiivats. 



K91- 



of poles in the streM^ts and the oporatioa of a street railway b^ 
the orcrhi'iiil or LroUe^ syslcm of farniehin^ electricity. K 
ftppeorod tbat tho le^^ialnture by gonoral law bod autborizod 
tho U90 of electric motors on o^jtaininj* the ooasent of tho in»- 
nleipal aathoritioa and that the common connoil bad pv«a 
thnir consent to the use of tbe troll*?v systdm. The chatto^Uor 
dcr;k'd tbo iujuDCtion, but wh^n th^ bourd of works Snxkt^ 
that the line was bein^ so conscnicted aa to be dati^rou, h& 
alloweil testimony to be pi^fientetl to show Uml ih^ niAnD^ 
of coQstructioa was improper, but not to dben^it tbo trolley 
syetem itself, ber^ausc a grant to uae thta had already twea 
itLode by the legifiUture with the consent itf tim commoa 
council.^ 

g 51. The power to r^^ulate does not imply the power to 
lis tolls and rtttes. — The pow^r lo regulate does tiut inclmtit 
the power to fix tolls or uhaiges. The sUite cnn re^kt« 
charges, and it ma}* delegate to a municipality the power to 
do so; but even though tho legislnttiro (or tlie constitution, as 
in tbo cflso of tbo city of St. Louis) has girea the city the most 
plenary pawem for the regulation of the use of tho streets for 
railroads aud lelegraphB and electric wires generally, the power 
to limit charges is not conforrod. This is not a regulation of 
the use of tlie streets, but an interference with the franc 
or right to receiTo tolls. It has been so held by tho cup 
court of Missouri with respect to tho Boll tolephoQo wiTY« in 
tho city of St. Louis, whioti has uimost iogielatlro powon over 
the streets.' 

In a Int4?r ease in Michigan,' where a common cooncil hid 
granted permiEsion to a street raihray company to opcntto its 
line by 3locjtricity,it wna held that the cocnoil could notthcr^ 
after, in designating tlie kind of polos that should be lued, 
require ttie company to furnish free transfer tiekoia in oonsid- 
eration of obtuining the right to use a pnrticular Idnd of pole, 



ifleo, howflTCr, Suburbaa L & P. 
Ca V. Bwtou, 1S8 msiL 20O, 3 Am. Ei 

»St LouJB T. Boil Tcloph, Cos, M 
Mo, 033. S Am.ii:LCa& lt(t88S). 

A«tO lIiB power of Simmon <ymn- 
CiU to rtjHLlut^ the use qI ElrGcia. fti>o 
TreuUrc Uotso R B. Ca t. Trenton, 



SQ N. J. L. ISa^wljero it wsa beU 
thnt A city might pass iin ordinaw^^ 
fortijitiUng turn^curs totwruA 
out coudnctorB; 

■ElbcLric Rj- Co. t. Ornnd Ruptdi^J 
84 moh. 507, 47 N W. Bcp. M7, 1 
Auk, EL Cos. in (13a0> 



§5i] 



UVXtClPAL OOKTBOt. 



I 



notirithstaadin^ the rig'ht to mako further rej^ulations had 
bdoo roacrvod. This dociaion, hovoTcr, wo^ maJo UD<lor a 
f orbddditig muaicipaL tie» to kvoI:« a consent onoc given. 

la & drcnit court in Ohio it w^ held in 1^'47 that a city caa- 
Dot, in making aa ifi^Teemeat as to the iu« of its strcoU, lix tbo 
tola Lo bo cbarg^ to tho pauom of a tel^pUoina compaay 
the use of its Instruments^ 

% 5t. Tlie iwvrvr to n>^ttlato the* charucter or locntion of 
the poIe> iimI wire^ doe4 not !mp1j finwer to Impose otU<*r 
condltloDTf, — AVhere a ooinpany has power under a sUlute to 
place |ioif« m tlio atrcc^ts suUject to tJio rcgiilaLion bycdlyordi- 
naniwof iLn location of dirt ^M>lt's;Lml the kirul of pules thcttsliall 
be usedf itbasbeeik bold thai tlie city hsy» no right to [jre^ilho 
otiier oonditions and to refuse permits bccaitse thcsa conditions 
Werv Dot iiGc^pt^, and thai a mandamu4 should bsOD to oom- 
pol the board of improvemcats to fn^ut a pormit for th^ coa* 
Itractioa of the; line along tbo ilrccls referred to* 

Iv thocaaeof ao etcotriorailvay it was hald that where per^ 
niistoa to iiso electricity as a motive power bad been granted 
by tho l^is!ature> with authority to croct poles. " tbo kind and 
pbttvrn to be approved by the commoQ oouncil^'* the oouuoii 
w bouod to approve of x\ proper kind of p^K^, and eould not, 
after approving of Iron ]>olc^ injiiit on th<i (?ou]p;LDy giving fro^ 
tfOEtsfer tickets in consideratloa of beinj^ allowed to us^ woodon 
polos. The eourt suJd tliut «uoh a condttiaii ^vas in eonilicc 
with the at4itut« providing that a eity shall not n^voko a con- 
»ent once |pvon, nor Jeprivea company of rights and privileges 
roofprreth* And in Ntiw Jisrsi-y, wht-n ^ grneral sUtut« giveg 
ttflegrapb and telephone companit'^ the right to^tn-tcli wires 
tho strecte of ineorporated cities and lovroa under oviv* 
lain condition^ and subject to such " regulationji and rcstrio* 
Ucos ** as may be imfosed by Uie corporate authorities, it has 




it^lAtS V, C«intTml Cd1i)u Tolthph. 
Cg^ II OUe Or. Ct B«fL 373, 7 Uhlo 

nns^ Onsori^*Oi3nAttODsic»po«od 
vdst«l lo t^ luc of posts and vtn<9 
Iff saolhec aoui[itui}% mud llie ottu^r 
Rttltnl Uis ntmbvr of vtr>« to ivoh 
s« wfsslvUvtclr xc f sry. 




47 N. W. It?i> 5ft7, W Mich. 357 (IWX 

Th« eCatutc of New Jcnoy glFtos 

Dm- rf milt iviurt |v>trcr to dOTlgD«tS 

vbvMA f CT ft t«kif^D(ih line daia not 

em^cvcf itti^lDiposvooEiiHUocisouV 
Hiilflof tJiDttutHlfw naj-rmnf>r. Kamk 

Urmr ^'^^^ A T«l*p]L Cc^ ei N. J. 
I.ldl3aAlLRop.7^ 



H 



xuKiriKio wifixa ut nuaem ahd aiaHWATs. 



««8. 



boon held that an ordinance proriding that ao telephone iriro 
Bhall be str9tch<»d across abj street without the oonvcmt of ihfj 
tcnrnabip committ«o U invHlid,' iind also ihat the airlsgiog of 
tritM twenty feet aboTs the ground on pole< already etrectetl 
cannot be enjoin«>d by the municipniity by Tirtno of ils gt^nival 
cnnfrii] nviir ptl.rmtji.' 

§ i'l.^. CDnilUinit that othf^r cotupaAl^ shall be allowftd t4» 
1IIM thi^ jimmu poIr». — There «wids to be fiome qiicetJon wbetbcr 
It is cinnjPcttTiiL for cities U> mist that Uie ti^'hl to Hi't up polei 
and irirea in the stroeld shall be subject to a cooditloa that 
otLor co.fn panics sbttU hare the pririlcgc of ming thcMftrae poles 
on payinj: a proper rental. In Ohio there ia a ntatuta giving 
Ujo protx»tc oourtd power to decide what municipal franchisee 
sb&U bo gruDtod, and in what maaaor; aiwi whLto it baa been 
dooidod that these oonrte may grant the h^ht to put up poles 
nad wires, subject to the rights granted by the coarta to other 
companies to omo the aaiiie polei on paying a fair rental^ it has 
also been held that a company obtiiiiin;^ its righw under a 
municipiil ordia^nco ronid oluitn no right to use tlie poU<s undm* 
the decUion of the probata oourt, and tJiat the board of pablio 
affairs had no power to impose such & condition.* 

In a (?a»iT in Mirhignii * th» stnluN- garc [Himpanies tlio pOfWar 
toconatmut and luaiiitaiii conduclora Tor elei^Lrlcity throogh 
thofiti>x*t«; and fin ordinaDoe provided that &1] poles for olectrio 
UgLting ahoiiM bo and remain under the oontrol of the council 
ao far aa to permit their use by other parties for lighting pur- 
poses on payment of a rcofionable portion of their cost It waa 

leg a prapcir rental ucii^^t tbe oc^ 
iHUiO^ luu^l tftiU ubUkEu D itnci vr 
fntnrJilQ* tmd^r Um aUttEtci R ft« 

Wh«r« JucaI BUtborilico have full 
ocmtml ol lou;itio[i uf F<il««aDd eJ0» 
tnoTi>ieaU ia not unlawrul fort«J9' 
phooo ooatpanUe aB4 olootrio nil- 
way DoiB|ttiiiea to DM tho Huatt |<ito^ 
with tb» ooa»Bt oi Uta mimlolpitt 
«uUiQriti«& Borgia r, Soalbcni K. 
£, TcL Col. 70 CwiD. X Oe Aa Bcji. 



> 8vuniiit TovTbfiKlp t. S. Y. A N. J. 
Tvl Ou. 5T Ifp J. i:^. 1^, 41 Aa BtCh 

>nflj{AntiQft B<ircugh V. HollAAd 
Trwrt Col (S. J, fki% 97 AU- Hep. 483 

*H:tti» I^tjtlitiaQCbr. JooeaBrea 
BUcctfio Co. >Ohic Bapr. Ot-Bpecdal 
TWm), 38 W, I. BuU. 197. &m aloo 
finnb EleolriD Ught Ca r. Jmmm 
UfOtli««10«e«rieCa .UumiUoaiCoia. 
Pi«iv!b Olik.), SI W. U Bait t», vbvo 
Si wua Md Lbvt a oompaaj, havla^ ml 
otilaliMd » deoroo of tb* prolMtto •Cttttaaa' EUctrto LlgM Ca t. 
«»vtand a Fonattbotti tin board flaoA^ D6 HkOk. ML. 66 >\ W< B^ 
of poUio affairs to ajo polca oa pbj* 412,4 Aio-El ChalSnanL 



««*] 



wnnctFAL coNTfiou 



66 



hdU tbat, ftfUr a corapen^ hod erooUd poles, the council could 
BCit by itioJutioii allo^i* anothor oompany to Q30 Uie poles, luika 
Ui« oiaimor of cnch c»wa4 £lm Oofiiiitcly Oxod. 

UDdar a statute m Ohio > pmndin^ tha^L aa oteotric liglit and 
power company may coiutroct T^ir^Cf poete, eto., throuj^h tbe 
■tfocta of a city " i^ith th^ conBont of tlu? mauicipal jkulhf>riLica 
aod under sDch reasonable regulations a* they may prescribe,'* 
it vaa Wd Uutt tbo commoa coimail hml a conUnuin^ power 
to provifle tliat another company miglit ukc tlte |>olRi ^Ireiuly 
ia tboitrootj and to fix a reRsoitable compensaLion for Bacb 



Id JfiviA Sal£ltn/yn Pumk. lit;. Cu. v. I^t>r£h Avft. Htf. Ctr* it 
appCATDd that a fiU«et miiroad company had been incorporate 
ia ldT9, vrith poirer to cooEtruct and opcraU^ lU road subject 
to SQch conditions aa tbe common council ahoald impofr?, «Jid 
Uat tbo council, in gnmtin^ a franchiso, reserved tbo poirer 
(oi^rant to any otiwr company tLio right to luo the traolo. It 
vaa b«ld by tbe ooort of appeaU of HaryL&od in 18^^ that the 
eooaeil had tho power to gi^ a& clootric railway company the 
nght to ujo the tracks and to maka mkch chiuigiis aa wer« Q6C< 
Maiy to adapt them to the eleotrio ayetem. 

t»4. EiUnt and moHnfn:? of the powor to ImpoRotleeaM 
fa ta, Tho power to re^ubte may imply the power to lioenao, 
bat the Uoenaa fe«s must be impn^M only for the purpose cf 
ngnlotJog, and maai be anXy vuch a« un^ n^rw^niibly nec<-KULry 
for lliat purpoMi. The power cannot be used for the pi2r]>09d 
of iVTDinia; authority to rt^gid^fttr) and to liccbM> dtjcs not con- 
fer the puwer i>f tAXatioQ> 

Authority for thc«o propositions may be found in any text- 
book on iDOuicipal corporations, aud I vriU onlycitocaoearoJat- 
iflf ctpocially to po^ta and wires ia the streets. 

Tkm waa nn unreported c»sc in tho I'hilodoiphia comn^oa 
Fkai ID 1l»S3 between tho Western Union Telegraph Company 



tAot of 1S»^ Smith A a flat, 
im^oMBSa 

tTtaWo eioctito BL fij. Col T. 
WMUnKLUA P. Cn. tO Olik) C Q 

*T3 Ml M^ n AIL E«p, 400. i 

a 



XELxnd Elwtrio Ky. C<i^ M N- Y. 

&iprhCosat«a»^u to (iMichiM lot 

>)bt tiu of uncles 

■Am. UmcA T«l»;^G(x T. BAirtaoQ 
<ToiTi}j, SI N. JL Eq. en, por VoA Flootv 

v.a 



w 



acMtuo vnan vt fRmnt ajch biohw&tb. 



KM- 



and the city of PhiladdpUa,^ in which it was held that cit«6 
bod power to regulate the conatraction of telcgmph linov Kfld 
to imposo Ol licrfLsc fee, aai) that a cliargc of {5 a pole per 
aDiiam y>m not uaroasona.ble. Thia wajt followed i& Dolawsjo 
county io 188S,' and in LancastCT county in 188ft,* bot t*i*ro 
W03 a contrary ruling in Centiv county a^>out the samo time.' 
The first oase ' was approved by xha supreme court in Jaau&ry, 
1888. It was hold that the city bod it right to control tbd 
erecUon of tt^le;^aph pol^a in thd atreeta. The court h€ld thxt 
a, liaense fee of £5 for oach telegraph pole, and $L50 for <och 
mile of wire, miglit besusluiaed as a polic^e regul^ition, although 
not ss a tax ; and the court said the amount of the fee was to b» 
measured not merely by the cost of taking care that the line* 
«re kept in good opdt-r, hut also by thw «*si>ous!biliiy and rak 
imposed by the prt^once of the lines of wires in tbe streeU, and 
Lhut a license f<M? of $1 a year per pole and $3-50 per raile of mna 
was Dot SA> obviously exi^essive &;§ to authome a n^vislon oftho 
act of tbe cit}^ council. This wa^ followed by the supreme oomt 
in 1893,*&iid the court said the ordinance proTiding for inspi*<y 
lion and a license fee was iu Uie t^xerolsu of the puliL^e |x>wer, 
and the only questiou was whether it was a reasonable excmM 
of such powfir; iind in 11^33 the decision in thec.isc in Debiivane 
county WAS alllrmed, and the aupretue court said it was sot suf- 
ficient for the compriny to aver that tbe license fee w&5 oat of 
proportion to the necessary «xpcmea of the municipality in Issn* 
infUconacs; the duty of tho city to see that tho polos wcrOMfo 
And the ri^k of liability for accidents most also bo considered.' 
Those decisions wcro ApproTod and the ordinance of the oi^ of 
Philadolphia again tustainod by the supn^roo court jn 1895.' 



1 800 tho (wnB out oited. 
t ChoMdr v. Wfst Uvloe Te1«& Ol, 
S Uno. L»w VEOT. IM, S XoL EL 

• LjiDAuter T. RcltvaD niam Ge^ S 
Pb Oh l-t Itcp. 1714. 4 Abl £1 Cte 
ll«; £L Llglit Co. T, City, ft Del <T^) 
IIT. 

> PhU1iT>ilnnTh w. Omt Pmuu 

«m • Am. Rl, Ow t(k\ 

»WMini Uclua T^ta*. Ca t. Ptrfk». 
MiOUa, Lt AIL &«(i tH 99 W. N. Ou 



eik$Am.ELCa&fla^$IAm.Anig, 
Corp^ Cu 40 !>ee a1w> PluJAd«lpfalft 

Rep. W3 (ie»7>; NoTTislowa v. Kv 
Bton« TUpc. a T«feph. Co, U Moalft 
Q> LawitcjkA 

*AUontowa t. Western Uuioa 
TB«(&Oa.l48?a,SL 117, 4 Anv IL 

0&» IH PL St 4&i 1 Am. EL C^ tW 



] 



Aiin»cir&L coicruoL, 



6T 



fn one of these cntH^t* tho court HaidI the TOftconiibknen of 
the fee was a qge^t^oa Tor tbe court, the biu-Ucn bdng on the 
di^nmUnt X^ »iliow tbat it was uttro^fioDable, Id thia c^tse tfi« 
onlioaooti r«*i]uir<ed tbe ovrneiRf of all i-li^r^t.rtE^ Tight [kiIi-^ to 
namber and ioiUal «ach pol<?, and to take out a liiieuHi* oti f av< 
neat of fifty ccat^ a jrcar for each polf?, under a ponalty of tfi 
for each anil tirery olTen^e. It was held that the ordmanct) was 
ralid, bat tlmt a company refusing to mark ami unmboT its 
pol«s aod pay iho Itccnsc foo od each pole was guilty of but ono 
oAeifld, and subjoct to only one penalty. 1q anotbor coso tbo 
lieeiiA9 foo was to bo paid by girtng tho oity oqo free ligbt out 
of erory thirty, and this vnu held valid.* 

In tb« m^aatiina the decision of the county cocrte was di»- 
spprored by the United State* oirciiit court in PonfiKjIvjiniu ' 
with respect to the amount of tho Uoeiue, and it was held that 
elttop ooiud not tax telegraph compunics nor inipoea lioeniie 
foci amountiag to a tax, hut only for the purpow of paying 
tllo neocAsary eipeoaee of supervisjoa with a view to the pub- 
lio safety ; but thia limitation tva« not ir.ltog^Uirr »uKU]nc4 by 
tiifi ITmtad Stales Kuprenie court in a caj«e to be referred to 
proienUy.* 

After this it was held by tho cironit court of appeals that 
the city oi J'biladelphia may lavrfully impose a licence tax 
upon the potea and wirceof a tek^aph company, even though 
it b a oorporatioe of another st^te and ia engagtKl in interHtate 
oMLnieroe, and that the qucetvon whclEiertho xs^ is rcA£onable 
is tbe subject of judicial inquiry and may bo duterminod by a 
ioif.* Tho conn said that a wide ran^ of evidence must be 



(^ Sk dkw ftU> Nibw Qutle f, 
IMrie Gel, le ra. Ock Cu RcFw 003 

amoL 

' UiKMt^ v. tl^lfoa EWclrio iU- 
Co, l-a. C; C B«|i. 110^ T«lw Cu^ T. 
CKj.as W. N, C^iPa.x».3Laac. 

ifivetrio Liicht Col t, Clij, « DtsL 
(lk> 11X Unmm fi<«) d tl pvr fule 
ad fL5e par miU of irini IaU to tw 
(■Qiptr excn^ r>f Uko p44ioo power 
CC^a- T. a«iU«l rMo. ta&vph. Ok, 
4 lAC*. Lce»i ^vviv 101 U^*^:; 



4 La^t Lt^gul Nowi. ill (IH(I»^ Ttkx 
i>f dfty »nt« pet polo pec onnuni 
held uarfoaoQoUo when it aifptorad 
ihkkt ttui a»t of iDNpttctiuD woB tlia 
qoqU par potok Sni^uutw ▼. ttvifl 

Ek-ctjic u«Lt Q* iHicb.), raw. w. 

* Phlljul«lphu V. WMt«n Ualoo 
TuIoK- Co. W Fuel fi^p. dlL 

' 9U Luuifl Y. Wtsuif ti Cukiu Teleip 
Ol, 148 U S^ tt2, 4 Aot. fX Cka 10) 

• Pbilad^lphla t- We»t«nk Ucioa 
lUcv,CbL,ae FoLBdj;i4Miaa Ao 
WW)- 



68 



MLBCTBIC WIBU tS STECmS UtD BIOnWATS. 



(S«. 



admitlecl because ih.^ reaacmableneea depends npoo «U the facte 
and circnmstfiiioes, And Ui« iDquirj iaTolves not oaly the oatt 
of dimr.t rv^gut^ttonit uid OTeraig^t, Lot aIso tb« incidental coot 
of m&Intainiug a proper system of s];^)ermiorL 

g 55. Tho same continued.— In Cnnsu^ it vcaa held titat a 
liccDde f«v of $13 a year for each buaaeas toleplione and $10 
for eacb roBtdtnco tolcpbonc coold not bo dooUured tifir4>oson- 
»blo without proof of the privileges ei^oyod and bitrdifiu boroc 
by tlto t<.'lcphotio conapLuiy, and of tbo eipeaditarce &&d noooff- 
Bitics of the city; and m t^orida & tokphone pUnt hftring 
K«paroto TTires in tho ag^-njg;itc mor^ than tw^^nty-Qv^ mil«i 
in length was )nsld to be siibject to the lioaDse fee of tlUO 
imposed upon all euch compAmes uidijn tlulr line is loss than 
tw^nly-iiTi* tntl^ in length.' 

The oTdlaance of the city of PhiJadelphia was afteriirards 
dudanxl Talid by the fapremo court of New Torkj irbicb cited 
and approved tbe PennsylvMila cases;* and the opinion con* 
tains an important discusaion of the olomentA of tho municipal 
rxpi.'nso upon which tho liocnM* fcH) mar properly bo bsand. 
In Uur^'litnd jui ordlnant^i} imposing a liccnsG fee of 93 per 
annum for each pole was sostAinod bj the court of appeals;* 
and tnlUiooisan ordinance rL^qninng^atroctniitroad company 
to pay an uaniuU tax on eac^ mile of its rood ts a condition of 
its right to comtniot and opcrato its lino did net deprive the 
com^iany of its property withcutduo prooew of law. Tho coort 
s&id it could not be assumed that tho motive of tbo city wna to 
taise a rovcnuo under t^ guUo of a Lcooiw fee or rvgulattoa 
(it not appoto-injU: that tbo foo was unn^asonable), nnd that at 
&ny rate the city had power uoder the statute to impose as a 
condition tho payment of it reasonable tax or license fee^ ail 
that, even If the ordinance were ttUra vins, yet it ccmld not be 
treutd ns prohibited and against public policy, and, the com- 
pany hHving acccplod it and »gru4.Hl to pay tJie amount 
Bcribed, it could noL now repudiate the contracli.* 

>Jn n Chipdioflft M^a 89?. § >PbUu(]dpluft T.ro<rtalTy^Ca»! 

Am. EL CtLt. 4% liattua ff* of $1 ST Hua. 21 1 Am. fl C«a «& 
ep«« vKh tdl«F4)oa^ though vaod ia «P«k1slT4k9&XT,Ba:iiia«i«C}^t 

lDtoataitflbutuio«,bo1dTaUdCVid«o TVMl 503, 9* AtL R«^ 8Uum> 
^ OrauBUi (Dtahk ttt PMi Bopi tlKL »CUa&|,'D Gou. Rj, Ca i. Chtoa^ 

'Sol DoU Tvkpb. ft T«ta9. Ca iL 1TS11I2H (UX£B«pLBMilS9e> 

lyAkmixriB^ SI & fiop. 970 tianx 




} SS.] mnncfpAL oonthou 41^ 

On th« othor band, in LooislAiia it w2b held, in 1SS3/ that 
irlrar* at l«1egnip]i companj hail alrcvly BOt up iu 1Sd« prnter 
an ordbftfioe upoD oertain tamu^ the oit; bad no power to ini* 
a lic«iiM f« fiT {'■ E^^ P^o in " oonBideratioii for the 

rilrgi^ of nxiDg Uw fttnwU-" Thcf (H>Tjrt Kactl it iviw Dot piv- 
tfa«t thiii waft f^tther a Ux oti pN>j)frty or u lic^mnt fin*, 
that it vftfi a police regvtation ; it v^s a mere diu^rgt^ for a 
prirUrgn which luut alro&djr been gnmt^ on otbor t^rrniB. jiml 
wafl in ▼iolatiOQ of Lhe contraot between tlie citj ami the com- 
pany. 

la a CUM in vrhlch the ordionnoo il<^Iarcd that tbo fco wu 
fayable for ■'the privilc^^o of nsinjc Iho atreets," tbft auprcmo 
«MK of tho L'nitod States held tJiat it woa Dot & privilege or 
Ueonse tax. The amount, the court aaid, in nr^t gnidnatod br 
the amoont of bnsinesA, nor is it a earn fixed for tbe prinlcgo 
<t doing businoas. It is moro in the nAturo of a charge for 
Qm Qso of property belonging to thie city— that which may 
properly be called rental, A tax is a demaad of soverei^ty; 
H toll n a dcrmiitid of pmpnntorvhTp.* Tbe court said thnt tb« 
fact that tbe city ddrivGd revenne from the charge did not 
make it a tax, ThoTrvrmnesof n njnniHpality may come from 
f»tab aa legitimacy ha fn>m taxHK, Tbtf Ktn^H^Lt of &U T^ttis 
ielong to tho city for public piir|>oaeSt and Uie defendiint 1% 
making an exolnsivoaad [wrmnQv-nt luo of a certain portion of 
then for tbe pnrposrs of its l>u»iivesa. Tbfit u»e, .ilthimgh a 
pvUic nsOp » different in kind and extent fi'OEn that enjoyed 
by tho pvblio gcncnlly, and there is nothing to prevent tho 
pablio froiu exactiag rental for the space thm occupied. Viewed 
ia thii light, th« oonrt said the chargo of (5 a year for oach 
fole did aot appear to bo nnroosonablo, and tho decision of 
tba circuit court ap^inst tlie v^dity of tbe ordinaneo waa ra^ 
fnad." 

ThJs decision, it mnst bo observed, is bafi3d upon tho peculiar 
|«ga] position of the (^ty of Su Louis, in whiob^ ttmlcr tbe con- 
■CmiloD, the rigbt4 of tho publio in ihe strecta ^nJ tho whole 

■ H*«rOriM»v.OrMlSmitKt«Uit {XnV): Htins Stnl* FVulght lUt 

c;^MiAAnitii.3Am.ELOiA.t2i. c«hi. IS w^Li aaj^ars. 

*8C LcuU r. W«rt> UfikKl Tcloc, >St, Louis v. Wf-iL UbloE) ttfa^^ 
0&,i4^r. H 03: a Con rdbwUNC. Co, OX Tod Uop.dCL 



TO 



BLBcmo wutca m ntsssre and nionwATs, 



[|M. 



sovereign control of the slreete are ve?te*i ID the city and oot 
in tbc stnbo, Cif.iEs ordioarily b:ivc cot tiUo lo tko ttrtwU, and 
the TiglitA of tlie |>ul)lic therein Are uniler the conlrol of Use 
state, and the cities have onlj encb powers of regnbtioo ai arc 
coofcrred by statute It wouJd 8Coid« therefore^ tliat tho thoofy 
of a rental is not one vrhich coald be applied mtisf&ctohly in 
all casca, and it may bo doubted v^bcthor cities hsTO tho power 
to rent any portion of the pobtio strcetj, cren for pablio pur' 
poaefl, mthout express legislative authority, and thi« aatUority 
should coaUkio some reference to tho amount of rcnt^ to bo 
obar;*od. 

In a eitb&4>qt]^nt casd b^tiveen the same parties, in the TToitod 
States cireuii oourt in Mis^ourij ii wa« held that the city of 
St Ixmis, having granted a franchise upon certain conditloiis 
for the benefit of the city, whlcb were acc«ptCKl, cotiht not 
afterwards exaifit a rental for the privilege of using Uie «trceta, 
and that, even if they eonld, a charge of (5 per pole mia, onder 
the drcomsUincMT?^ and b;iviDg rvtcrcnctt to tJio valuo of tlio 
land, exorbitant.' 

And the supreme conrt of Mississippi, referring to tba de- 
cision of the saprcrno court of tlic United 6tatc«, s&id it viu 
based upon the fact that the city of t>t. Louis held an unique 
position, and held that ^hcrc the legislaturs hoe given author- 
ity to a telegraph company to occupy the streets of a city free 
of charge^ the city cannot exact a payment by way of lieenae 
fee or rental.' 

g EiG. IHttnldpal rights In the streets are not those of an 
ovrner^ bat &r» held fur public purpow>H.— The rights of the 
municipality In the streets are notlike ihowofindi7idaal laod- 
ovmera in tbeir lands. The city hu no rigbt^ as owner of 
the soll^ to ohjctJt to the pn^trnw! of Ui« poJen and vrirc^ but it 



>SL LooIh t. Wwt CaEou Tolc^e. 

coi. ea Fod. Bop. e^ ^ Am CL Cu 

43 (l(t(]4V 

(Uiw^a Am. £:LCu.fiSa&»). An 
to Ui* dlrtlDctton HlWMlt Um pOWBF 

of UialioQ for T«Te&M» uid tbtt po- 
lice potrora, SM ciwt died la aote t 
OB pice 47- 

For A fuitbor 4i*cittrioa Of ftate 
aad aaa^ral lazes or Uooum t^tm 



on Mlccr^pb llDt^ we tlie diaptcr 
oa Telrgruphs u^d Po«t Konda (i0« 
Couatycc'CoxniAelonftrvna; nquips 
A Titnvrt nuUay ceaxipooj lo slafa 
die i*ji|HrnM of «lranvt!i>^i(i|- And 
rapalrv cf a brlds"^ ttn'l to %mf 
r«Btal,a« a roTutiLioa) of oocwdiSlo 

T- Nftw Caaile Fl^^^ fty. Co, 8 Pfc 
Sjper. Ct. 3U 45 W. ». G TB 11(9«^ 



JSt] 



xoxioiPAL ooimiou 



acU onlj u gotrdiftn of the public codGoneot Acoardingly it 
vag beld to Koiv Jtrwy, in a case vhero Ui« poke woro oa 
print* tftDcIs, and ouly the wires wem over the strectfi, that 
ne bjtmciioa wcultl bo £;mnt<Hl wh«re >l appeared that the 
vires bung twenty-ftve feet from the grouEii], ind tbut th« 
anthcffitifl* h&d not even considf^rod the question wheiher tbej 
were a ittittam^/ 

Utiles lUe land in the straeta has been conveyed to the city, 
tbe feo is ordinarily in thv owner of tlifr udjoiniDg lands;' and 
wh«ii hind U dedicsitctl or cundt^ncod for n highway, or oven 
token for & tompike, tbe title generally remains in the eiiat- 
ing owQcrfv of the tnnd, and it is only the atrc«t or road, as 
■aeht that ia rcAted in Hie public authonties^ and this i& held in 
trust for use as a street.' 

In Ci/e<ni'iU u. V^icrU^m^ it was held by the English court 
of appeal tJut nndcr an act providing that tbe stn-et should 
TT«t in the district board, the property in the etrcct so for 
rested in the board that \% conld dc-ciise the ri^ht to departure 
cattlelberefGofar as to give the Lessee aright of action against 
& wron^ocr. 

In WimdM^fi&r(h £e^rd of Work* v. UhtUd T^i^&na Co.* an 
nation vraa brougbt by a locsd bourc! ngsunst stretching t^le^ 
pIuiEW wutv uvi-r Hitd jU'Tiim a >tnufL Thn winit \vn% fnxlj^rml 
to chimney tops and passed over the street in several places, 
snd in some cssm nt a vi^ry ucubo angle. The wirn was no- 
vbcitt less than thirty fe<^t from the ground. Stt-pben, J., 
found that the wire vras Dot a nnisanoe to the highway, and 
that ID Uie ordinary course of ea-cnis it ^vu4 Likely to cauee no 
fcroeptihle dan^r to the public, although a violent 6tona 
nij^i possibly blow it doivn. Ho held, however, that the local 



' Am. Uokiu Tekv. Ca t. Hutumju 
OV^n OfW SI M. i. I£q. 93t^ 
>aKvnt^C^auiL4St S*^ tnjUi 2, 

Hn D«Tf>oiD T.aatl Ekut,Cfl,Luril 
Xtiaj%M miiSi "At lo th« oontient of 
•■ tnwicrt oi a tumpike rcfld, tb« 
wM ««# DDt Tt0ted in iLoiu. Lul ni' 
■tiBil lo til* perwvN vbo wcrv «ii' 

WM h> it bcfof«9 tbo^ wcte &p 
Tb* tnuctoea Iiato tmlj- tli« 
0< tbs blgl^^rmym" Sbd ftbo 



tuta Hy. Co., ^ U a (IV. &> 17^-S0« 

TlifP pubLko 8traot« of a city nr* 
bclcl in truAt by tho cJty fot tl)9 uw 
of lhi:i |<ijli]i<', lutii ML vtrorU^ lJi<<j 
cMnnot W lAwfiiUr Mntr««t«<i or 
KivtJQ avny for privsto uf«e. ChJoij;^ 
GDUund By. Co. v. ChtL-uiou CJly Ry. 
Ca, AS III Ap^ AOS; Xorih ChlnAgoSt. 
Er. Uh V. ChMUum, ^3 111 App. 31& 



n 



SLKCTSEO WIASa IN ffTlUOm ±XD BfOUirATO. 



[8 5T. 



bo&nl, aA onn^m of ihe iotl, bad an abioluta right to pf«YenL 
tb€ defcndanUfroai su&pen<Iiiigivir¥s over tbe street, npon tbo 
print;jg>1n tliut Ihc air Abovo tbo mndnay wai as niuuh Uioir 
property an Uie njailwny itaoelf. Tliis ilwiuon vra« nsvi^nnd m 
the court of appeal, and It was held that the board of vorb 
hfid only mch titlo b« wax gircn it bjr not of pttrliamaat^ and 
tbat under an act d^lano^ that the streets ahoold ** rest in 
and bo nndcr the EDao&gomcEt and control of tbo vestry or dis- 
triot board/' the titlo to the streets waj given to tbo botrd so 
toDg as the lani remained a street, bat that the ^ord ** stnet** 
did Dot fneludo an iDdefiiiite right to tbo soil dowavr^rd, and 
to the air upward, but only tho aurfdco and so mnoh abovo aod 
bolow it as was neoeeBary and usBol to bo used for the proteo- 
tion of the cnjoymoDt of the publlo. Bow«a, L J^ said: "All 
that I feel called apon to say is tluit I am satislied that th« 
board of works h&re not uny proprietary int^T^t above the 
itra&t, exc<*pt what is cecussary to proUrat the tttriwt uad 
the traflic from interruption or danger, or to eoiable tbem U> 
ezerGiAc their powers in the street" 

It wnA held that the tt^nrniMl judgR t*rr&l in applyiag the ttot^ 
trine of CaMrtlila v. ChaHian *o as to extend the area irfajcfa 
was listed m ^o board cf works beyond the area of user and 
make it include the area cf po^iblo interference. 

% 67, What are the " local autboritlcs*"— Wherv tho sUt- 
ute rc<]uircd tho consent of tbc IooaI aathorities to the ooastnu^ 
tion of a telegraph line, and the road olarxg whieh it waa to be 
put up was in tho control of a turnpike company, it was eon- 
tended that tho consent of ibis ooaDjpftny vaa BuHioirnt ; bnt the 
eonrt held that by ^' local autbohtieB" were rueimt ttie officers 
of the city, town or villa^ whose dntiea and powers relate to 
the suj^er-vinton, care and nuiintenaace of the streeU and high* 
ways, and that in this case, in which the wad was not in a city 
or village, but in a '^ town*' or township,*. #., otit in iho Govnlry, 
tho anthorlties were th« coinmisaioni'K of the highways.' 

It baa been held in New Jersey ' that thi» statute nK|liiriDg 
S designation of tiiii stit*rta in uay inctjqiorated city or town 
throu^ which the line may poas applies U> Ihooo cominuniUes 

iQenc<:li<«terEI«ctricfl.C<>.l» & K :. TAf^h. C*k, tif ^ ^ U 9»i 
tf. Y< XL » Am. A &I& K C^ 1ST. & C. 00 N. J. U tSL 
STbt aut4h Bvoocns pioa,*. KT. 



SW] 



imUTCirAL OOITTSOL. 



78 



in wfatcb Rtre«U rttber than rvadit ara IsJcl, nnd to ihd legtsl^ 
live bodioa to which the <M>fitrol of these streets is given, and 
Uuit altluiagh p4utt Ornngn wa« n to^vniihip, vnt iw it vrss a 
tar^e iQuiticipalitr, conUining KT,ri«U m lUKUnguiah^ from 
oountrr ro^da. and as its lowmhip committee was TCHted with 
fnl) povTOT over tbcsc streets, the township ooinmittco camo 
within the meonin]!^ of the fltacnte and wiks the local auUiority 
who9o consent mm: be obtained. 

And in New York, whcio the constitution proridcs that the 
eonstraction of a street milway ^all aot bo authonTed with- 
out the consent of " the local antborides having the control of 
Umt )K>rtioo of the street or highwny" eongbt to bo oociipiod» 
it was held* that the edmmijaiotte» of ht]U:hwuvs were the looal 
■■tbodtiea hiiTin;» control otcp & brid;^, althouj;^h the vUla^e 
trattee* had the |>ower to malce and repair tbc eanio. 

InPennfiTlvaniaitbas boenbetd" thactbe eupt>r\*iflf>rsof the 
township aro th» propor " iocal authoritiea " to give the consent 
rwjnifAit. 

In New Jersey, where a statute roqoired tbe consent of the 
"gtiriTfTiing bwly * of the township^ nnd an wirlicr statute pro* 
Tkled that aatrei^t niilvray miglit bn constructed wlUi thuoon- 
leat of the body hsTing control of streets or bighwayai^ it was 
hdd that a company which hod obtained the consent of tho 
body having excltisire control of the streets must aUo obtiun 
the consent of tbc governing body of the ton-nship,' 

S S7. Loral ftntberlties and county brid^e:^.— It has bcea 
hrid that tbo city coaacIL is not the locaJ aulltority whose con- 
mt is n.<q aired for Inying a stroot railway track npon a county 
bridge within tbe Itmite of tho city nnder a statute of Pennsyl- 
imiua of tfay H, ISSd. And alee that th& county commission* 
an have no power to grant to ctn^'^t railway companies tbo 
right to Lay tracks upon oonnty bridges. The comnii«^oners 
m bcnnd to keep the bridges in good order and ropnir, with* 
ODi olmniction of any kind.* (n a ca«je In New JerM*y it was 

tnlttoMt MS Wcjit Jcrwj Tmction Ox 
T. Qteatbu Uatwo K tL C4,5SK. J. 

*Vi-niLC99 Oonaty GbtnYs t, <X1 

aij Ft Kj. Cr^ S Pl dm. Ot lt«|V 
(IS <IKM^ Sm nUo Unw r. OH Cttj 
Ry. 0» (Pb. dt.> 8:: Ail ItoiA mi 



'ybwlfldd iTovn of) t. Ton»- 

■avla»t HydKSSX. V.»ap9iT44. 

i|\aik R IL Co. V. Ifocrt^omfirf 

Cvk fkK a ocu a r^ DbA. ct. a W: 

ftCWP^HttSLSAnLtaOwllA. 

< BKm TlM.-Uaa Ca V. Riil|:«a«!d, 

ttAlLBspklH A«tol0wiiiUipo«B- 



74 



XI.ECTBIO WlfiES IX DTKXirrf hjm iiio&vrATO. 



[SS8. 



h«lil that tho coDST^nt of the c^kunty board of chosen freeholder 
Is nec(uu;ary to authorize an electric railway company to oae t 
coDntj bridge tritbin the limits of a city, and also that intc]i 
(tonaeof, wcjuld be of no avail if iL a|)j>eanHl that Uie board Lad 
takon actijn witlioat mqmring whether sacb use of Ibe bridge 
vrould be daBgaroBS acid impiir the safety of public tra' 
The consent mast be giren by the body r<^alarly ooa 
aud organked, after confcrcace and deliberation, aad upon diM 
notice to the public und to persons intcreatod.' 

g^. How munklpal coDsent may befflven.— If the stet- 
uto rcquinn^ the manioipal consont spoci^ee how the consont 
fihall be given, the mocio pro^oribt^d mn^t bo folloirod. li tho 
statute givG& tho iDonteipality authority to exGioiso certain 
powers by ordinance, a rosolation wUl not be Fuffieieat' C«f- 
tiun formalities with rfispiM:t to time and notice are roqatred 
for the passagd of an ordinance, and to permit ao act to ba 
doQO by resolation ia to disponse ivjtb these formalitiee. and 
the courts, therefore, will not allow eommon councilJt to net 
by r^olutfon when an ordinance is reqnired by the charter or 
statute. As a gen<?nil mle^ if a Ht^itiii'U m^n^ly rotpjire* tlie 
(^naent of f}ie common eooncit, and m Klh^nt ha to th<: mudrf la 
which it shall he given, a resolntion is sufficient;* and in tha 
case of UaUf'y v. Itaj^id Trart^U SitYtt liy. Co.^ already referred 
to, it was h&id by the vic&cbancdlor tlt&t where the statQto 

Lnwrrrnco Cf>iintj- r. Kcw O^etlo 
KliKiL St, itj. Co., rtftw Super, Ct, 213, 

^titato* LavU v, tVooholdor* of 
CuuiUrlond, SO rd U 410. 4 Am. 

lUo^oD bL Kj. Co. V. UiuIotAn * 
Kortb Side Eloct Ef. Co., S P^ Dbt 
Cl. R-^ix T»4 [1^^); rrtuiL R. K. Ca 
T, Honi^pmoTT Ce. Pom. Bf- Ca, WT 
Pa, SU 62, 5 'Vm, £L Cu. I« (189C); 
Owxidezi Qene H. n. Ce, v. W««t Jor- 
«»y Traction Cu, M N, J. Kq, 433, 5e 
AU H^Et 3S3. &3 N. J, Kq, 16^ 53 
ZC. J, 1. 1C2, 8S AtL Ro^ 72. 

> Dill UuiL Cufi^ Mtb wDk S SDT &Dd 
noDfe; 6Cnz«s Tati Tont t. Jer^^ 
Gty. S Dutch, (T K, J, L.) tf3 j Stale, 
Ol«aiOD Y. S^iKODt 33 E^ X U 7^ 
£lal« Holx>kMi I. ft I Ok T- BoUk 



kon. 35 Np J. U ^S; State, fttMr v^ 
BajonnPh &^ 7f> J, U 333; Sute *. 
I^atonton, 45 N. J. L. %7: SlbtA, Uost 
v.lAUibortviilaUN.J.l.?T«ESlAK 
r&t«rKm T, QaiuotU iG N. J, U 0t 
Sh, bonovcr. Sov^ T. PtilUMpbiK, 
»a Pel St, ^1, vhor« ft rMolQtiOtt 
^nw iMld to ba ID fact equlTiJ«at1» 

4 DiiL Hun. Ceqi. (4ilt Adk g ao7 aad 
aotcfl; Jtl^ew T. P»rtJl Anbor, L 
IHiteh, (85 IT, X L) e»T; 6lAt« r. J«r. 
W7 Citf.a IhAUOl, Orrf. J. I*> 4ll3; 
OrMa V, Cftp* 11tj,41 St J. L 4:t 
IJivlkiKton T. DfiiuiisoD, 43 K. X L, 
]»; BiAller v. Flwal(\ 44 H. J. I. 
171; Batttf V. lUpM TmriBt S^ R. 
Cc^, 47 N. J. Eq, SWi fibOvccck t. 
BcnaloD Tnctioa Oo^ <^\ 1 Laclb 



8 5?.] 



MU>tCieAL UJ»TaOl. 



n 



provided tbftt, witb the GOnMnt of the common ooonoil, str^aC 
railway compantee foigtt use electrio motors, this coiuQnt was 
properly giroit by ifisolution ; ' but Uio Wilier opinion i*(*cmfl to 
b«, and tt VBS distinctly beld by the s^ipremo court m Ifew 
Jersey with reference to tbis eanie r«»olutfon, that whpre tho 
pow<^r oonfrTTw! by \hv rbHrU*r tjt l.J«' (lower to priss unlincinri^ 
fffr n*giiblJDg Mn^etfs th« conttenl Ui pittUng up polta and 
wires for «teotrio railways must be given by ori:1inuQC£\brcau3Q 
Uh> oona^enb is in fact ti rvgulution of the sLrcetA,^ Tbe flams 
tbi^g had Already tkoea decided in regard to the consent to 
toyiag gas pip«,* 

§ &9. The ^ame — Af plication for ninnlclpnl consent or 
fi»r a desk^oatlon of the streets-— Ttic statutca ordimirily pro- 
vide for the maDDcr in wLich uppticjition shall be msidt^ for tbo 
oooaoDt of tfae local anthoritieft or for & deei^ation of Lho route 
of a line of eloctrie wires. The provisions of the local sUitutes 
mutt of eourto bo obwrvod. The granting of the consent 
oftca affects the interests of property owners or private com- 
panies, and in ^ich c^ifcs due notice of the applicuitinn Khoidd 
be given. Private property, of conrse, cannot be taken writh- 
oat compensation, and 1 refer not to the notice to be given for 
this porpDMt, liiit to the public? notice required id matters a0crt^ 
iag tJio int4>re&tit of-pnjjiMrty ownere and iiWivruti generally, 
Vbenever the statate declares that pi^rmission to u^ the high- 
ny or to locate tnioka or lines of vdrtR shall be given upon 
DoUcc^ then the notice required must be given before the mu- 
oicjpality can gmnt a valid oonM^nt. 

In a CAM m the mipt^me court of Xew Jeney' it w&a held 
that the pcnnis&ion to construct end operate an clectrlo street 
tiilway on the ttrcete of a city in which another oompacty had 
Un privilege of laying traebs eonld only be ^rrantod after ^ving 
aotieo by pnbUoation to all persons tntorcslcd in tbo manocr 
reqaind }3j the statute and allowing an opportunity for tbcm 



* ta lUhiob and lomh. vbere ettJo* 
bvt (Dwr U> snuit tfao ti^hl to Inj 
nlilRad Uaokn l» iba atiMt^ It hsa 
Ism fcaU Uiat ponaimUM may bo 

Utf«B Pub wu« c<L 1. u, a A g. R. 



>8tAt«, BotoAj pro«. T. Nevmrk 
FbM H>. Ox [N. J, SuiL CL, JaaiHtff . 
iai?i,]Q ?f. J. £-J,4:l 

*F«opUft' Oullg:ht Co. -r. Jenor 
City. 40 N. J. I* 3«L 

* CAm^fflfi Krifufl EL R, C<L r. Wi>«S 
Jcn.^- Tnictton Co., W K. J. L. W^ 



n 



icukTritio vrtftu ui armram asto Biaswxvi. 



to l» hcArd ; nod aii ordmanco vrbiob was givta it« firat read* 
ing before the proper poblicatioa of the noUce, and its »&c<m4 
&ndfiii&lreftdJBg8Tiihouta hoaringof the penouia 
arast bo Bct tside; «&d it was held UiAt it wes neceatoty 
Botieo bo ^ven before the ordinance i8 taken opi end that the 
faeannf* on the ordinance mugt be exprvnly adjeonied fvom 
aGcticg to ftDother in order tbftt valid action may bo ta 
at tbe sabseqnent meetingf in the absence of the parties inters 
ested." 

In a, lat«r oan ft wns bcAd tiiai n^en the governing bodj 
bits recetred tbe petition at a re^nlar niee4jDg, and has diiQ^ 
naUfd iL linifi an^t it\nci\ Air t,hn bt^ftring,anr1 notioL- isg^Ttfn and 
the ooi)i»nt« of the land-o^vurHrv have been filed as reqnirMl by 
the act of April 21, 1S9G, the ordinanoe gntnting the 
Bion may W paaacd at the time dcvi^natod or ^t any 
4}iieDt time to which tbe bearing may he adjoumed.* 

When tlie statute prondei that public notioo shall be giTeot 
but faila to specify vhen and bow the hearing ahaU be 
the ref-nlatioii of tlaese matters is left to the discretion of 
municipal authorities,' 

In New Jersey a distinction was taken between the conaeat' 
to Khi9 building; of the line and tbe consent to the location of 
the track*, and it was soggeited that the looation of the tiveks 
waa a subeequ^nt matter; and it was held that under the 9t^U 
ute n^liitinj^ to tiuction c<>nip;mii'^, tho lof^ation of tlic tra<^ 
mokt t>e made definitely by th^ muincqiQl caiincll,ivhich in 
delermine by reBolution or ordinance Iionv meny tracks lb 
may b^t, mid in what [lart of thu sdn'rt Ouiy thall be laid, and] 
must uol leavQ this to tho otBcera of the company.* 



-A. 



^&tjn aim ATon-by'thdCfa lAod & 
t Caif. :?cpmnrt Dty. a? ?<. J. L. ;;fc2. 

Ttiu 3e Aa Uc|k Q» 

^ Hutoliliuoa r. Dorou^li of Bol> 
mar <!f . J. lA HB AtL B«^ 043 (l8Wt 

Id tldji oan vArtotu qnamtctrt artda^ 
UBiUr Uil« «tAl«t« an Aimamtd, 

«8«K>r T. PdJuua Uaoot, 8« if. T. 
Aspfi «a Ic U h^M In IhlH cftMi 
ta^t mAtr th« Nftv Vcrk itAtuU 
pnWicat A on of ffrsrUm liAje* tioI)(>q 
may be uade to a werklr Devviniwr 
ta a village w!ut« tto lUay |i«|>«r Is 



pablkhal Wkb ra^^d to 
qulMfinfiiata of tlia Nmr Ynrlr 
uu (UWB of IW\ ^ eitt) 
iCkrd t<) gtatitJng Iobtv to 
a jilnyiC mllwikj, ttn la ra 
Tr*rllcin Oa. 49 N, T. Si^if^ 1< 

Ar^ imt. w [isast- 
«dlatib niehenOb v. Newiuh. 

K J. I. 30IL 30 AlL B4^ A39 <1l 
Wort Jaiwj T»ctio« COh r. 
Dom It access N,J, Dq. t03^ 



CHAPTEH T. 



TOt-KS AND WTRR*1 AS \'S OlwrmTrTION OF THF. HIOHWAT— 
now FAR JUSTIFIED BY GRANT OF FRANCHISE. 

§ M, PolMfirpcted In the streets vltboatlegblatlTQmiiio 
tlonaro illllftMiv«94. — Assurniiig tliat pcEt^aiii;! miY-sbAVobL^n 
letup in ttiA Jitr(>et nnilrrlogiK[<rt-ivt* njmt'liMn and irith Uic ooa* 
KGt of tbe local aQthoriticA, the (^ueiktJcrn reixta,in3 how for thia 
permiKdoti will jitatify tho pcrsoa maintoinitig them, m cil£0 
aa injurj is caiued by tli« mere preeecce of the posb ia tb« 
blgfaway. Tbo qnc^ion of m^gligcnt conatniction or use U ft 
difloroat noMtcrtaTiU will be eon«i4lcroil httcr' Tbo question 
bovr is bow far the raero obetmctiont Bucii as it is, is joatifled 
by tho pormisBion to mnko it. 

Poits eroct4Ml in a highway vithoui tho auibority of law, or 
al lo^t of ancknt custom, ore nuisance find may be enjoined 
by any onn riffcrin^ a special injury, or th'.^y rauy bi> tit^atod, 
and tbobe vho get them op or maaatoia them are subject to 
tadtctment,* 

In an tAt} TlngWtAi qlho,^ od un irMlictintnt for tirw^ting iclo- 



a Miaqthnhipad cooHtroetlon of 
1 rmllratft te ft ttraot 1* a publlo nui- 
ADCV. hu« tbai «hk!:li U U^iy au- 
thntlwil mnnnrbri n nihiniTi 1>iTi> 
«- Ktjor *4 N*w Voffk, 14 N. y. 5«; 
W«bMm «. SlorT, Se BM-b 414; UO- 
l»v T. Sluup^ 10 BdjIi. IM; DmU r. 
Birtwit IQTvra R Ca. 7 FUrK BM: 
VMrP!ariftfri t; Oiwtjr* t Nowatfc 
Bone C^ K & Cc., 13 N. JL &|. (3 
Bk^) it. 9«e alna Arbrax v, WhM»U 
^t« EtAni*bantfciLed..5C.K A. 
nitWid iw4« Gilinff owm; ]Ua41« t- 

« E t R. Cn, V. Loeu ii8 tU soi. 
t W. B«^ «ML Conmitt ck XV. 
ttvtt tM XtoAJli qU 94; AddisoQ <nt 
Itav^ I aU: ttUloQ <Hi Hciu. Corji., 



tcnph Itoea. 0«7 t. Uutuol Ualoa 
Tttl^^ Ca, as Ikfa Ap;i IM: Inric v: 
Orwt South T«J<«, Ox. »T IJk AaCL 
03; JaliA Biiiiaiag Ajb'ei v, DoU 
Tnli^ph. Oci. «a Ha a^: Baivott T. 
W«^ Unloa T«U9 Co.. 4 Uaokaj 
(D. G), m (18MX 

> l^toa V. Untied KtngJcm Bt^L 
T«b« Cn. 9 Coi Cr. (.^ut, 117-174 
ciiotod ia Hc^n^kl on CluTi*T% mcl 
r74, Doto; r«port«d abo in f Law 

TLiTifti Krp. IN. a> ars; si Taw joui, 

73; 8 Jar. U'-fi.} lLt3s 10 Wklr- it^b 

fiaa 

Tn an Mfly eaio In Ea^tlaad an Ib* 
jun<7tioa iL^Kmit nwiataJadog wins 

imiil the qLintloo <ti tba rt^cbt' to 
tnamtJUA tbom hod twm sottlod at 



7« 



Ei.E:c:nBic wt&Kd IK smcGn asd nioinriYi- 



I8<ii- 



oxi>r4is8 legislative linDrtlfin nre 



gmpb poles in the hi^b^ray, the court maintainocl the tiglit of 
tbo public to the whole road, and said tho polo was a nuisuictt 
altbcofrb it ^os not in tho TuotiUod portion of tbo rood noria 
the footputh, Xho construction of tbo lino had been tLtiLhomsd 
by tho board of guardiana, but it did not appear that it was 
saoctionod by act of parliament this f&ot 1g not mentiaaed 
in tb9 report, but, cs^ccpt on tbii cuppofition, the ruling is ncit 
in barmony with th& AmericaQ decisions. 

gCl. Fo1«t» »ot op with 
not nulaancea. — Thtt li>^filAtuTe baa tbe right to autlioriielbo 
obstruction of s. atrepit in any way it mity pIo4A(\ t^ul^ijcct ooly 
to making comprnHution for Injury to ri^blji of pnv:t£a P'^P 
ftrty, and an obslruLtiim exprt^suly and apecifically anthorizai 
by the bgiBUturo cannot te illegal nor amount to a public 
Duisanco.' 

If poles have l>een set op unier kfiislative sanction and under 
the direction of the muQicipid antlioritics, they ciinnol after- 
vards be dool&rod by those ^nthoritifrs to bo nuisanece. '^Tbe 
power to remove obstructionfl from theatrcots,'* saya Mr. Jastlcv 
Itecd ia a case in New Jersey,' "is continod to nuifianees, and 
any object which has a legal right in iho street is beyond tb« 
powor of tho common council." And it was bold by the so- 
prcmo court in that eas« that a common council cannot revoke 
ihe designation of the streets onoe made under a statute pro- 
Tidiqg for tbo constnictton of n teli^phone liao.* 

In Om^numit^f^dth u, Benton* municipal olllcera undertook to 
remove tolegniph poles on tbe ground that tltey were so located 
ns to CJiii«T ill convenience to thn piiMif^, It wut Knld that ihts 
H^mririi-'^tionft and dt^islon^ of the iiiayor and aldenuen, made 
and reconlcd in a«oordanco vrith General Statutcfl, obaptor W. 



lam Att<jnui743«iionl ▼. DnHod 
KIotiloiD F^M3l. Tt^hs- I^- ^^'^ 
Gblirt, Sir John Rooiilly, K. K., Nor,. 

U JL (ChO 3S9. to Wklj. Itopk lOT. 

>S« CHAM citod in tutUi 2. S Oe; 
Nsw Torb ToUfh* Co. r« EeoMj, 
5 IV DIsi Ropk 390; BrowQ t. & W, 

Fbol« T. FftU« Boftd Eleot Kr- Ct^ 

(UdL ii Ati. Boi^ loae (lavn a 



cltyntlfr^ittbeiietioDoeKa Dukjvf 
In hA<rinjc wlna torn down rrom 
wh«r« ihoj hftd a fiffhit to b* li lUb'* 
in 4]Uiii4^ CoauMcolaJ Eioct, 
Usbi 4t P. Col T. IWuM <Wa»k)h H 
Far, Rop.Sl»<tStt^ 

' HudMaHetsplk Ca ▼- isMr ' 
4) N. J. U 80^607 OH^ 8«t 
tin HLXV, 

iSoe «li. m, II 49-l\ SsTOOfttlon 
of nancUsk 



Sf3-3 



POLES USD VISS8 AS <niffrstv(ntoss. 



» 



lootioQ 8p dotcnniQiDg the kind of poles and their location in ihd 
biglivray, were conoltisive u|><*ri tho nghtrtilncsa of their crcc- 
tiooa so tli&t they could not la^folly bo removed hy the town 
or tDonicipiil olIiODTB, or bo Xrt^Zed ns % nutsanco. 

So at^o IQ Timti^v, YarTnoviA* it was hold in 3I:if.^cbi]sctt6 
ih&t wborc ft GtatuU uithonxed the conatnvztion of a t»>to;;^p1i 
line^ ftnd the polo< hud been located in pur(iiJiDCH» of xkm ncjt 
by tbo selectmsQ of tbe town, thd deciflioa of these oScera waa 
foncltwiTo and wAg a complete jnstificRtioo of thg town in an 
ftCtion agatnttl it for iiijurLf<ei arlitiiig out of an ullu^^ olMtruo 
tioo of tJio highwuj. 
{ 62. Oeneral Authority docs not aiithorhe diii^roua ob- 
cilons. — Althoogb an obatnicLion expreuly autliortrx-d hy 
b^ialaturo cnnnot bo regarded &a h nuUaooef yot it is nsual 
to miko thd privilege of uAing tho streets for telegraph and 
ilectrio-lightJinos o^ressly subject to tbo conditioa thut tho 
potatball bo »o pUeod as not to interfere with public travot; 
ud tbo courts aro inclinod to oonsirae oil Buoh grunts as &ab- 
Jsci to t^o impUod ooodition that tbo polos shall not bo eo 
loostMl ss to bo dangoroiif. 

Bnt it lifts boon held that oven though th^re be a general 
sitUiorKj u> ft't up a lino of poMU and wirvs, the question 
whother a ptwt in the highway is dan^rous to travelers may 
fa» left to n jury to deterraine In an wlitjn for damage caiise<l 
liy n ooJIbiua with a hor^u and ^ragon.^ The vourt luifd Lhut a 
pUm of Uccnn from th© municipal aathorities under legiatattva 
(Wvror was net gotKi, ^d tliat the ralidity of the ordiiianco 
WIS anbjoct to the judgment of the jury on tbe i|ae»t:on 
wbotbor the polo as located ^as dangcroua to traTelers on tho 
itneL Where, however, in n ooioplumt claiming diima^<9 lo 
1 bonouid wagon which mn into a telegraph pole," it appoared 
tbat the poles were placed as dc^lt the fenc;o as they oould bo 
put without hanng the eroao^fuu encroach upon privato prop- 



iWdf* r. Eria TWcff. ft TolcpK 

(WiiliSK.W.fto|i^Ma 

«a» al0 P«opl* V. UutinS TdI«& 
tX Htw Torh vnpncDa oouit u <Ae- 
<^ Hp3ft«d In N. T. DbUj Bcffiaei 



for Haivli 10. 1663. wbeiA Ui ah Mh 
tlon to nonove telDt^nph polM from 
a iti«et io Rhjcli thoir oroction tud 
b^on ncthcriE^^l bf law, tho onlj 
qucatioa left to the iarj mu whtrthrr 
th^ poloa wer» of >DCh a ch«ni«t0r 
ad to ltiit«^ci» with the public u^ 
oJtfatfltreot. 



w 



ELKCTKIC WlKlLft IK SISEICTS ASD BIOB~WAT9. 



[S^ 



«ty, and that altliough tbty w«to ftlong tb« level bigbw&y 
wiLhoot A diUsli betwe^n^ yet there were three traveled trKclc% 
&Dd the poles were e^t so ss not lo be ^iq obslroctioa, it vu 
hold OD demurrer tbit no cnusa of action had been Bet oat^ ud 
that the question need not be left to the jary. 

With respnct to Flrctnc rajlvr?kj poles, Judge T)ixon, at ih% 
supreme court of New Jersey, olmrgeiJ a juiy in a case at tk 
Passaic oircuit' that although Uie location cf the polefi ^ktig 
tlio midrlhi of n fltrvet liad bt^eii dt^ignated by Llie city autL<J^ 
itiwi mid^r a statute authorirlng the uae of ckctric motors, yet 
this was a mere periDisslon to the company, and it iras not 
obliged to uee poles at all, ^ind, if it did so, it renuuaed vabjecl 
to the duty to ezcreiso due care toward the traveling poUio; 
and if the polo wiia so looitGcl wit^ reference to a paasiiigett 
as to bu dangerous to one attempting to enter the car, and Bocfa 
ft porsoD, cxirciaing due care on hia part, \vas injar^, the cent 
pany was Jiable. 

In a ease in >Jew York* it ivas held that the rt^ht of a t^lo- 
gTJipb company to u.so the highway for contitructingf opiMUiisg 
and romovin;^ its LJne U subject to the u^o of th€ roord by tb9 
traveling pablic. The tele^n^ph compGiny hae no ngbt teas* 
tlie highway GO as to obstruct it and make it danjj^ronc fof 
public travel. The eourt said the evidence was tEifflcicntto 
justify Eubirutting the caao to the jury on the question of tlw 
wrongful obstruction of tlie highway, 

§6^. Ifi^lretiH — Public atid prliate. — The obstruction of 
the highway by tcl^grapb poles is jusUH^ti only so far as it i» 
authomed by law, and, If the extent of the olist mention «• 
ceeils the authority giv^n^ the poles may be treated as noi' 
1tnn(^4]N, and reilrr-ss may be had by iodlctini-nt^ by suit »l Uv 
or hill ill equity, aud city oUlcera may evi^u PiPn;i?*H thw \Mnrtr 
of aUitcmcnt- In n case in ther BUpn-rme court of Now York' 
it was held that the people mi^ht Luaiutain au action for daiik> 

I KoitelIaIej y, NcwArk Pa^ Tiy, Co., 

la W. J, Uxw Jour. 50 (Fubnuiry, I ^'dZ). 
Jvn\pfi Hi ion vt-na oaoof Dmjijdg^ 
that iLxridcd Statcv Grocu T. Tron- 
lou, Qui 6t4ttA UuImjt v. SofViiTk 
PufiL Ry^ Co,, ref crrtil if> in i>haptJ?r 

poU* ^cro nn ob»trut:tirin ot Uio 
wm and vren not JiuUllcd by Uio 



fitAtuU bUthoriQug tlio Qao of ds^ 
trio inotnrBUm>3% 

"SUnn« V. \V«t Ua T^Ca.U 
N. T> St Sep. 5Da, 1 1 K- Y. Sufp. till 
S Am. EL Co* 474<I»1>I>V 

'People V, MoitApaUua 
Co., Bl Huji, &V4. ^ How. Pfr UKL 
Aiu.ElCai.C04(ltid4). 



BS.] 



TOLXiB l.M> WIRES A3 OaSTRDCTKUf** 



SI 



ages Knd for an injunction a^iast t^kgraph poles «riKldd 
Along the dtli^vraJV uml ftU^gvil to bo bighcr mui larger than 
wero auihoriced; but iKe jury having fcnnr) it v<*nl]ct for 
ijtiljf iix crnis danukgi^f tbo conn sftid it coald aoi declare 
anjr parUculKT jiolt; to l)v u iiiiiNini'j?, and n^ftti^^l tr> order any 
of them to be reiiuii'ed. Tbe *latHl*i in tbat (NUi« rjinUiini;^! 
the proTi&ioas commoDly found in stamtes autlicnj^Iiij^ tlie 
[ oonatruction of U'lrgnipU linr:^, It rtTrtrif-b'^I the entctloo of 
^■plea to sttcb as were nectnar/ to the tuaine^ii of tho coin- 
P^ni7, and proridcd that they should bo £0 coD«trnclcd as not 
to inoommodo tho public in the u«c of tbo street. It -was 
held that tto company woa not lioiited to the use of poles no 
lug«r or higher tbnn absolutely necessary, but that thoy bad 
the right to nsc aiioh aa wcro r«aaoDably tuQloient and proper, 
if tboy wore eo constnxcted as not to mcommode tbe public in 
the tuo of the atrctt or sidewalk; and tbo court said that, to 
the extent to which tbe poks so coDBtrocted were reasonably 
iHOCttnry, tboj were authori^ by tbo statute; but that to tbe 
extent to which thuy vr;<nt l^^yond thnt in Insight or hIzo or 
Biimber ll»y were illegal, and were the Bubject of redresa ia 
Uio Bctinn.^ 

^H£vda If a polft or wire }m uuMUthorlzMl nrd 1ia a piiblio maU 
^Bboe^ n cannct be cut dowa by a pnviite iuclividaa], tinleia il 
inWrntis with bis right of pnssagc along tho Ijigbwiiy.' 

Kor can an tnilividual imtinLiin an ataion tu ^ljftt« snob a 
naiauKti, nor to have the cnatioD or maintenanco of it re- 
ftfttined by injunction, unlcsts bo baa sonio peculiar intcnst in 
tike m&lter distinct from thiit of tbe public at large — aomeri^lit 
of property which is affcclcd thcruby.' In a case in ^ow York, 
il 1SSU«* it waa held that the commiasicner of pubUe n'orLu bad 
the right to rtsmovo from tbe atreota electric light wires which 



*IV m fiu1h«T ftitr-nMclaa of PoIca 
IbJ Vlni ai an ObcCractioo, too 
ckXV. 

'CiMCtHc CoMtnxtion Ox v. Hof* 
tknmi U N, Y. St. Bi^ <aa. &3 Uud« 
!«, a An, EL Cm. ecr; {}im^ 

*N«U*7 WnturWuTlLav.Ti>wucliip 
ti rnaklln. ^t N. J E<|. Ml (iSftiJi 
bvd*& *. AUaqUo lliichhwdi^ eta 

a 



a Am. EL Oui 1:9 (ISK); T.^Mifik 

VjtM. I£v. Cio.,iAm. ELQu2ai^MCa 
DuuinoDWcmlUi V. Wc!itRlin«(iT.eP». 
Cb, Ct tU^ tM3> a Am. Kl Ou. S2e. 
Smv bowo vct. Thconu v. laivr COtknl j 
S'. Ky. Oo, 107 Fa. 8L 120, 8 AiB. £L 

« UilU«d SlAtM DlwniDatlliK <^'«^ ▼• 

GnaU « Qun, £2% a Auk EL Qm. Uw 



SUKnuo wittRN lit siicECTs Aim uitiKWJkirn. 



[$ 



had become daoji^erotu to tlie people, and ttuit ho wtt JiutUlttl 
in that case in doin^ it withonl notice. 

g04. ObHlruftlon looi-dUiftr> atid fxtrnordiniir}* afte of (be 
street ^Cases relating to moYlng a hoase.— In TW^ro^ Co- 
V, Wiltf^ decide"! in 1852^ it was held that le^slatire aa;horitr 
and mtm)d{):d license to set lip il t<?k*^nipl] lim.^ in ihc Kln3t\l 
^rero no Oi-fentfe in an action fur an injury to a Loum }mng 
inoFisd &Iong ths street and cimght by tbe vir<». Sc^ttand 
Jamagiu diAA^prove of itiia decision, jind »agg<7»t that Uio mov- 
ing of a house wob not an ordinary uae of the atreet nor ono 
thab could luwtully be made 'vrttbout special iiocnso.* With this 
agrees tphe opinion of Judge D«pue of the ^^ftw Jersey aupdrepio 
court in charging tba jury in a oaso in tho Emex circuit court, 
April 30, 1SS&' Teldphone wires wore strotchod acroea tho hi^- 
way in pursuance of the a<it under which thc> telepbono company 
wu£ Lncorporatodf and with tho consont of the municipal anther- 
Hies. There was uprovi^o in tJio charter that tho wtru Bb<mld 
be »o located as in no way to interfere with the safety or eon- 
venience of pereona truTeling on or over the roade or highwaye. 
There was a ittutute daolarLng that the am of a public ttrcd 
*^ in any of the incorporac^ cities or towns of this state shalL 
b« subject to sMch n^giiktions nn<l n.-s^trictHrjuis vhb ina.y be ioh 
poied by Lhe u<u-[iorate authorities of t^ul altStn or towna." Tlie 
city ofOrange had adopted an ordinance declaring that *^all telfv 
gmphio and tc^lcphone wlrc» shall bt? placed »o as to hang not 
lea» than twenty feet above the atreet croasing.^' The defend- 
ant had a special liccnao to movo a house along a street, and 
in moving it ha cut txli the overhanging wires, and in an ac* 
tioD by the telophonc company it waa inaistod on the part of 
the pluicliU that thirty of thceo wirce wore more than twenty 
feet above the strict. The jud^ chaj'^:ed the jury that the 
oae of a public highway in moving a building was not within 
the right enjoyable by th^ public in a public highway for the 
purpoao of tratel, and that the defendant's act was not jttftl- 
lied on the ground that he was obstmcted in the oae of the 
highway for public trareL He held, however, that since the do- 



Mt Am.I«wJ<iiink*874<Ffih,iea9). 
PtiU, DkiCcmrlv 

>3co(t A J^magto ec Xslsgrapli^ 
|t3anil&ot«. 



' New York a Kow J«W7 To1«p^ 
Qx T. Diiiholaacr. 1 1 K. J. Iaw JoonL 
3n (Oetobtr, tWl> 



M.) 



POLKS Airxi irtajca as ov^shctjobis. 



S8 



fendant h&d a vpe«i&l Uceaffa u> move the boose, be was JuEtified 
ia catting such wiree as were maintained in violatioii of the oity 
oidiaaDoe 1«m tbsin twooty feet nbovo tbo surfivo^^, and left ft 
to the fntj to deelde irh^ther any of the wires that were out 
were more tbao twenty feet above the rcniflwHy, and to assen 
damagva for the oulting of thrsit, iicd these idocc. 

Id a \xtmr cam in Kaw Jerney' an injuDction was granted 
against cnttin^ a line of street railway wlri^a which formed an 
obitJitcttOQ to tlto moving of a houAo aloag the street. The 
Tic«-ohanoeIIor said the oae of the highway for moriiig a bouse 
WM in itself an obstraction of the street, aad not a c^e of St 
for the ordinary purposed of travel, and that the defendant 
had no right for this f urposc to out the wired and cause a gea- 
eitl anapension of tiaflic on the rciilroad. And in a cose ta 
nihi^ it iraa held that % p<M8on moTin^ a house along a high- 
way was not entitled to cut, withotit compezisitioa, an eleotrio 
wire fitnmg acroat the eireet at the height proscribed by the 
pablio antborities." 

■VittTiDa TtecAioii Oo^ r. Good- ■Dfcksoa r, "Kxfwtaop Electrlo 
vfi,«s K J. B%, 418 c'uJj, isee^aa iJght£M,Ca,»iii.App.aTL 
AtLBcphMl 



CHAPTER TL 



CKDEBGBOUWD wmEa 

$65. B%bt8ort1id public oiKltlie companies as Co pnttln^ 
Tired Qndergroand,^ It has been tbe general castom ia Urn 
country to atretpch telegraph and other electric wiro« on poW 
overhi^Lui, but the inaltipIiG3.tioa of wijies in tbft citicc UitM W 
come saoh a serious incumbranco upon the streets that there 
h*is beea a. t-cry g».*nenU inibllc <lcinrin*l tiiat tho wiro« bo p«t 
uiLilergrouad. Tlis was resisted for a time hy thti compknU^ 
but me^n* bava now been diacoverod of carrying many vrirei 
in cables imdergr^uad without ulTocting tLu cumnt by indno- 
tton, and the losses of overhead vpires from wind and tnov 
have been ao great that the companies arc now dcsironj of pn^ 
ting their wires underground and out of the ;Tuy of harm. 

Two (^uestiona have^ therefore, come up for docifljon: Flnt^ 
can the public rcquiro tho existing wires tc bo taken down and 
put undor^round ? And eeoondly, have the oompanicft a right 
to open the elroetfi and put thoir wires below the surfaeei, and 
if 80, upon what conditions and undi^r wh;it authority ? 

g G6. An expeniih'e anil illfflcult ivorli-^Tlie mnnfclpal- 
Ity canuot rei|uiro U. — The taking down of eslstiogwir^ 
nnd pulLiug Ltiem in cables ondergronad, involve* very sorioos 
expense- The wir^ mitjit be pnt in tubc« and can^fuUy !n< 
Bulatctl, ur muKt bc^ iiiibivhlrtl in Ii:;k1i;q i^^blt^ Froviisinn most 
ha made for repairs and for laying down neir linett, jtnd ov«ry 
precaution must bo taken against induction. It is in faft a r«w 
eonatructuvn of th« line in a very expenftivo manner, and only 
aricr careful expedmcDt bavo prv^Ucable meana been disoov* 
«rod for putting anderground the numoroos and vahona ^Tiros 
required for the telegraph, the telephone and the electric rail- 
way and eloctrio light It would sucm to foUoiv from tho d^ 
oifliouft already rofarred to with rej*ard to overhead wires, that 
nannicipal eorpontio&t hav^ not the power to order oxi«ting 
lincQ htwfuUy put up to be taken down and put underground. 
It is well scltlvd LluU. wires baring been OAce proporiy put up 



5OT.] 



DVDKSOKOmfD IT I 



SS 



mder If^;U1atk« auCboritj^ anil with, municipal conicnt, cttn- 
not be disturbed by the municipality uitbout auilioriiy from 
fika k*gtsbittir»> 

Tlitfre Is no iloubt tli« le^liOntun) may pnwiil^^ Uint now lin^ 
shall only use tbe streets fin condition tliat ih*iy ^re put Ix^- 
ntkth the sarfaco, and it may bo th&t ualcss legislative permit 
ilOQ, ftlUicr cj[prc» or clparlv implied, vrcro given to Mtrotoh 
the wins overhead, a xuuatcipality may ioaiAt, as u rcgulatioa 
of the Qso of tho «tr«ot5, that tbo wirta should be put imder- 

I 67. tJRoally proTided for bj statateB — English ntatnUs 
nferred to. — Tho matter, however, te 90 impf>rtanl, aod the 
itUtioQA of tho pftrtitt aro so diOicult, that it \9 uma\ to make 
ipeotal and oarefnl prDT»oo by act of the lej^iilatun^ for the 
ooostructioD and control of underground cables and of subwaya 
for cAootrii3 wirc«. 

In Engl&nd aoderground n-iree hAve been luod for a ton^ 
timo, and some of the ciirluTstcji^n on tbe um of tbe streets for 
the telegraph rolat<?d to Uift titU? to the aiiil b<*l(>w thn siirfucc, 
aad to the digging up of public roads for the purpocies of a tele- 
gnph compnnr .■ 

Thn whiiln ftubjoct Is rtovr carefully rc^uluted by tho Ktiittit'f^ 
4^ anJ 46 Vict, chapter JjQ, uUkd the KWtric Ligbtziig Act 
(tSSSX uid tho Eiuctric 7(?ti7griiph A(;t, ^Z and ^4 VicL^ chRp- 
tcr C9, part 3 (tMIO).' l^r^ powem are givtrn to the board 
«f trade, vbich b authomod to liccnae from time to time any 



■ Supra. rK Til. ^ it ft te^ Sr^ 
howroTi t^b miurkd of DntfD' 
■aad. JL, In Mc^ttuU Un»ii JeUfi Co, 
^ CUca«a 1ft Tod^ Ktp. UK-, quottil 

*UcMe Ga«]i«bt Gk t. Vurph^, 
lao Ma 10 n«K)l Hbnuri v, Murplty, 

no u. K ?f* asw): hum ax mi. »l 

Lnxbi Uti'torgToufMl S«rriee Ca t. 
KnnOiv, m Uol waoaaa Am.BL 

■AUor7i»rU*n«nl r. Catt«d KIti^- 
4oa EltfcU TvUrit Co, ItoUn Court, 
Sin, IMI, Sir Jolui Busilttr, M, EL, 
lOB«ir. W7,i|JUT 4N SH)Mn,»l T>X 
fCK-iOO, IQ WkLj. Rep. IVT; AUcnV 



D COK Cr. 0&& j:«4 Bvdlidd Ml Oa- 

Thi? Europmn aii^ AmRrioan Elcv^ 
trie I'rTTitm^C TcIpj Ox. iDOoTpont4d 
Auffiut 7. 1»>1, by U luid 15 Vi^Tt, 
ttLAj'ti^T I39p wu nuilu^rfunl to Laj 
down nnd pJoOA tn any public riOM<t 

virM pIpM ud InbM mcomut or 
coDtaat<nC for a toU«rE»ph> 

<Tii« Kituvtic i^xhtiua A«u ie^ 

45 ftnil 46 VtcU. dittpime HlsotHlvd 
** An aol torocUitaiUfa&d ritntUto U>« 
EMppljr ol olH^tHcHy for ll^htimc and 
nth^r purpotM in Ortot Bril&ln and 
tiuluiX' KlEctnc Tel«irraph Ae*> 
im » and U Vku dupter oa 




u 



a 

IdbbI atttbori^ cr »/ av^viy or fanq« Id a^Iiij deetnct^ 
Sormj p^fic or fvHato fenoa w{iUb attj ftnsi aaljeot to ctr 

tan pnmskflM. It is sbkbhcI Uat wins vill be placed itadcr 
friHBd M w<fl « abore gn^id. aad |mnrwB it made for 
MmSmg^B ir^iiiii iif tin liiiil latliriiiTrrii to the bRsfcii^ 
ap of aaj itfteu npainUe bj tba local aiitikonticftt and H i> 
lorUddca lo pUoe aaj «}«ccric line abort gramd, along, oref 
«r aooai any >treeC without tba exprcM coaamt of tbo kc&t 
aathcntj, aad if aoj wire a 80 placed iritboat cacb ooQNSt i£ 
Ba/ be leooored bj t^ local aatbofitics; aad erea if it lui 
b«eo patopwithcoaAeattilmaybe remored b v a ooort of stun 
Btarj )im»dictioa oo compUmt jaado, and proof Uut it u d&a^ 
(•rooi to Uk pnblk safety. 

n* dociflioo of pru^cal qtteetioiKB vith repaid to the cca- 
■Craatio& of the lice may» m caao of diaigrveDicot, be refemd 
to the nil way commiaaiooen, aod iho oua of ITiM^^tf^rfA 2>^ 
tnct locai Board v. /^^cCin4M«r-fm«raI» fowid m the t^porti 
of tbair dcciiioas, illmlraUl Uw aUBiMr ia vrbioh such qooi^ 
tiooB ar9 dealt witb.^ A local board, oil being applied to b; 
tha poetmaator^QDeTal aader aeotioa 3 of tbe Tele^iaj^ Aet^ 
ISTd, for th«tr ooneat to the [Aadng of t«Iegrapb wirea aad 
poata Qpofi, along and or^ sti^etA and roada in their district, 
refoaod their coaaetit,«xc«pt on condition thut the wires across 
or along aLreeta or rrxwls shoold b« ucdergTvuniJ, This diflor- 
encd, after having be^D referred to a metropolitan police maj^ 
ifttnLtf-, WMK, m accnnlanr^ wiUj section 4 of tiio Telegraph Act, 
1$7S, brought bt-fore the railway cocniDissionera. Tha com- 
miAionera decided that overhead wires Ehotild be allowed, nV 
JM:t lo the follDwing condiLluns: 1. Thfit all wirr* vhall be of 
copper. S. That all polo« sball l)e of imn, S. That no win 
ebatl be pluood over, along or across any road or footway at a 
leashoightthiwtbirty fcetaboveHuchroa<Iorfootvray. 4, Thit 

E^M (kl» Report of Bmrd of Tm^^ forrui kul) b mhart disonMkm of iht 

Pnrliumontiuy K«pon.l^nH, H'i^. h^ priticiplai hud tfaoappnntUB tvUCing 

OfAl B«})«iHi Vim, olmptfTe OTTIh to oloctric llglitiag- t^« obo tbe Ia« 

Cunja^mrao oa tlio Iaw of Eto^ ItiMatlQgloC]«otflcLiglitiEis.by0^3L 

trio I.lj{hiiiig (t^ndoor (itATniu A HrogDAOd w,w>bb<Mad,)LljapJoa 

Sona IWVX pfw sua. coni^mta tho IBVU* ruid WUI'v Law of El*<;triA 

ol«0trio4JgUlDaftotoriV«^tvk;nUj'>r li^hUuK. UoilCiC. iWli 

vitTi th» vMlIpr ffUitutM that m to- U Tf atIU A 7i1iu7inm«n«, SOt, Cou^ 

oc»rpont«d Is It, b«dil«s aoU« and mlMtooa*' DodAi^At t^VM^ 



?8<»-ei»-] 



rvDtftoiEorsfD wiites. 



er 



vrhoN ft wire ero«£os over aiy pablto road or street, the dis* 
UD06 betic«en tbe potnu of siupport at either bvAo of euoh ixtod 
or street sball not in any ca£0 eso^ed one huiKlrcd yArda 

Th« qoeition of con vrm cOQai^lerad And the difficulty of har- 
Vkg wii«t placed nndergroiind at every «troot-oTonlng< There 
vu the testimony of ilr. Oravo», the engiaee^iQ-ohlef of thi6 
pcxtolBott tfili-^ntplu^T that ovcrrbc^ul vrin^c tvoqUI be impracci- 
cftble if they had U> dip at every croialng. The co«t of over. 
hoQBD linpfi vrns <^filtnuitc(l at about oDo-third of the coat of lines 
tta pol«« if ihvj frero of wowl, and ono^aventh if thry wi^ro 
of rron. vbUe tradergTonnd work, it tvus considered, would be 
tlujty tim«s as expensive ofi linoa ^th vooden poles, 

$66. Enfflhli dwlsfon aiider Canadian statnte,— rniJcra 
CanadbB striate authorizini; a conipary to lay iis wires nnder- 
gnKind for the purpo»? of supplying gaa and cloctricity, aBd 
pting the municipal conncil the ngbt to oversee the work and 
pneoribe the manner ia which tho streets shall be opcrned, it 
wts held by tl«» pHvy eouneil that if tho compury give* rea- 
Miialile notice of its intention to eserci*e iu statutory povrere, 
sad the oity coanc-.l tAkes no action, the coinpany tg entitled 
to prooe^ mth the work wUhont interference on the part of 
the eoancil.^ 

§ 6fl, General iirorltdenv of Amerirnn Mnfiiten, — Tn enma 
of the Aroe'-Jcaa alatea the vtaitit^* provitiing for the l*4fgraph 
(feTe permifision to lay the vires underground as well as to 
■tfeloh thcdii on po1e»- Thn morp r**efnt nLitut<-» have mado 
■pecial provi^on for the remove] of overhead i^ires artd putting 
aJ] tbe wires in certain Inrge cities in cables or snbways^ under 
the oootrol of commissions or bojtnl* clothed with «pcc)Al pow- 
en Mki] ch&rfed with apecial duties in the matter. 

In Connoctient the selectmen of tbo tovm are given fall di- 
rection and control over the placing, erection and mainten&noe 
of deetrio wiress oonductora^ fixtures and apparatus^ inclnding 
the retocating or removnl of the same, and it it provided that 
cTwy person who shall place any telegraph, tetq^hone or eleo- 
trie lilcht or power fixturoai, or eiructum of any kind, over pr 
tuuttfpnny highway or pnUie ground, without the consent of 
tte adjc^ning proprietors, or tbn oooseot of Um town eomruia- 



I Uontnal T. SUaiv4 Ugi^i A Toirv Co, [IWr] App. Caa. GST. 



«8 



BIGCrrBlO VUtGS IK OTSCBTft AlfD BtOSWAySt 



ftioncra, ahall be fined or litipriaoQed. (Lawa of 1357, cb. ZS^ Geo. 
Stat Codh, 1SS7, g§ 14T7»894ii.) 

A slatuU? in NclrnLjka gives to llio mayor an J common co^it- 
oil of any citj havin;^ tt popolatloa of ^iziy thooaand inl;£.bitr 
anU or upirnrdA power to protiibit or rc^Uto tlic oroctioi of 
teiQf|Tapdi» toiophonc or uloctnc-Ji^^ht |>o1os in the public grooDdOt 
Streets or alleya imd the pUcing of wirea thereon, aod to re- 
quire thi> romctval from llio public grounds, strecU or alloys oT 
liny or all euoli poles, aad r«qmre the removal and placing uo- 
tlcrgroimd of any or all telograpb, telopbon^ or oLoctrio wince. 
(Gail. Liiws of isar, p, 133, pii*«od Msiiv^h 30, 18ST,> 

The st&tiitee of many states gi^e municipal autboiitice powar 
to re^ulaU) tlin puLting up and auunuiiuiaco of t^degimpb uid 
other wirts ici tike »LrccTl;8. 

la Mo^fiachasetta it wa« provided in 18^ that tixe city coud- 
cH of any dty atid tbe sden^Lnicrn of any tona may cetahlidi 
rcadoaable re^^uULiooi for the erection and maintenajice of all 
tclcgrapb and telephone lines of vriro within their rtapectaro 
oitiesand towns, and may permit the aamc to be laid under aov 
public way or aquare. in cities such reflations shall be mado 
by ordioaooD.' In 1304 an act was passed provktins; for plac- 
inff under^rourtil ail iiu) eil^ut^to wires, exeept thoi>:» of the loa;^- 
dlfiCaaco telephone and el(>otric rail^^'ay, within a certain port 
of the city of Soston* Uie work to bo dono gradunUy and com- 
pletod before January 1, TJuu, The act crdatea a "dispartmoot 
of wires" intho city go\^urnment, and provider for the appoint* 
ment of a '' fHjminisslDnk^r of wiroM.*' * 

In Michigan perniissioa is given to telegraph ccMnpanles to 
run thirir winjs uniL^rgmund, and lo toUiplnmo compiinios U> 
phure tiller wires under the KlmeL^ providinl tlit*y do nut iiit«r* 
fere with other public u&ea thereof.' 

In Verinout the selectmen of the towns may dinxrt any lino 
of wireit to bo placed umWrgroand when it crOBSes a highway.* 
in Now York a statute paued in 18^ * prorided for telegrapti 
lines upon, over or iind<r any of tho public roa^ street*, etc 

>AeUuidlUsolra(Mfl0iXllfi<Ml. *Uok. An«. Stnt. g VOT; Uoir. 

€L8S.n& I, Ann. Sttt dorP- jtSnSdL 

■Atfto Mid R^dtoB (liMa&X UH •VmuuuibiAtuUM of taftV fitSSL 

flh. IH Efi !• «> *». Y- I*w* v^ c*L 471. i a 



see.] 



tWBSbOBOVXD wtstt. 



fift 



AiKt it b provided liy ch&ptcr 397 of tlie acta of 1ST0, ns acicndod 
by chapter 4413 of tho Inwe of 1S81, that t*?kgraph compo&ios 
iacoTporatod in Now York stou may lay ]in<« of ot^etrteul con- 
dnoton ttndcrgToand ia any city, viUa^ or to^'n within ttie 
UniU of tho 8tal^ subj(>ct to all th^ provlsioTis of law in rof^r- 
cnco to sueli eompaaiet not incontlfttent with the act; prorld^M), 
that such oompanjr ehall first obtain from th« cornmfjn crjon- 
din of oitiiTS, Uio tmstoos of vilhtgiw^ or tlio comtniiMtonorN of 
blghwaya or towns (townfthi]:i!<), pernimlon to use lite stre«ia 
for liie purpostij therein sot forth. In Kansas' und Mi!islEst[»pi ' 
tho mayor anil commcm council of ciUiM of the finl c\as» are 
authori£ed to gr?iiit pernjifiaion tn put the wires uiider-jroniwi ; 
aoil ia MiAMxiri' and Ohio* permission is given, provided the 
coRK'nt of Uu! municipality be firjit ohtAined. In Nevr JJamp' 
sfairo* pcmuaaion id given tho selectmen to fix the number of 
tho win» and the diitanco unJer^ronnd. In 'IVnncjuoe' tlic 
«oinpiioic8 aro jG:ivcn th<5 ri^ht to put tho wirce cither overbid 
or nndergroond In any of tho etr^otfl of tho cities and towns, 
and the roadi and highways of tbo counti'^B, 

In Now iforsoy, by a supplement pit^sod March Bl, I8S3,' it 
waa declared that any telegraph oompany incorporated under 
Ifaa geoeRLl tele;^»ph act, desiring to construct its linos by 
tDCona of naditrground cithl«£ c^>nL:iining the wires, instead of 
polee and posts aoataining the wires, should ** be subject to all 
ifa* restrictions and provisions cxncerntng tho luo of rfuuts, 
UghwayaandiEtreets u^ar&providiMl" in the general tutegrajih 
act and its supplemeata; and on March 14, 1S93, by a suppl«v 
cii-nt ia the gi-ncnd ntt <Tonf'^'rning (rorfMjmtionK,* rompnnins 
Cfguui/^ fctr the supply of Ht?ctno light, heat or [x>wer wero 
asthori&cd to lay vrircs in pipes ben«rath the public highways 
tmdor certain restrictions and ivith tlio con^nt of the common 
oooncU or township committee^ and subject to such reg:a[ation3 
M nigbt bo imikoeed by them. An act pnfsod March 10, 1S92,* 
|#orJdiBg for tho oration of a atat^ board of commisaioDcrs of 
electrical snbwayst was repwUod In l^Sfh*^ 



U Ksa. o«t suu El ?t 



^y. J. Uvrt m^ ok tTl; Q«ib 
Stut, p. fl*L 

• N. J. Latm I993L eh. £3T. pt ittl 

* K J. Tawv iss% ch. 1^ p :& 
i'KJLLiiw«lHll.olLT,|kl7. While 

tho set vt I9i3 yna in fot«:«> it wad 
held thss the permWoa of tUsbovd 



00 



SLECTEIC WIRES IX STEEETi AVD SIOHV^TG. 



[§70. 



In mottt of the states, however, the atatateejpmg auibof^t; 
to Qse tho »tpeota far electric mrcs refer to the qm of poets, 
poJc«an<l abutments, ond give power to fiOQstniotline8*'aloDfl*' 
or^'flpon and alon^** any public highway, or to en?ot po«t« 
'^ along ^ or*' upon and along ^'tiidroaU, and siring vrU^th«T«>' 

fpOKL* 

g lO. Dc-dsfons tboreniider, — It has iMen hold id Ohio* 
tbttt nndi?r a statute iiutliori-fiing telegraph line* to be oon- 
fttruu.-t43J "from point to point along and upon any puhllc 
road, by the erection of the aecess^iry fixtures, iDcliuliug po^ti, 
[n(?ni iind abutments t^ecessary for thfi ivin.^ in vtK^h nuinner 
aj not to incommode tla publle In the use of the atYt«t»^" 
tho company is not TOsti-icted to tbo nw of overhead wiits, 
and that the municipality, in the excrciAo of its power of ittg- 
iilaling the atrects^ might agree iviih the company for the 
confitTQcticn of an nnderground system. The mimicipality 
having ftiiled to agix^ with tho company, it was hchl that 
under tho statute in Ohio the probate court had powor to 



mw not •nfflofonl^ wftTiftat the ocn- 
Mmt of tbo loo&l anthoritieah to ji^FO 
penniBiiba to »ct^ op a Mwt of wlieo 
in Uio Btmrts, Trii«t€«B v. Subways 
Comix &^ N. J. U 430. 37 Aa RCfb 
eOfi. -I Am Et Cu, im 

' 8oc^ far oiiuu (lie : Loui^ijuiih, ISTfl. 
garno; AnUof l»*ll.N<ML'4,ftmnn*l- 
ln« ^ «UU of tb« B«r. 8(aL; Uinn^^ 

ininiilJi. Hap. 8tAL m4, p 1471 ; Iaw% 
Ol l'^ i'^ trs; N«td««ka, tdiwa of 
t^iftt p. e^; New JtnVBTt Law« of 

p. iftSS; Rvif.»> MT*: P«nn^lT«n1a. 
O^avral Incorponlion Ac4 of 1974 
£04. UwBor l^$y p. l<iii VermouC 
Itiw. L&v» of 1»SUl jk 701: Virfclnitt. 
Cod* of 1«97, f; 13!*r7: Umtod St^Um, 
B«T. 8tat,8 096a;AIolanuwCodoi:>r 
18NL 8 tStti Aj-lauixu^ Bav. »»m 
1914 S«TM: GAUeoraU.JU«oe April 
SI 18901 Co1oipdo> OOD. Laws UE^t 
$9; florid G«n. I^m olL T8% S S; 
Iowa. Coda of lfli«.^isa4; lAm of 
jam oh. 101; KOBMf. U>r« of i^etc 
^o« C«oo«jmiO0 FdiftC* Corpora 



lloni^ gpf 74,19: Uorytu^IUv. Ood* 
1976. g 130; Mic3ki|Aii, Stat, of L9TI. 

ft 34^0; Nmt Yovk. Iawh Of 1S«A, i^Il 
»^fi5; Or«goa, tfvn. Lkws Of 1«T8. 
olLSCLSlt UtAh, Oompflod U«re <« 

I'OT C6ll^lii>nil oJ ib« Uw« of tbt 
AmorlOftO $UU« I'ClAtinic to t«I«> 
icnplu and tekphonee. bm " Lvwi of 
thA V&rloti« SCttCM BolMliV toTW^ 
irrsph Con>pa&ioi ''(thore Ufe oop7fD 
tlio liLiaryof IbcNew Voik tjiw Ii^ 
stitulfl); " Ijm ol thn UfiUci) Sutoi 
and Ihe 6«VQrn] ST<ktM ond C^o*dA 
JtolhtinK to ToIcurtQ^At^" oompilol 
for Uie IWltiiuora & Obb TalogT«^ 
Col : - lULlroB.d uid Tsld^mph lA«i 
oi PaossylTiuam- 1«ie-16d3, Drtok- 
ct'M IkU. 1«S4: "Stocut4*B«Afttiaal0 
Uift Tirlt^plnono." by John B. Uhlo; Se 
Am. Lav ll«sltf«r (N. &;b 71^ HI, 314^ 

au^883.soa 

■EOsBunGeoeralBtKUioLiffbLOx 
▼. Clnctnrjiii^ftCinitM PrehaUfC^iurt 
JUpofi« <OUoi »4 UUnb lib UWf. 



*W] 



CKDEUCftOUlTD WULXS. 



direct tho mode in which the irirca ncdergroaad sbodd bo 
laid in the gtro^la. 

In PeiuuylTtuii& it bos been hdd tbot a grant to u tclcphono 
oompoBfto run and maLnUia wires "over and throngb" the 
Btniels doe» aot ioolnde permission to kiy them underf^nnd;^ 
bat an ordinance requiring tbem to bo put amlcrground baring 
been Ac«ept£d and acted upon, It waa lield that the power to 
impou cooditJoDS was gone and only tht.* power of K?gu1ulioa 
TVtsalnudL la mnoUier cue in the same sUile it wna l»<Ld Uiat, 
under the general act requiring cities of Llie third class to keep 
tike atresta in repair and fi^e from etKroarbtDetLU^ thf^y havo 
tluf powrr to vuDJitruct eonduilB to aci^iai:iodatd all Uie eleo- 
trie wires which have been aiupoaded over the BtrcetA.' 

WhHbcr or not the company, under its charter or the gencial 
Btatutci, haa the ri^bt to put ita wires underground, it ia wdl 
aoitlcd that this right ia sabjcct to the i^fiaoaable control of 
the mamcipal auUionly uadc r lU polioo power and the power to 
rv^olate atreet& Bof erring to a case iiriaiDg in the city of St. 
Looie, Chiof Juattoe >'ullor sjud : ^ " Consideriog the danger to 
life and property from electrio wirea when char^d^ it aeemed 
to the coort too plain for argument that the city should h&7e 
the right to direct the mann<^ In which their use should bo 
entdaed, aad especially when more than one method was 
open and the rigbla and H:Lroty of tho public w^ire inor<^ or 
Im affected by either. Again, many companies used electrio 
wni for v&mua purposw, and to occonimodate them ali and 
pff«v«Bt monopolies in the lue of the fttreeta, it appeared aljco- 
laleJy necavary that the manleipal aatboritif^ should have the 
right to dinxt the manner in which the wires should bo pEaocd 
■iderground.^ 



"t 



m Fk. et «i (iMk «> AtL Utp. 
tth Id whJab ihm ptnrtfv oF Uw ax* 
WDtlw depefftnMDt aad thv eovn- 
«ib la PhOadelpUa wiili rvpuct to 
Ok 00— tfwettoa cf Ml uDilcrjicrjiuiil 
■ad twmlt*! poln Am o»- 



< O^BriiV r. Eri^ SO Pa. Ci!^ Ct B«p. 




(160^ alBnnins Lftclcdo OnoJiglit 

<8oABfBGiirttte Tight ± IcwCa 
V. Eitf«kA, a Kaxu App. aU0. <fs Pnrw 
Bci^^a^; Amaav.rrk«.l»1LLi3T, 
aa AtL n«ix aS4; »Tnlth v. Wi^tMy, 
Ibtd; &aa AnUnuo A A, I'. Kj, Co. ▼. 
Ik^rg^nd. 13 TuL Ov. Apfkfl7,H 



91 JCLIOCTUIC WtX^ fX flIB£Ri ASD HIGBWA^TB. [§§ 71,11 

g 71. T)te lesUUtion In Kevr York prorldlnic for a boai4 
of electrical coutrol aitd a subway conipanj.-* In >'ow Vorit 
the tolcgrupli act of ISIS (ch. 2G5) proviJod for Iho eoititJQo- 
tion of linctt aton^ and upon any of the public roads and iu^ 
iraya. This woa amended m 1S52 (qIu 171) so us to aQthoruft 
tho oonstruotion of a Line under ils well as oxer a ro:td. In li^ 
an act waa paASdd (oh. 531) by which it was provided that all 
tclograph, tolephono aod oloctric-Iight vriros und cablM intU 
citic4of tiiONtnto halving a popiilxLlion of &vo hnndrod thousand 
or orer shoold thereallor '' bo placed under the siirf:iCO of tlw 
atru«U, lance and avonucs '* of the city, and that this fihoolil be 
donebefora thti Ijtt day of November, iSSfi. It was further pio- 
vldod that in case the owncirs of the wirea should fall to com- 
ply with tho act within the lime specified, th© local govcnh 
znenta should reiaore without delay all such wires, cables sad 
poles. In 1885 an act \nis passed (ch. 409) which provided for 
theiLppoint-moal of a bojinl of nuintiiKKioiit'rs of t^lectncal m\> 
VFRj9j anil it vt&a made the duly of this board to oan^ to be 
m^moved from ths surface of tho strei^Fs and to be inajntaino^ 
tiudurgmund, wherever practr[^b1ef nil eleiitricnl wir^is and 
eablea, and the suhwHys wi;re reijuired lo be built undM- the 
Ruprrvision of the boarcJ, and no electncal wiri-^s were to ha 
allowcHl abov43 the surface of tbc strcc^U without the jH'rmiarioci 
of the boMrd» This board made a contract with a oompanj, 
providing that the company should construct the neooeataj 
subways, subject to the approval of the commissioDcrSf aod 
that all cori>oratioM owning and operating eloctrical wiicb 
above the streets should have the right to place them in the 
aub^wys upon the torina and under the ccnditiouB specified. 
This contract was ratiticd by an act of the Icgi^latore in ISST 
(Laws, ch. TUJ). 

g 73. Uvcifiioiis thereout— This legislation has been held lo 
be a valid exorcist^ of the police power. Injunctions o^^ainst 
retnoving the wires Itave b(H>n denied, and in an actico for 
4lamage6 for cutting the wires the New York court of appeals 
ordered judgment to be enteriHl for the defendiLBt. 

The question came before Judge Wallace, of the Unltdd 
circuit court for the southern district of Now York,' 

1 Wesluru Union Telag. Ot t, Nhw Turk, 53 Fad. Rflp. 5Ji3,S Am, 



i 




I«.J 



VimEBOBOUWO WIUKS. 



bdd tfa&t tlie AcLof I8^ wnsavjilid police regulation, «ven m 
to « tek^rapli companj engaged in inierstato commerce itIucIl 
tubd teceptod tbo prorisioLs of the act of cocgrcss of July 24, 
ld66t* ftnd wUcli thereby became, ^ to govcmmcat baidQcss^ ft 
govenuncnt a^noy, and ffJao that the act of 1697 tto^ good ob 
a police n^gitlntion, even though it gave Eprwial privileges to 
the sobvray company. And he denied an inJQDction o^inftt 
enittng doim tolef^niph wiroa loft bfingiD/; over the strcote 
afier notieo to pinoo tbem in tho sabwnys, but as to wiroj 
aJong tb« line of tLe ekvatod rniJroad, \?hich was a post-road 
oT ih^ United St&t«6, he eaid it was doubtful whether tho stat^ 
vtet were lawful to the extent of dc])rjvjng tbo platniill of tbo 
n» of snob a road, and h« granted an injTmcdon. 

TIk^ Aubjoct cume up before die state courts of T^ew Vork in 
aeTC!ratoiw& !■ pMpU v. iS^irtt^ the court of appeal* decidiKl 
tkat the act of 16S4 was not nnconstitatlonal, and wa^ a propter 
exercise of tfae power to avgidate Htrvets. Thu <-^urt said Lbat 
in great cities there ircreranny public uses to which the 9itn^t« 
were neceaurily put, — that they must ba used for sevrere, ^aii 
pipe*, it«am pipea, telegraph and electric wirea, and that it wob 
oompet«nt and proper for the legialalure to distribute the space 
for ttie various tuea, ao that all aboald beat serve tbo public 
eoovenioDCOi and that in the cxcrcieo of tbis potvor it woa 
rcosoDnblo to roqaire the electric vrireft to he ptaeed in snbvray^ 
nnder the control of a neutral board, which should dotermino 
]i9W &Dd wboro tho various kinds of wires should bo laid. 
This dec»i<m was affirmed by the smprome court of the United 
Statos ftnd the court eaid that the statutes of 1S$5 and ]S8$ 
giving control to the board of coiiiniif«ioaii^r« of eleciTieal cub- 
vaya did Dot impair the obligation of the exist-ing contract 
wHb the city^ ami wen* a eonstitiitional eierci»i« of the general 
poliee powers of the state* 

Tbu dircifijon iraa followed in two caaeB in thd suprema 
court of New York,' and the (jne«tioa caino again bcforo tbo 



(UBSk 14 N. ?1 F^p. aaO^ afflruliia H 
>mC,&17iblAia. EL Cu. in 



s. V, fliipp. :::, m K Y. si. ttflivasit 

3 Am. HL Ca4. ItfT; U. !i tlluuitnaC^ 

oa nuii,S23.8 Aiij. El. Ciuh a\ Sdo 



» 



XLItCTUC WlXZt TX mtrTT AXD fftcni'ATS. 



[fTS. 



coart of appeals to Am^ricctn S^pid Ttte^r&pA Oo, e. iSw, de- 
cided Ftjbruary 9S, ]^9L^ The pl&indff, & telefnph ooropftiif 
organiiod undor tho t«i<^graph acts <^ 1^9 aid l^S, had 
atraoted Lines in the «trvct« of Uiq cit/ of »ir York vriti 
any Bpoolal grant or antborlty from the citj. The plolntlf 
claiiEWd that then acts oparated as % grant to it of a franchise 
to use the streeU, which iKMUtilutKl in fnvioUhlo ooatmct 
ii[Hf«r the protectwn of Ui« confititution of thd Unit^ StaUi^ 
•o Uiat nalther the Ktab^ nor tho ctt; rotUd canso th« polea 
wirea to be removed wiiliout raa3f ing corap«amtk>n, Tho 
bt'td that tbr statute did not gm&i the plaintiff any mtereet ia 
the tdreeta, l>Lit onljr ('i>[iferri^ opon it an aolhority or lioooai 
to «ntcr apon the streets and uae them for a public uhs— ona 
of tht purposei for irhich the publio streets could be nied*— 
not inconaiBtent irith the use for geaeral »trr<?t pitrpo^ - r / 
th&t these acta of iho legislature were general [mrJii; i-^ 
tive acts in the esi^rcitfc of the police power of the state, and 
therefore they vcre not beyond tho roach of future legislatKHk 
The court said, morco^or, that cvoa if thoy were a grant of 
aome sort of a franchise, yot tho state- did not abdicate its 
power o^er the public streeU, nor in any way curtail iu poUofr 
power, nor absoU'O il^olf from tho duty of maintaisinj; ths 
streets and highway of the state in a safo aiKl proper condition 
for public travel, snd they held that the order to remove the 
|ioltti luid \\\r%M jitiit put tho vrirts in the siibway«T after die 
notice, vr^ a proper and reasonable exercEao of the control 
orer streels, and that iho cutting down the wlm, after failnre 
to comply with tlin noltccf^ was not a taking of property for 
public use, hut siniply a removal of It aflj^r it bad become a 
nuisEince. The court said, alsOp that tbe authority to nimore 
the wir^s could be found in the proviso in tho aot of 1S4$ under 
wbich thoy wero erected, namely, that thsy should not bo » 
coustmctod OS to incommode the public u^e of the highways;. 
The Icfn^latL^ro, having determine th&t they do obatruct ^e 
public nae of tho streets, haa a right to direot them to be 



pMlar Oyirt) 5i% Wl T Supjx aiT, 
8 Am. KL Cm. 197. 

I m X Y. eti, £6 T^. & EecK ei9> 
4 Am. BL Ck& 142. ID Ay. A Cuqi. i. 
X 111, aOniilfif la M, t. 8ap{i dm 



as Hoa Aic^ sa k. t sl vjo^ 

8t« alK AfCisUcc^ 7. Qract, HI 

8t Bep. MSI A K V. S^w- M 




5 7S«.J' 



nnvxBonoTJvp irisu. 



ftS 



uador the act of congre«4 of July S4, ISflfl, Rtvleed Suiutt*, 
Miction &S>ftd, tli«y were entitled to tisa tbe post-roai.1a of tho 
TTDited Slat««, ond tliat unilor section 3964, anJ the act of 
Uarcb 1, ISSi, all Icttor^arrien* route* and all paMic roads 
and faighvrajft wcro po»t-roads; bat the coort bcld that ttcM 
acU of coogrcM cnold oot dtprirc tbo state of iu control of JU 
hiffawaja, and its ligUt to r«gulat« them utuler the polico 
poiror, uid that tbo laws of congreaa arc perfectly satisfied by 
permiasBOD to |»!aoo tlio win-^ in the «ub\v^iy. 

S 72a. LimitatlODS of tbc powerB of tbc subway eompanlou. 
It hat boon bold, bowoTor, that under the subvmy stiitut«A of 
Xew York tho a^ibway company c1o«« not acquire an vielui«ivd 
right to maintain subtvaya for electric wires in any of tbo 
iErcct4.^ In U:e construction of a 0tro«t-car cable lino proTi»- 
ion traa made for an electnc wire unrlerground for the pur- 
po9» of 6i*ading fiignaU, The court held that the snbwHy com- 
pany luul no right, eitbrr by «liitute or by conLrnot^ Ut rui^iuro 
tbia line to be pnt in their stibway and that they were not ©n- 
littad to an injunctioru* 

In MiMOori It baa been held tliat tlie oity of St. Loui», vrbich 

poMBea nnnaual powers, cannot make a valid grant to a pri- 

vatd company of the ri^ht to maintain ftubways in the strccta 

for fifty yeara without redervln^ t\w potrt^r of ftuporvi.tii^o and 

eoDtrol of the location^ comtruction and a3t> of the line. Al- 

tiioagb the aiibwa/s were intended to bo n£oU by tol<:<groph 

and tdepbone eompanioa for pnblio nacs, yet the aubivaya 

tbeviaeives were grantod to a privato company which vas 

nader no obligation Vy put them to a public ufti>; and the otty 

did QOtt l^d the BU(e, retain by mplication the control ^ 

tU lines of wiret ^^ ^^ conld not, without au oiprcaa nwervo' 

Jkm of tucti poller, make a graut which was In effect a grant 

of a prirate lue and one that was thus put beyond mumcipal 

funtrol- U \e«3t held incidviiUlly in these cases that thiv city 

of fit TjOnia bad power to permit, and, if public asfety required 

^ to eompel, telegraph and other nires to bo put umli-rgroimd> 

<&apb»Dty8iLbwayC0k ▼.Broad' gri>iiBd SofvIm Oy v, Untphy (U&V 
*ir<«ICi R a Co.. $7 Baa. 97«l5 e Am. BLCuLlUaSOff); mVtxHd; 

■SUM as Ml St Loali Uador- > A oLtj tutvlag glr«Ti a tatepaph 



IBVATS. 



[! 




_* ^ _ 



«rthe ffartHr-wIre napsafe* to Od n¥- 
af th» rfa ctri o-'inre compankt 
Id a case in >'ow 
abcm referred to.' An 
r^ hm&g BO<M of Ui« ficsle oT cbftrga 
«ad apporcd bj Ui« board of 
lyyGid far kave ta pit its wirai in ih<i cob- 
tt^rmfital Hm^ kept UkBwira* there aeveni 
paji^a&j^RaiWaBdtevnS noeiTed notic* tt 
ttea»tba <)K«riDt«kt oo^h^ fiM * bill ita&tbg 
tibat tba nsu dbaiged w«re sarcamable^ m^ing the coart to 
fur reas aad ia the ■*—**■** lo «&join tbo remoTft] of 
Am Vina. TW rrikf vas ntaed bj Jad^ Iii4;rahAni, anl 
tikfldedsoa wasaftnned brtbcgeaetnl t^rriL Tbo couiite- 
TkvM tb6 atatato aad aud tiia fifec(hc4i^t coaipan^ could 
Doi uko ponoiBioa of tba flabwayi, with aotice of tbe rem 
dtarged, vitboot becoiaiag liable to pay tliat rest, and tba^lt 
Uke teat wa« ooiHidofad aamttooabK ftpptuatioa to Tt^lnce U 
abonld bo auida to tba teanl of obetdoal control. Tbo decs- 
iofi of the board is final, in tfaa ihiBnoe of fnnd, except opoa 
tbo prooc^in^ for mof^damu* prortded for in tbe Btatato, aad 
it IB dooUfol wh«UMr ecpihy can, ia any ca8e> iat«rfcro; b« 
eerlainly no injunction can be gnntod or reliotgiTca eo long 
a« the teat aln^cly aocmed remaim oBpaid* 

Anothor c&fi^ on the relation of tbo oompnaiee owning tb6 
vires to tbo con^pjuiifs having the rabwayt* decides that a 
company irhoae vires have been placed in existuig ftobvap 
bu so right by statute {sad in the present case noao by agrsfr 
meat) to retrain Uue transfer of tLe ^ubw ays to anotbor ooE> 
pany, nor to hnre nn injunction a^nst the board of eloctrio&l 
control to pn-vent it from nisking & contract for siirh a transfer. 



eon^MU^ tho ri*:ht to In^- wine in a 
subway, juiothor n/miauj bavixif a 
HtaiiqBafit (vmtnf!t vlth the rity 
via#aJoln&1 from boildingi^ib way 
oift Ui*t of tlw i^JaialilT. VTeatv 
Union TftL Ca T. Syracawv 5,1 N- Y- 



SubH-jy Ca. !0 X V. Siijip. SI: a C. 
on iippFa.1 to thfl gcnonl U^n, t<L 
177. 00 Hun. lOA. 3 Am. EL Cte lU 

Gmixt Mnyor of Nflw V*vrlf. 31 S. T- 

Ct. leW). 




CHArTEEYIL 



UOBTS or THE 0WKER3 OF ABDTTINO T^AimS WTTH REflPPCT 
TO THE USE OF THE STBEEIS FOfi ELECTRIC WIttCS-GES- 
ERAL VIEW. 

% 7*, The fnBltii>lknnon rtf^rlro?* In tfco strrets Itiwi^lTeii 
rIpD to controvendeH wUlt laud-owners.-- Witii tLo muLupli- 
cMJoa of electric trires in the streets &ud along the hfghwa,yfi, 
tiw quesLioa beoonK^ importjint, both Tnr limcl-ownonc and for 
eompBokss ivIiKlber Uiu |iu1<<h aiui win» niJij' l)e gjlap(^ tn tito 
itfwsis witiioaL the consent of tbe owner of the adjoining land, 
•lul without eom[>viisatioa inaila So loog » ctoctric wirc« 
«em used onlv Ujt tcl<>gr&|>U linifsft running along country ro&dt 
aikI into citios and out agaia^ few coutroTcrsics aroso; &nd at 
tboftgh tho tfilcgfAph has bei-n in tuo lor more tbun fift^ jcimf 
tbere are few, if unyj dLs:iiiiona to be found on thia quettioB 
prior to 188S ; bat, no^ that OTory street and almoat every road 
tM a lifM) of man^ fpircstimJ iho wir<« mid£0 aLmoat a network 
tn the ocnlroB of tbe oitioA. the occasiona for conti^ov6rni?a tttT* 
greatly taoreoBcd, and the inconvcoionoo to tho li^nd-owneiB 
baa b^oomo more serions, Addodto tb«a«U tho now ugoorthe 
wtfca for tho electric street railway, and thia has met vrith d^ 
tarmined opposition on tho part of iiw owrrru and occupten 
el l&nda along the atroi-t, and there have been ntany deeiiioaB 
within the last few years on the question whether the owner 
cil laod can mnhfi objixrtlon U) thn w'tJ-mg u|i at [Hiirnan*] vrin-a 
ll an adjtiiiting xtmet for th«! pur[HJs<i of pm^H-Dmg mreel cant 
hf electricity, 

$75. Tbi^ fiuriketteferw&kh the wireaare pat there (sas 
Important element. — The answer to tho question, vrbcther the 
kmlH^wBerhas a right to object to the use of wires in tho sli-ecta, 
Aepcoda on tlio purpose for whioh tlw wires are ns^l, and on 
tb« quection whether that perpoee ia a proper nac of a streci or 
a road aa aooh. Tho aaawer, therefore, n>ay bo dilTcrcnt with 
nipeol to the Tunoos moa of the eloctrk wirca It may be 
1 



SLScrmJo wta» rx n^Mrrt ua> njcflwxvt. 



Hw 



that tbo electrio-Ugbt wira, wd to ««p{4]r Um aiauii for for- 
nUiing tlw itfMtf m Wbll u the bonces vilh li^t, is a pn^^er 
iiBd of the atreei, aoxUiary to tbe prinvj pcrpoee for irhi^ 
th« atnet WW Uid oottUid ;«tthmtlh*iolfignphwiro,ttran£, 
It Duj bft, Dpon the nne potct^ aerrtt a pwpoae which has no 
i^Utioa to ihai for which the street wis dnlkaud or oon- 
dmoed to pablic tiM^ vo that to vnbjtvt it Lu thb am impose* 
a wnr hordco, for wt^cb tho owner of the aotl is entitled to 
new conpensatioiL The tdephooe wu« mnet, doubtlco, bo 
dusod with the trl^^rapb wiro; bot tbe pole* anU win-a for 
tha dectrio railway, being nani in lud of public tr^Tcl, may 
add no aew burden u> tbe land in tbo atroci, or none in addi- 
tion to that imposed by ihn railway itadf. For ttiesD reasons 
it will be neoMsary to consider the Tarioos asce of tbe eloctrio 
wires BCf)aratc)y. after first inqoiring what arc the rights of tbo 
landowner in the street and what aro the ordinary usos to 
which a street may be put wftbout affecting his rigiitd or re- 
qturing his consent 

g 79. New iisea — Different views of the proper nse of n 
street. — The qaest^on now Is, not what the le^^iaUturo may aa- 
thorita tho stroats to bo Dsod for, but what are the os«s that 
may be mitde withont impoaing a new bunlen opcm tbe land, 
andwitboQtchanginglheuseto which a street or high way may 
be sufiposcd to hare been dcdEcitlet!, The answer to ibis wQJ, 
of coarse, depend upon the breadth of the view talcEm by the 
courts of tbe natural and pre^r nsea of a street by the pnbliix 

Wbea land is taken or dedicated for the purposes of a high* 
way, the questioiir what use may be mode of it, depends on 
what tiiG purposes of a highway arc Tbcre is liUlo difflcol^ 
ID deciding viiat are the rocognixed pnrpoees of the street or 
highway at any given time, but tbo difijculty arisca when* in 
the course of time, new uiodcs of itse aro invented, and tbo 
<|ucaUon is whether they are within ti&e nicaaing of the dodi- 
cation or bare boon paid for in the cotnpenaiiion already made. 
Opinions differ on this aeeording oi the courts are inoJini^ to 
eonstroe strictly <n- liberally the meaning of a dedication or 
taking of linds for a street If the p^Mxc gcU only such noes 
OA are Lnown at the tin>e, every change fnvotrcs a new bcrdea 
oa tluu land t«i:en; but if the taking is construed to be the ao* 



g 77.] sioRTs OP Jksmrxo owtnuu. $d 

qoMtioa hy tho publio of Uio use of Uk land for all the por^ 
posiM tor wkleti a Itroot nuy roasociabty bo r^nirod, tLo 
ob&Bg«e in tbo mode of uao inU be roj^arded i^ of littlo goiums 
qatncoso tosg ns tlie strMt is ub^ for pnbUo purposes not 
InooiulsteQt vrlih tboRo for whicb tho kni vr^fi lakeiL 

Tbc«e two views of the uses of the streets niU be found to 
inid«rii« Iho dvsc^ioiu on nil bmDcb» of our present 8ubject> 
and ibe dUTereaoe betivc^en them explnint the diffuxeaoe in the 
drckions. 

It Es ujwtfM tor mc to i^xprcs^ my o\rt\ opiDion &s to wbich 
of tba»e 13 the l^ttrr vU-w, and >L nould be g<nng owt fjirtdjt 
Blmdj reaped to irxamiiie tbe c&aa» in detail. Th« caae^ are 
oolleotod and ducuaewd in all the test-books on omineDt do* 
mam, streets and bighwayst and munioip.il coqior^Ltioos. 

$ 77. TEiMra of iudise Dillon and Sir. Lciris.— Jnd^ DA* 
loo, in his work on Munici])/il Corporutiond (1th od., g G33), sajrs: 
" The ftmdamentol idea of a atreot ia not only that it U public, 
b«it pQblio for all pnrpodOQ of &oo and unobstraotcd poMfi^, 
vhlc^ ia iU obiof and primary^ thou^Fi by no means 60le>, um." 
And A^io (§ 65G6), aitor savins tbat in some ra^es the fee ia 
In the owner of the a^ijoinin^ land, and in some cuca in the 
dty, be caya: "^In dther outo the abttttcr ii entitled as of 
right, subject to mimicipal and public reflation, to cuike any 
beavfioEal UK of U14; sdlI of tlni litrrot which is coDsi«t'^nt with 
the prior and paramount rights of ttte publie tliereUi for i\i4i 
iU got purposes proper. The rl^bt of the pubUe to nse tli« 
atreeUi &ot only for trard ami ia»Qgi:r, but for sewer, gas, 
water and &team pipea, and the like purpoftnt, ia, of counter, piira* 
nonnt to any proprietory vii^hiR of tho abutter.** 80^ also, 
llx, John Lewia, ia hU Treatise on Eminent Domain (§ 13(T), 
Aya: ''la regard t^j tJie oaea which Uie public aathoritica can 
make, or authoriie to be mndc*, of the land a^r^jtiircd for strf^cts, 
ihA gonoml rule ia that the stroeti are laid out prtmardy to 
accommodate the publio in traveling? from place to place, and 
Uiat the right attucbea to whatorer ia aoCG«sary or proper to 
heititate such trarel ia the usual and ordinary modes. But 
whUe tbo purpoae of streeta is prinianly for public travel, jet 
ia populous d»tri4>u it hag been the Imnieinorial eusttom to em- 
ploy thorn for other purpoe^ of a public nature, whichj though 



a 



190 



KLzcTAie vnan nr 



AXD BlGlXirATt. 



[«ja 



haviDg UUIo or no conneotioii with tbe uses or trnprorcsicnt 
of tb6 street as & highway, arc oot incowsicnt with anch use,''^ 

Hr. LcwU, however, insists that the ngfal of tho publio in 
tho streets is by nvicicni osftge mcrotj ft right oi public ptsagd 
to ^I the pabiio alikeftnd that any mode of passoge which 
giroA pfrculiar priTtlcgce ftod c&nnot be refcirM to the commoQ 
right W a new Lurdt:n Lf>oit the land, and that lh« public H^t 
does not properly include the right to lay dov,ii gas or water 
pijws or to lay raiU for n railroud of any kiml. T!i«« vicn* 
are maintained fa a learned not^ to a case reported in tbe alxth 
Yotnrae of his Amrricun Railnnd otA Corpomtion KeporU.* 

|7S. DEstiurtInn nlth respect lo Ihe tllle In ihepuhlte 
and hi thn ahattlng owiifir.*— AiioU;er matX^-r of dilTejvooo 
runnic^ through the decisions is tho oxnici^hip of the fee of 
tho lanti. A dssUnctton is m:u£o bctvccn cnsss in vhtebibo 
fee is owned by the abutter and those in which it b owned by 
the public, and there arc other oases in whkh that lUsiinctMiL 
is hdd to be of tittli; ccn^LHjnenoe. 

As a genera! ruk, upon the condemnation or dedication of 
ft higbwiiy, the fcc-sinipb rcmoiofl in the nbatting owncr^ and 
tbe pnblio acqnircs only an eoflomeats.* TbU b »o m many 



■SIreela nr« not «xcliHlv*ljr for 
Invel, bub Cur ^1 Uio turn t» whAck 

it b CtUkMUAT^ Ul (iVTOttt ihKU <^V> 
k«lT, D«troa<9 9CfdLH9»: SO Md 
by Coo1#]r, J., bi * naa !o which Injid 
In A sltecl inw oondemiiod Cor mmx- 
\vt puriNffo^Aiid the tDHJvnUl ut- 
feet vu to block Up Um street with 
w^&inxv Ihit w«ij^t of MxtlkorUy, 
bofjvvnr. b thai oisiuclpU corfcm- 
tictfu bftvtt nos tb* poverto avilMir- 
Ib9 tbo octiopAtion of w, pvbUo rinet 
fnr tt pennADaat market SUte i^ 

V. PbtlMUIphte. «S fW 8t »»-910t 
ItcUouU V. Kowvk, 10 K J< Law 
JourohL Oi Bod boto; a C, 42 N. X 
Eq.lSf. 

F<« rBforosK^o to cams OD tho WO 
cf MfTvtfl la dl^ Bsd towoJL 000 
nat^n. S 1. A. A. im 9 L. R A. loa 

■ K&ITMt7 T. CMdnl Taction Oo, 
ti Asb a ft ft Oitp. Bop, aoUv » ML 



*Tb* fpnttond mio Utd down bf 
Gbuie<^lor Keoi b thM "o ctont of 
luid bouMSod by k hli:kwfty cr riv^r 
CAniOS tte fM lo tb« hiyhvAj or 
Hfer to the ovntn «f rt> prorfdod tiut 
tie icnolicv ow3k1 Co the oentn «tid 
i)>6iv b» no wordi orvpecUlo doocvl^ 
tioD to 4bow a contnuy iDtont** 8 
Kent'bCeoim.m; Winter v. FUot- 
•an.d fiA (»4 K ^. L.»a£4: nobofem 
l^ndA trai^CaT. KofTtflUvSI 14. 
J. Ju IS^ Qlmthj v, llofTl^ Id K J, 
B|. n; tUffl^ 1. C A A. R a CCl, 
10 K J. E4 4XL iB; SdVttr r, J<MJl. 
«* K. J. L. 4««; BoMoe v, RkihArd. 
■on. ISAlkn (Mma^U^ IGS; Btiss 
T. BfttL M Hm. 397; IVch v. SnJIbu 
] CoDQ. ]0S^ e AKk, Ove. not tSD; 
BIswUt.N.T. Ontnl aaOa^SI 
KT.ei; £tlioUoaS»UM*i DOL 
uuc cvrm s an 



7>.] 



BEOBTtt OP AUTrn^O OWXBU* 



li>l 






C4IW of actual conreynnce of Ui« Unil for tbe puqpoAeB of & 
Itighwar or streeL On th^ other band, tbcro are cases in 
vliicU tho fwxiiaple of tbo lainl in tbc highiruj nercr cuno 
lo the abiittmg orrtMr, bet la h«l(l by Uie nmnicipal corpora* 
tion, or, ;a a certain acosc, by tlic public^ la cither cciso tbe 
ttioet ie subject to tho puUlio u«o tor tbo purpoacs of a street, 
and tlio owner of tbo abulung land ban certain apai^ial rigbts 
Ui«raLD- If tbo foe ia i& tbo macki^ality, it is held iq trust 
for tbo public oec an<l i^nbjoct to tbo rights of the abutter. If 
tho fee is in th« abnttor, bo holds It subject to tlia public use, 
vlutow that may boj and whether the fco is in tbe city or 
in tlio atrntUng Lind-oxr nor, bo boA a Hglit to tho u«c of tho 
street in connection with hU property — a right to light and 
air nod ncceu — a privitt^gt? of using tho strciot as such in con- 
LioQ with hia land; anil thin right 14 n right cif pniperty of 
Joh lie ^anti-)t hi) dtipnv^i:! without 00m iMUHjitton. 

) 79. In tltbcr ca.se thrr^f Ar« ecrliilit rif;blA Eti th« tttrei^fc 
at aue]i*— It is gcnvrally agrrwl, however, that witrlhcr tho 
l^al titlo is in oq« or tbe oih^r, tliero aro corUin public rigbtA 
in tho street aa a straot, and there are special right* of prop- 
erty in the abutting owner in that tise.* 

The land tatccn or dedicated for uao as atreota la subject to the 
r^ht of tho public to have them tucd aa such, and also to tho 
nghb of tbc abutter to uac tbcm as such in connection with hia 
lanJ« 

Tho general consccena of jadicioJ opinion sinoo the olovate^t 
milroad cases have been thorouffhly diju^uased ' sccma to ba tha& 

CS^i Pii«« V. Bilvin {T«.x 11 a & 

)L fl. By- <^- 10 ^Ido Clr. Ct. R^ 

*HU>tT ¥. N, T. EWt. tt B. C*, 90 

C'cx, tW N- Y. ?4W; FV.fnl V, M.>L K>t. 

Etor.ItaCa.l&} fI.T.S»i Fob» 
▼. KOB« A WAlOrtjVirTk R R* lai 
K. V. Wi Qoahattor r. HviIuIUa 
R B, Ga, ai N. Y. Si Bef^ lid; Of 
anla«a 7. lUohiiUAn R. R Cu, At 
N. T. Stv Rop. 181 SMaUoanart^ 
c!o on the cIotbCmI nUraad Ut^fiUva 



lAMf f«r «iavif4a Uig Datch 
BttMU la H«w Yorii. diKu«i^ iji 

R«»w 0t Uia dbvAWd nUroAd cum 
K«w Vnrk. Hlrw v. N. Y. Ktov. 
R Cg^ 77 N. Y St K«p. »£»: »«r. 
IV T, .N. V. E:i«r> R R Oa, 30 
T. Si lEHFx fr73: Ab«iiJnftL y. N. 
., B1*V. R aC(>.£4 S. Y Sup«T.CL 
Hill & C «tifr nom. Almxlroth v. 
**'"'"■"*" R R C>x. m K Y. 1 

ifia* Uc^ufti t T. Pofftlmd A Von- 
MumRRCa.l90rc&l9r,a3rac. 

Ka[L ACn. I AttL R R A Ct«ik Ib^ 

«lwiUi noU; BcrnkTra i^h Cob^ 

r, AfuuUucig, iS ^ V- 



tOft 



XLKcncio wiiu» tfi imtKim! axd highwat^. 



[58ft 



tb9 ftbuttmg oi7n«r, irhethor he owns tho feo or notf Uu a sub- 
tUntial rlglit in iboKtru^t — a rigbttoliav6Uk«pifor nxe ua 
street for acc«aa to Ui& properly and to affonl UgLl and air — 
undthiit this ma right of property which uannot bo L^iken fnim 
liini vnthout coiopcus^ition.^ 

§ 80. DUcusniflR of the su^ect by Hr. Carman F. RaB* 
dotph. — The subjf^ct is ably hancHed by Mr. Carman F, Ran- 
dolpb, of tlie Ke\T Jersey bar, in an ^tlcle OQ KcuiacDt Domain 



by Edwnri A, Qibbftrd, 4 Hiirf. Law 
Iter. 70 (Mbj. I&OOK 

■ Juilifc Dillon, ctprukic^e^f ibc OaU 
nro ot KtTQoU an'l tli^ n^bU «f tbo 
Owtkcn of tt^utliog ]|ULd.<nyaf^0Sft^); 
"Ttko full coac«ptkij3 of tbc troe an> 
nm <ir ji pciL)llc «»eC In % cxty. on r» 
■p9cU ttkti rtgbtiof the pablLcoTittie 
ono hand &Dd (t« ri>l;t» «>f lljo ftd- 
Jointly ownf r on th« otlmr, liui Ltcfo 
tferwly tvoltvrl from eijii-nenoe. H 
bam Qofy bcvn at & n.H.^«Dt ikOrioJ <4 
mv ItifCb} Uihtory tlmt tlieoe two di^ 
tujfrt riji:KCH har« vepiiikt^ly and tn 
tbcrir rclf^tit^nc to otkch tFthrr ocm« to 
bi» undc^Mocd oEiii 4lc£]ncd witli pr^ 

tlw wholo Bubjcct wUh rflfcarMaCfl to 
th^UM or tboittvrtaforyanouai pur 
prMHAtlnrdildingKMiuidwAt.eEr |JpHS 

ra^lwA^i^ &aJ dcvotiK two j^n- 
fnpbi toiti« t«Vicniph aodft not« 
Mtho slWTtrio mllwjkj. Sf^^ Daim, 
Uon, Covp. Uth »d>. olx XVltli 
aMoti^ £M pipei% A AO): ^»t«t 
flpMt, ^ 097; Knwdx S 490: tvU'^'raph 
pol«L^eua*»4(T,wttbiiot««: suou 

ra11«aT*- ^S( ^«1 7l«- ?4« 7^: ^mm 
nflvaja, |^ TD5-T27; dovAi«d nil* 
wayi, ^ ^33d-TSkf; ftlDCtrto nU- 
«ii7^ ru>t« on !«€« HO. 1^ fli*ou»- 
aion of tho mbjvut la tli« «I«v«t^ 
AUmij «aw4 rw«uUjr (l«ciJ»d la 
Nev Yorfe b aipo(1ia]EJ^ iDUrwtiDg 
AoJ isaln:;tiT«,bDCttuaoiti«iaib?Bo 
cuea Umi tlw rt^btn of Ibo Umd- 
ovraar in tho nn ol tbo iCnot hiiv« 
boon DoaiiitaiDod without TCMpo^ Co 
tWacAuidUkiii«of lamL 604 kiw- 



«v^. a much «*r1ivr MM fa Nov Joiv 
BcrJn which thcland-^wnerVrigbli 
iu a Li^l^way whet olwtrly ^jpTfcd 
Bumott r. Johtuon. 13 N, J. £q. «8l; 

A dUUDcUon WA» nuuto bj Judcv 
DUlon. In hln MrlliT mIIUoii*. to- 
tvooTi tiofl4 t^a*m In whlcti Um fJW 
WA> in l!ie*buttorfuid tliOM la which 
It WH« in tlie putillc cold, ^ Ufl acd 
iVi?, Willi AMKi; and bo M^ in hU 
ImI oditioo tLat ho oUow* theoo oeo 
tions to slaad (gS TO and 7DSj, mat$ 
th»7 oorrvctt^ fumniMTiDod tho liw 
OB it ftood tffonty you^ 0^:0; bot bo 
ICOCOOD iu new »e<!tl<jai» 704 nndTlMa 
to my Ih^t '- liM Uw hiw bWD C«cid> 
ing toivqriii ua ahKxgnUon, In WOBJ 
rftipt«tfl oi l<«i«t Of Iho dlMlocUon 
tEkAt tii» riffhc* of tlie ab«it<*r on 
U>*> oa» iMnd &n4 of th« |iutJifO on 
ttio otiior art NMotirfcllj di0cc«DL 
whelh^f tbebovo freof IhosUooCcr 
hUhirkj to in 000 <^T tbo tl»Hsr." 

Ilio unmo cubjcct ie disoojHod fcj 
Mr, Lowia id cbapler V: " Whnt Om- 
>tttnlei»7Ulna— f^trtnuandnisS- 
w%v%.^ SooofpodolIynotOTmllroadl 
in HKcto.tK tlO'ltS; oWvatod nO- 
n»^% U2;bQnomllr»4i.(d VU, 
Ita: ctbor VMi gononUly, $ 198; ooov 
on oad dffclu^ f UT; w&ifir pipub 
e )G0; CM V^tm* fl 109; «««NnL docv 
trkdty.olcx,^ la*: t^atvrttfdi and Ulo- 
phonoUan^^lSL Jnd«o BUic<td«- 
ouveB tho nutGfC of «4m-u In oho{> 
terloud tbarichtaoTol'uttrrvviUi 
roipMt to uMi of vonoot Icmdo la 
obapttf XXVJ, ond with rmpoct lo 
v&foot fnllvmn ta choptor XXIX 




n.^ 



B10BT8 OP ^CTTUIO OVSESa. 



108 



Orer StreelB, m 13 Xeiv Jersey L&ir Journal, 1.13.' His con* 
chsioD i% tbat tlicrc U no real diffcrcBco b«tire«a cases in 
irhloh thfi fee of tho ooil to the middle of the fitrcet is in. tbo 
owner of the abatdng land, and caaes in which the fee of the 
land jti the street ia in tlio public. Th« distinction is taken in 
EOany cases, and the dcoi^ion? are made to turn npon it, but 
Ur. Kaadotph, aft«r exaoiininj? the etevatod railroad cast^^ in 
Ifow York nnd other lato cases, in which tho subject is tbor- 
OQghly cODsadered, suggoKts thiLt tho fee in tie earner is sc1>' 
ject to an indeJinite ri^jht of present posseafuon by the public, 
aiul oannot have stibttimtfal raluo a9 property, and that if 
the fee is hold by the stute il in h^Id in triut for the people 
for the pnrp^^es of a street, and subject to the right of tbe 
iiyrnnr U> the Him-mrmU of light ami nir and access, so tliat in 
dtker ca*e tb<f mily vn1iihbl« prDjx^rty uf Lht< owTu^r m bin 
Mueawnt or ri^ht Lo itse the street in coDnectlon witli httt prop- 
erty, ami tliai for dmiiiJige to this atono nrcd compc^nsntion ho 
made upon tbe construction of any public work for the pur- 
pose oF transporUtion. Mr. lUndolph was speaking of tbo 
taking of streets for railroad pnrposes. and epcak^ therefore^ of 
pabh'c works of tmaaportataon, hut the same principle is appU- 
c^bJo to pubJse irorks of any kind. 

{81. Same snl^eet— The elerated railroad cases^—Tho 
caaea be rofcrrcd to wer« those of the elevated roitroada in tho 
dty of Noir York, which, altbcug^h thoy were iotcndod for 
pnblio trarel, affected very seriously the ordinary uses of tho 
itnets by the ovoors of adjoining lands, i^i iatarfered with 
tba aooott and light and air. It wii« held in theee cases that» 
whether the fee w^ in the owner or in the city, owners were 
sQtitled bo oompensation for the injury to their lands as ahnt- 
tiag lands. Tbn cornin^riiuiUiin %\:is p:iid, not bf;r!:iti!v< nny land 
waa taken, but because the ri^ht t>f the owiirr wt ahut.lvr w>ut 
illeebed ; the damages were g^fven be>e.RUBe of the effect of the 
work on the adjac«Qt land. Ttu: ttf?^T uxr, Mr. TEandolpb says, 
b a laldag sot because it is incoasi^teni with the easement of 
paaage for which tho land i^ taken, biit bccauae it affects tbe 
adjacent properly. ^In the Utoroughfare as sttob, tho odja- 

11»lal«gfafJiaadtelepbooo&i«ooii i&co abo ^ad olfh oa ^nlocni 
iUml m moea W vd 533; >i&d Ikouii^ dk XUL 
UGMoa an x^fvrreal tu 



XLBCTKIO WIKB Ul nUEKlR AXD IIIIDIWATIL 



[* 



cent owner has no more interest than tnj olbor indiTidool 
That use is common, not particular, property; tbe oaly Umlta^ 
tion o|ion it Is that it may Dot bo $o dtisit vrith aa to tfMich 
upon a pnvute right, inob as the right of aoc««i to Cho a<Jj(nn* 
ing pfoporty/' 

§ 82. Snme 8til]Jert — Oilier tits««. — The s&no fdeab «x* 
pressed by ClitKf Juntica Arnoli] of Urn «ujTn!ino cuort cif lh(j» 
siwippL' Ele saya: ** A dLstinction is made by sooie of the 
iiuthorititA in cakvs whcro Uio ftx id the soil of thn sCreet is in 
tliG public — the atnte, county, or city *— aod whero it miiAtn} 
in tbe abutting owner; and in the first ca£« tbe ri^htofthe 
ahuttiD^ Guvnor to oompmuuition ia denied, and in tbe latter it 
ifl recogui^ and allowed. "W^e perceive no Tvetl-fouaded dif* 
ferenoa in principle in aucb distiootion. If the fee is in tJie 
public, it ia held in trv^ cxprc^ly or imptiodly, that the Land 
shall bo usod m a stnN^t, and it cannot bo tipphud to any otlwr 
purpose without a breach of truat. It is only where the fee is 
in tliJi publict froo from uny trust or duty, that it may be dis- 
pos'xl of lor any purpose that the publio may deoM proper. 
Whether the abuttini? owner hits simply an easement in the 
street, wLt]i> ih<i t*^ ix in the public or in some oilior OTnier, 
or whetLor he has both the fee and an easement, he is eqoaUly 
«»DtiLleil Co rtM|uin tb&t nothing shall be done id derogation of 
his rights * 

Th^re is a tlionghtful discussion of the subject Id a case In 
OiTgon,* whtrrc the oourt saiid the quc^stion who owns the fee 
is of rery litUe oonsequence. Thi^ fee cannot be id mny resl 
ftcfl^ in the public, no matter how a strett is l-ud out (wh»itber 
by deed or statute or dedication) ; tbe public hare tbe right of 
poasaj-e for all public purpoeee and noUiing moro, and tbe 
abutter has righU of light and air and access. So, a^n, Ifr. 
Justioo Depuo, id the court of errors of ^ew Jcrscy^snid: 
*^ With respect to Unds oTer which streets haro been laid, ibe 



Co., n Mioi $Tit li Aco. 9t EUfi »4 

*necite« 1 Ttftr* oaCon«UtiAkia«] 
Idttv. 3T0. 3D: LmriH co Kriitiitot 

iiak, w tr, 8. aai; St ruii, «i& R a 

Oil t. fickunceir, T VTaU ZTh Bicry 



r. If-™ Yr*k EtoF. aE.C(x.tOItT 
1^ 4a Am, Ba|t 1«: I Bofvr <n 
UftilKoa*. 034; UajMD T. ThoQIM^ T 

T. IU«lB«r> 41 Ul SIB; CnwfuH v. 

Deb«Are (V«lt&«a o^ T Ol^ Sl m 

'VcQasMl r.PMk&d A Tuioia- 



8 83.] 



Eiom cm ATtumva owrtssa. 



105 



onraonhip, for all sabfltantial purpose, is in the pablfc; noth- 
ing ranailns in tlw onginul proprk-tor but the ruWl fuc^ ivliicb, 
on llie aBwriion of Uw public rt^bl, U iHvesctix) of aU WneflcEal 
taUff^Mt," ' und ibis wu quoted and applied bjr VicHI7lLaccolIor 
Vau Fle*?t of Xwr Joracy, Id tho caso iibovu nifcrrroc! u>, la 
whkb he fii-M LIi:lI Lbt* posts nnil wirt-s Tor Htip^ilytii^ elecLridty 
lor xhe propulft-ou of street cars did not x^aci as^y sab&tatttaal 
right of propcrt/ of the abutting^ owner.' 

$64. Same Mil^fct — The rl^htt reaTly aTffteJ an) the 
rlfhtii of adjace&cjf vrUhocit respect to oFucrsIiip of the 
JumI In tbestrttt. — The qnc«tioii r«atsnot upon whattbiecr 
that jodgo thinks of the tdcgniph or clcctne lig:ht or el«o(rfo 
nilw^7 with reference to tho oaea of tho atrcel, but r&tbor 
upon a cjoar comprohonsicm of whnt tho nsca of a &trcot really 
ire^ and upon tho o«tabJubmont of a pnnoipLo undorlyiag Cho 
rQlatioQS of tho land-omior and tho publiOf which wUI a-ppty 
to &1I tho vmryiDjf uc<« to which, with tho progress or invonUoa 
Ukd tho noQCffitMa of modi^rn ftoci^ty, tho tireou ard com- 
mooly pnt^ and which will on tho one gido prolecl the individ* 
luU in the enjoyment of all hU rights^ and oa tho otlitfr giv« 
Klko pablk fooh u«cs of tho KtrceU as pubHo convenlenoo r^ 
qtdj«i. It Is only recently tliat the courts and tbo writers on 
tliii 8tib}ect have !>e;;^in to itpply to tbin (|3i<«Lcm tbn principle 
Uiat ibo Und<ownur hajf d right ia lh« u^ of tlio streot in coiu 
teotlon with hhi land which m injureil by a> porvorsiori of tho 
of the atreetf nnd which mny bo afTocli-d by a new am, 
though »uah use is nutijori/od ljy Uw, aud la a pro^>er qvo 
of iho atn«t for tho jmrjrov^ft for which it waa laid out. The 
right of fuljaccnoy — tho odnintAge of having your land upoo 
the btghway with right of ooocm nnd light and air» — this is 
whal tbe pooplo undi^ratand and va\ao. Who o^ns tho feo 
ttqr do not know Dor care. The courts havo been puxding 
thnudvcs over the qiicstioa whct1^«r there has bi?on any legal 
iajnry to thta intin^ible foe* Tho i^ool question of any practical 
eoMem to the landowner or tho public ia wbj^thor tho owoor 
ll depnrod of anything or iLiiy odtauUigo which ho enjoyed ia 
econccuoQ with hu land. 

TW B-K CVl. 14 Orc^Sir. ^3 Tea *H»1«07t. RnrAjlTnnalt 8t RR 
BopSMkl Afn.R,G.ACor^le9ILSL Ox. 17 K. J. Eq. CM. 3> AtL Rep K«b 



IDS 



ZLBCTXIC iritJSA IN 9TKffrr« AXD QtCBWATS. 



(5«. 



The (^c^iBion of the ol^vaUMi ni.i}ro»4l cas*^ in Xew York bn 
i*m[ifmsi'ju<it Uie iiujiorbince of these rlghta of itcljjuirDCy^ Jiod 
shown tliat the lB,ii(l<)WDer can be protected in his enjoyment 
of the highwuy, whf^thcr his himl is iiikcn or Dot, and liat b« 
had riglits in the street, whicli, if they are taken, muKt l)e piid 
for» whether the foo of the stroot is in him or in the paUic 
This principle vroa clearly expressed man^ Tmrs a^ in Xtw 
JersQj, where the ooart of errors maintaiiiGd Uie right of the 
oiTucr of land adjoining a canal to the eBJoyment of Ugbt ud 
air from over the c^nal, enjoining the canal compun^- tnm 
patting up a building o^ror the canal alongside of the plainUfl's 
windows.' The rigbt of light and nir from a publio hig'hwafi 
the court said, waa edtabli.^hud hy univorsal and most acci«ftt 
oostom. "Men do not first boUd citice and tbeo lay out roads 
through them, hut ihey Crst lay out roudo and then cities spil^^ 
Qp aJon;* tlicir lines. . . . When people build opon qP 
public hiffhway, do iboy inquire or care who owoe the f^of 
the rond-bod? Do they act or roly upon any olhot ooofitderft' 
tlon ejccept that it is a publia highway, and that they are id- 
jaoontownePB?" 

If this right of adjacency is fully protsctod — !f a ULnd-own^r 
cannot be deprived without compensation of any privilege be 
enjoys as land-owner in connection with the street, it will net 
matter muoh whether or not he hits il right of action for a tre*- 
pass upon land which hg has dedicated to public use and whJoh 
the public h}i» the right to use for un indetlnikt time, 

I think a deBaite answer to the (jnestion with res|>ect to lU 
the various electric wires will only \m obtained when this prin- 
ciple biLs been fully recognised, and has been applied by the 
courts not only to the elevated railroad, but also to the street 
railrozul, the telegraph and the telephone. 

§ 64, This principle^ If recogutwHl, will fdrnplEfy Chedtft- 
eaisinn, but the distinction most be considered fn reading 
the cases. — If this be the true theory of the rchition of the 
land-owner to new uses of the street, it will greatly simplify 
tho discussion and will do away with distinctions ^hich haTo 
not been easy to justify bctvreca different modes of uso. Take 
oat of the discussion the trespass to the tcohmcal fee in ibo 



iBArnett t. j£>hfU(Oii, 13 N. J. Eq. 4£1, 4SS {IbX^ 



\ 



S840 



jnaitTv or AstTrnEro ow^miiA, 



107 



land, and ki tbe question be whether the land-owner has sttf- 
fercd 1U15 iiijary vriih rvs^tici to tlio pWsant and oonrenicfil 
nae of hU land in connection vrilli a htrt«t, and tln^n tfw <juea- 
tion will bo th« same whether the new oae be a ateaai rail- 
road or a honw railroiui, a tclc^&ph or un dcctrio lighting 
crjitem. The fact ia, however, that the »ubject ba« been gener< 
Ally di8onj»&d with n>forc:)cc to tho owmcrahtp of tha foe, and 
tbe qoustion whether the new n50 u conaiatcnt with the old 
m*e«t or U such fta should buTo been antictpatf^d wheu tho street 
iras laid <mt A distinction has been taken between caace in 
irhieh tho fe9 waa in the owner of tb^ abutting Und nnd thoeo 
in whsdi it waa in the public, and owner* have been held to bo 
tttitJod to oompoosation for one use and not for anoiber, on 
th« ground tb&t ono was a hskj not anticipated, and the other 
wii a use that might hare been expected to be made of a ttr«et, 
althoogh the rt^al damage may b^re been the sarine in both 
aam* The decision hm d^[M.ndc<l somtstimes on the breadth 
of tIow taki^n by tlie Judg^ a« to wliat are the proper u«i*a of 
ailfettt^nild HOmo tiA» have t>eeii excludeJ and some adimitMl 
when the difT^rvnoo mny well be Uiought to bo on» of dogreo 
mhrr tlian of hind. 1 need not, howi&vi^r, attempt to discum 
th^gfizteial pnnclplesof a question which belong Ui tbe brouli^r 
Ptbjeciofeniincnt domain. It has boen discaased by Mr, Leiviic^ 
Kr. Unia, Judge Dillon and Uln BAmlolpli with refercnoG to 
tUthe rarkntt uses d tbe streets. 1 will only examino tho 
cwei relating to tbe tiso of the streets for polca and wiroa in* 
Uadcd for the rarioua uppLicaticiu of electricity. 



CHAPTER YUL 
SrOHTS OP ABUrnNQ OWSEBS^TELEQEAPH AND TELEPBOSt 

^85, Tetf'tirapli &nd tcleplione wires hare beetle olinOK' 
Iciii« toaitJolnLug luiiil-owiieni. — 'With tlieiEKreESOiri the duiih, 
hvtv of the pol«« and wires r^quinrd for tlio purpcees of Iha 
teiXts^niph iuul tc1r|)linD0, tlir^ Itnvo bcoocno » ^nuns itnao/>j 
ance to oTrnurH of lands along tJie streeta and b)|fbwa^'ft., 
cilicfl tbo munj linca of wire darken tbo i^'iDdovs* wii 
alwifty^ 4 dan^rous obatructioa in caso of f»ix» and tUd Dum«r»1 
oas poles obatruot the viftw and affect tlio appoaranco of thft{ 
ftlrocts ot the town, in the country the mooavcnknccs ara at 
•0 groat, but aow tUat the Jmus bttv« miUtiplicd, and ooual 
roada ara lined vhtb rUlafl and (roea t&vma, a lioo of poata aai 
wiroa often spoila tho appoaraiic« of a pretty plaoo* and oai 
scrioug aacoyiiDce, ovoQ tliougli It tomj ba hard to provo aaj 
peeuoiary damaf^. For theag reaBors^it U imporUnt for 
owai&n lo know wbctbor tboy bave a ri|;bt to forl>id tbe plaal 
iog of tbe polei III front of ihedr lands nntU logat proceedings: 
bavo been taken end cxMDpensation ha^ been made, 

U liiu bcwomcr tUtirefon,% a pruoticul ^iu-mUoo of sotao 
porLanoe whetbar teltigra|ih and telepboae lines may be wtt aj 
along country roads or city streota wiUiout the cunaonL of till 
ownirm of tlie tamlit; and, if not, ivbt^er tlin oom]K;n»alu 
mLst be niad^ for Uie» inttreoccupatlonorthelaEidin tboatraetfi 
or only for damage to tbc ri^bt of aocces and otbcr ri^ta ii 
claded in the privilo^ of adjacency lo the bijGThway. 

§80. (Jncfftion of rkbts of Undoirncrs »itfr?e8t«4 but ni>l 
au»vrered by Scott & iarna^lm in 184;8<— When &::ott & Jj 
nagin vrotc their troatiao on Olographs in li>G^ ibej aaul] 
*'ib[o8tof thotale^lTaphliDoaof tbo United Stabca, Canada 
Onnt Vritain, and probably also ta othor oountnoc, ara 
the Unea of public highways, ettber under or apon tbeEii7 
aloHf* the lino of railroodBf and but few co^cc aro likely to 
bafofd tbo oourU betwoon prlvato persons and talegrapb 
pauies in relation lo the appropriacion of tands^ eidier by 



81] 



BWBT« 07 ABUmXO OYXSU. 



109 



chwacnr coiideiimalao^ for tbepmpoeeof coostiiKti^ 
lisei."' Tbojr sqggissttboqac^tioii wo aro now ooiuidcriDgt 
irbether Uio vtre^l in&y be tiaed HJtboat aJditional compenB^ 
tioo to the omier of Lbe fee, ajid express their opinion Qpoa it, 
but Gcd no jodiciftl docisioa on cither side with r«»pcct to lince 
of telegmpfa wire. They refer to the conflicting decisions with 
regard to nutroada, and althovgh they thought the more gcn- 
«nUly reooivod opinion in the Amchcun statot wm that tho 
lailroad waa only an imprOTed highway and that the owner of 
Xh^ foe had no clftim to additional componsation, xhtyy go on to 
lay; ^Uow Uui may bo opon principle, and whether or «oC 
tbo taijway track should be conxidoT^Hl an additional HcrTitudd 
Qpon cho laitd, there can be littlo doubt that in the ca£e of 
tologfmpfa oompAnifSf th9 cnxrtion of posU upon tlio liiglitvay 
or locating pipe-i nndor the highway for wires, under legialatlro 
rathority, without provision for comp^nEatioQ to the owner^ 
Wfiold gtTomehon'northjiUH^Iiiiical rigtitt^^damMges^xllhoiigh 
■Doh damag«i would be only nominal."* Aad while ihey 
IhoQght ho wo^Id havo his action ai \nv, tbry said Ltwre was 
tlulo dooht that a court of canity would refuse to entrrUkin a 
bill for injunctioD, and tliai the matter might be oondidcred a 
^Mtinn of litllo or no irnportanco. 

$87. The qnestlen has noir become Importait— Since this 
was written, the nso of ekx:tric wirea in the Btroeta b^A greatly 
tacMW0(I,and the question hofl become one of practical impor- 
tanoe. not only with toq>c€t U> iho telegraph and telephony Imb 
ako beoaoso of the effeot of the answer upon the other uge^s o£ 
tteeloctno wires in the strvwts. It is important^ thcroforo, to 
ntor to the eaaos in which tho qacction hna boon decided 1^ 
the conrUstnod Scott and Jamagin proposed it as a mere mat^ 
t«f of ipoctilatiro interest. 

They Biwamed that Et hfid been determined that rallrendt 
wuv not an additional bunlen tipon the higliwny.anilyetcon- 
obdad tluiCUTlogruphndid tmpo^nii n4?w stirvitudti, IlhaAHinoa 
h&m (iocidL-d by ihu weight of authoHiy that iteam railroads, 
aionlinanly opf*rutod with locOEDotivea and trains of cjle^ are 
ii:i mm^Jy an Impru^'od hi^way, bub are inconHtttoot with 
U* ordinary uae of Ihe atreet^ and Impoao an additional buiv 



' 8oott & JuDOfiio oa Tolcgnpluv S St (IMq^ 



110 ELECTRIC WmE8 tS HTBB&T8 Ain> BIOBWAta [§{ ^, ^. 



den npi-^n tbo eoiU* and yd ih^ courts which agree m thie uo 
divided on tbe question vbether tbo Cdt^niph and tbo td^ 
pboni> umy l>» placed in cbe atroou and lUgbwaji wiUioat com< 
peosittion- 

§ $S, Qtiostion 8tiLt^.~It U admitted that tlid IcgblaCaia] 
haa jwwor to subject the UIghway to this use. The queadwiii 
■whether it can be done without com|>eTiKitbn to tbo ovrocr 
tbo abutting bind- In many of ibt; Htat4?« tbe itlatnt^s autbi 
izingtbe eoDAtruciLloD of the liners ex|}rettsly iv>quire tlje oonaeal 
of a. land-owner to bo obtained bi'forc Lck^^<i|jh or UAc\ 
pob^ arc plantrd in front of his land on litA ald« of tbo aUeet, 
and m tbee© caaoa there is, of course, no donbt thit oontpeoci- 
tion must bo piid anlcAs tbo coruKMit bo obtAinod ; and, indood, 
if DO proviatoD ia made for condemnation, the consent ia noc<»- 
aary to tho right to plant the polca. i3nt, aappoung no oondl- 
tion to bo inipcw^d by the Icgtjftuturo, and no proviston to be 
mado for coDdomnation, the qoeetiOD now ia wlKthcr tbo nso 
of the str«ot or btgbvray for tbo tolograpb or tolepbooo Unci 
impoitea a new burden upon tbo land or affects in any way tbu 
rigbta of the ownera of the Land upon or in front of wluoh Uia 
str«#t Is laid. 

{ S9. Arcrnment on one side. — On tbe one g[de it 19 
tbat tb© eafiemrnt of bighwuy is. En iho last iiti7iJy«i«, inli-rcoin 
iDunication or t\w right to the nae of the highway by liio pol 
lio generally for the puq>ose of intercoiumnnicatioD, Its pur* 
pose bus alwjys been not tucrt^ly tr;ivd and tranaportatioQ, but 
nX»o tbo tranaruiflaioQ of intelliganoe. It baa been naed by tbe 
poflt-borao and the mail-wa^n« a£ well as tbo coaob and tbo 
cart. W^ben now kinds of road^ and new modes of trarol and 
trauKportatian become ncccaaary, the pnbUc have a ri^t to use 
tbeiDf and tbcy imposo no uovr burden on the soil unless they 
are fncoa^islent ^ith the old uae; and ao, whtm new mcaos ol 
commnnicatioQ are found, tbo pnbiio may xkso the highway C< 
thoso, and if tbo old use nenmina unmipMr«d tho owner oC thi 



|£m Uord« A Hwx K It Ca T. 
K^iBwlE, I Stocks £10 K. J, Bq.) 159) 

H.R.RCft,17W,J. a^TS; 
»* CoMb C& T. Guad«(i, 33 N. 
J. Ei^ 93T; IUW7 T. EUpid Triu^ 



& B. Col. aiJUL Et«ih. lOH 48 
J. Eq, S3>; uid tha ouaa aji4 101 
booU nfotfTVd to isfrvt ok 3^ | IJ 



b 



8*>] 



mioim or Aftrmso ovr^cEcs. 



lit 



toil has no caitse to compliuii. He bus given hit latul for % pab- 
Uo highway. It is used for a publb pLrpo9(» for vrbicb a high- 
my VA0 dMigaed, and he Lad BtiU th« old ose uiiim|>airt>d ' 
Tb« tdegraph, thcrofoiv, hving a legitimate a»o of the bigh- 
waj for the pnrpoecd for which it wa£ dedic&tod, it ift only a 
now iD«tUixl of nsJag aa old oa&emect and imposes n^ new bur* 
clea on the soil. 

$ W- lr^(imt*nt on the other Hide.— On the other hand, it 
Is ooTLt^Qdod that tbo strc>>ts anc! bighwikvs tk^tg int^^nded pri- 
marily for traral and tninxfiorutioii, und thut^ although tlioy 
wi-re int^ndtKl also for the transmiftslon of IntelligenL^a, and tho 
t4]i:ign]ili 14 ii»?il for I^liI |iiirp[i«i.% yi.ot the uiodo of n&o is so 
wholly dilTereni from Ihv old ime, and rMpiLn^jc xurh |x«miunont 
oocopotion of tbo4o:l, that it cannot be &U[>jJo^dth^ the Iftiid- 
owner, hi dc<licatiDg hie land forparpo&e«of ahighway, orthe 
publio LB condemning ]t, content] phi tt^d th»t it should be unvi 
by a telograpb company for the erection of posta and the atring* 
hxg of wires. Tbo land-owner bas given only the right of nser 
for a pvbtio hi(^way» and rot^na the fc(> in tlo Aoil ; or if tho 
-pQbljo hnvo Iho foo* thoy hold it in trust for iho highwoy use; 
Um Und owner, thcroforo, h^s a right to compliLin of tho pcr- 
aanent occupation of the soil and the settiiigQpof ob»truo- 
lioAi in tho itnx't, tad if im has not, thoro is Dolbiiif^ to prevent 
th« poat« being put up so aa to form a harrier bolwoen hia land 
ud the street^ and th^ wires &om being eo muueroud a^ to bo 
unqyiog and dangoroua. 



ipMllMlli Mty waIL prMAnt(J>c1 In Mia 
brlKf of Bobrn StllM Of Ui» Virninia 
Ur, ia WoMon Uoida Tfslflip Ca v< 
iraianUh fl<i|h CL of An^ob uf Tir* 
(iafa, (lociftiOD r^i^TtoJ in M V^ «06, 
U& R ftvl\ 103(1990^ UosDjTKnU 
«ft tnts t0*£a of a IfKitunulc uao ol » 

I^mI a«w w ttjQ furu iti purpou ^b- 
jttl i4iil sfftfct 4f f f^Dccrxipi. witliin 
tt#«ttpa of tbw iM iiiMrt cf » high* 
vnft Kit4. Mcood. Would Ui4 oovr 
«« ti* fncctfkkistanf vrkb Iho furtlior 
■iwJii of tlmqyWftMit Ui (t)«»in»i]* 
Mr iDVhlrb It wucdginallx, nrU 



at lhi*tinif. *njwy»*d? Af»[ityfn][UieM 

UT>. UviT tun]|>ikc% thu pIiLiik roo'!, Uio 
otrmt rriilwajonfl thcstHkoiraUwiija 
be Lathi ilwy all pius it ifjticept Lbo 
Irwt. and thun ftppljing It to lh# 
1cIr2rB]>b. ho icBJtto tW it fnwaa 
Ibum botb, sDitwodxie coo of tba 
moflt InaportaTit purpoiM farwIiLoh 
tba hijzhmiy w«« int«Dii«t, tkUiia 
tbe plooo of tiw mnijfogcr and thm 
mnil vmifDn. nnd not IctnforlD^ wtUi 
tho f Tc« UH of tbo hlgtiva^ for tm^ol 
or tnuitportoUoQ criicc«M lo tbvod- 



lis 



suJCTxio vrmse in rrK:affT« Ain> uiq 



0i,93. 



S 01. DiHtini'tiaa ia the coses with rcspcrt to tbe title to 
the lAnd In tlie fttrcct.— II is to be DOticcd id Tx^ding tlu> de* 
oidioDa tb£it Bomo of them mako & disttoction between casca id 
which the fco ia in the land onncr and those in wlucii tbo foo 
18 in tLc pabliOf and alloir oompcnsulion Tor tbo ttso of tbo boU 
in the one cci-e und not in the other. This JS not a diHtinclion. 
tb»t works pr&clical jn&tic^*, bccanso it will be found that wbon 
land U XsikaTi or nond(>TnTif;d for a. s.tTC«t it U EM>t r€gArJc<l ajf of 
any practical importance whether the public talce the fee in 
trust for tbd ust^ of the struct and subject to tbo special eae^ 
meuttt of th4i ailjuci^nt (iwiier, or wbethor the "pomesa&on ftnd 
beneflciiil UB9 are giren to the public, while th& owner keeps 
0iioh prtt^Mirty ia tlie fatnl as rcmainis for \i\ra} Tho ilistinctioii 
w»tt dmivg^uvlf^d in tlin nlitvntei] rallniad cum^ and a JuhL do- 
oi^on was reachod by recognising the special interoftt of Iba 
adJAf^t^nt owner in the strcot^ and giving him ditniagi» for 
being deprived of the advantages bin land was enltUed to^ af 
adjacent land, whether he or the public owned what is called 
the fee. Uovii'CTcr tbis may bo, it is wdl, in reading the cases, 
to cbaerTO whetJier the fco la in the individual or In the pub- 
lic, and whether or not this fact is mode the basis of the de- 
cision. 

f !»?. Cuses in HIshouH in JSSS in faTOr of the electrEe 
wires. — It is only rDocntlyfOB I hare said, that any eases baTO 
been rcpc>rbxl on the question whether the owner of abuttliig 
land is entitled to damagos for the constrnction of a telegraph 
line in the strict in front of bis pr<3niij»?s. Tliero wgtq two 
cus^ in 1883 decided by the St. Louis coiirt of appcula. In 
the dr&t,* it waA heild that, in the atKence of special injury, the 
land-ownvr is uul ruLflh^il Ut aii injunrtifin iigainHt planting ft 
t»li^^pti piile In front of bin prenibcit Th« mem pn^v-iitw of 
the pole^ ttie court Kud, would not be a sullivricnt ground of com* 
plaint. Timrc- tuu»t be? ^tuch inconvonivnov tiiat tlic \3o\v would 
be a nuiKanoe if it were not autbortTsed for a public uao. In the 
aooond ca^D,' an injunction was grank'd against the erection of 

8m db vn* 



Bortt nonuuiiOv^r BtmtfV 13 >'' J. 
T. f\trtbad A Vftoccmver a R Co>, 

lao^«a8:LttFtto,B«^«Mt i aek. 



EL R. Cot^ 1l4fL £4 

'Gnj V, BlutuX Unlnn IMS' O*. 
13 Ua AfP^ 4S», 1 Ancu KL Ou. «tT. 

Itu Ayj^ 4H 



5 ft] 



noBTa 07 ABumita ovnkbs. 



Its 



Oil 

■f 



i bnken nnd cwghtiy pole vhicb might be djuigeroos, bot 

vu itrused *a to « profxrr pol^ altbotig:h it was to t>« eracU'd 

vit^ four ieet and tKrod inched ct tbo plaintifi^ dweUiog- 

kaKtftOd tbo pIoLintiJI vras the ovrncr of tbc fco i& tho limd to 

te middle of ibc direct Tbo court said there was no evidcnco 

d tnj injnry to th^ foe, but that the only cJaim was &D injm-y 

bUiD cftscmcnt in tho ctrvot b; tho abhtrnciiotL of trjivd, and 

bii then waft in fact no real obstiiiction of travel or a^ceas. 

The ineuuDg of tbeoe JeoTsionfi is^ that the lnn<l-owner is not 

tied to protection ngninvt u 1n<f:p]isi« upon the tccUnicjd fee, 

(b» beneScial nae of which is in tb4< public, tut cnly againat aa 

fajarj to his cawment of rcovba nm\ tmvi?!, or whpn Kia vnjoy- 

Btot of th<> privtlegi^ of an n<ljnrr*iit nwner »re in M>mi^ wuy 

ifficled. It mUHt be ohserred, bo^verer, in comparing iIc^imIouh 

ll UiaKmri with those in monj olbcr states, that tbo courts o( 

IGnoDri had ftlreadr decided ilinl t^rc-n a Mj^nm mJIroad, duly 

MlboriKcd, is not n pervcmon of tbo piirpoto of a strcct> nor a 

urw bfudoQ apoc tho tee, but thnL the Jimtl-owncr ii only cn- 

titted to oomponation for tho damafp^ dono to lite adjacc^nt land 

bf nMBcm oEtho constraction aud opcratica of the railroad.^ 

Hov this principle ts Applied to Uio tcdegrnph will appear in 

\hb later castt in Missourif to be quot<:<d prBsertlyn' 

fi M. IkMlslon Jn llRS^iebiisetl^ on tbo sume side in I8S3. 
Hie DDXt reported decision on thlfl sldB of tho qnention was 
fsndcfed n year later by the mppeme judicial court of Mnssf 
choMtti. Tbo caw ww Pi^rt^v.lfrcir;' the whole subject wug 
dmroQghly divcattsned, and the jn4:lgeft were divided in opinion. 
Hi* majority maintAmrd that an additional scrviitide was not 
impDtod by LJi«nppn>j)ri;iLiaiiof ]>&rt«f il piiltlio highway undrtr 
the lUtute 0^lb, fiUU. ch. 109) for the <iae of a lino of «U:Jtrio 
lolf^imph. The whole bcn^fic^^ uso of the highway, they slid, 
lad been gifen to the public, and the uje by a talc^graph Ime 
il uuiojoiui to that by ^a and waiter pipes. A change of 
piUio Qso re<]uiTea no now compensation. When tbo land was 
tdseo, ll WM taken not merely for the pnnieg^ of tmreling 



> IMsr t^. I^ONttd D^ 8S Uo. US; 
Ucfck»| T. RkUiwl Co, M Ua S:i», 
Mi olhfv rniM dtod infr<a, ch. X 
llUtteM 

UBl«BaUdiB«AA-ftir<BoIlTok^rL 
6 



Col. 48 Mo, »8 nsesi; 8t LouU t. 
Bntl TcJnplk Ool. M Ma A2% 1 Auj* 
IL Dm S>l (l«S5>. 
•itQMMaTapisssx 



114 



]£LVCTXIO WUtEA tit tTWMWtS AHD HIUBWAT& 



[§04. 



CT«r it by the then known vobid^ or of ufiiog it by tbe tbea 
known metbodt of oftber coaTcying goocis or tnmsmitting in- 
ti^ligenc«. Th« l^lt^gmpU U » new mt^liod of transuttM^ng 
Intelligence — a new ineLhol of (lalng an oM eodomont. It is 
rocngniv^l Hg Mioh hy lh« mcI fjf ivjngmut whil^1l (li^liLn*« tbiit 
3tU piHUrtimlM may tji^ uswd for Wi*;^;H'li liues.^ Nfi eoinpeu^ 
tioii, therefore, Deed be made to the iaorl-owner for tbe mete 
mvction of u line of tclc^riiph nlang lUo road. 0. Allen imd 
Wm. Allen, JT., dtH^ent^d, insuting tbat the niuUiplicatii 
telegraph vriros tnj^bt bo a serious damage to the land-o' 
and that^ a* U could not be fiiiLscipatcd and pakl for by Ibo oily 
or county^ on Uyin;^ out a road, it ought to bo paid for by Um 
tclc^aph company when tho lino vas aotnoUyto be consiraotoJ. 

§ 94. Later oase In HlRSonri.— This dooiaion was folloTvcd 
in 18d( by the oaes of Julia Building As9&'yuiti<ftt v. Bdl T^ 
pkon§ <%,f doclifjd by the supremo court of MiMociri,* 

The quGBtion came up ou an application by tfaa owner of a 
Btore in Sl Louis for an injanction restraining & t^t^phooe 
coiopuny from cutting ■ Iio!u In tho pavomcnt in front ol bt< 
bnildUig and setting up a pole thera. ft was alleged that tbd 
company wiui about to ctJt a ho1ti m tho stonu wall su{^xvtiDg 
a vault uriJiT tliM pavmat^nt. Tha plaintiff ownml Una t^\ to 
the middle of tbe^tre«L The telephone oompa ay bad autljortty 
from lilt' Ipgislaturo and tb« city council to consLmct tbe liaa 
Tht) court held that the street might Ut applied touti pi 
ocnATflt^Dl with the proper tuca of a street, and ihat il la 
when it is subjvKst^d to a new use, subvcrsiro of tbo old ono, 
that the abutting land-owner baa caiue to complain, and thtsj 
doeidod that tho telephone was a propor cue for a cdty stnel, 
OTcn if, aa had been hold in Indiana, it woro not so for a ooon- 
try highway.* Henry^ C* J^ and ^erwo<^1, J., disveotod, on 
itio ground that ft w;u not a use oonteiuplatod in tho lajdug; 
out of Che street, and had nothing to do w;th the ordinary luwf 
of a street. ^*Tfao telephone does not need the straot for iu 
oonvtraeMon, anj there is no oonoioctioQ beCweon pubiie tnval 
and talking through a telephone.*' The chief Justlou suggested 
Uwtif planting telephone poles Ualegitimatenseof the street, 

■Actor JulrHlfidCl O: & Ber, *DospJ i>f Trade l^le^-OaT.lte^ 
aal,S«»aL netf, lo: ni OOT, f? Am* lUp«Ht l 

f W ac« toa; 1 Aao, EL Ou. SOL Am. £L Caa. SS3^ 



$9J.] 



SIOUTb 09 AUUTTUCO OW-'faM, 



11$ 



tho l6lep1>0Dd company bad do occasioa togi-^tpcriuiRooa from 
tba citf to aot tbciu, becaiu« every miiTidaaI» induding oof 
poratiocu, may iiiaL'c any icgitimikto use of th< street witbottt 
jwrmiMion of tbe citjr, vrlkioh qaq only rogvlitte auob ua^ but 
does not confer Uio tight which it dcrivod &om dcdicatiOD.' 
This at^raCDt U a ctrcng one, but it applies witb cquiU foroe 
lo itreet roUiTays and etoor special or priritoj^od modcA cf ox- 
oRtBing the puUio nse, and tbo an^vror to it i£, no doubts that 
the power reoUy com<;£ fnjm tbc le^j^ij^turc, ^rbicb, having so- 
preniepovreroT^ th« highways, bias the power to fiutborixa 
epooial ives forcertainpoLrteorUieroad within the scope of this 
geoora] ptarposn of the Lfghway. 

{W. Other de>eliden*c on the same »lde.— These decUiong 
veto follonc^l by tlw KUprenm court of Loitij^i-iau in Irvfm v. 
Gneai SeMfAfrri TWrpA- Gi-* Arinmug, J., tlidwriitlrjg. Tn tllU 
eaaa the fee not in the public, and the <.*ourt aald tliat the legis- 
lUare, bnTin^ aathorlxi-d the use of the Htrcot by tbc t^.^lcphone^ 
the land-oiriu^r had oo oause to couipUIn uuleita bis right uf 
iBfroaa and egren woa affected. 

Id two caaea arising id tho city of Wrsliington Uie qti«ation re* 
lated solely to the righte of the pWntitT as adjacent owner, the 
tttie to tlMBtroeU being iathotULtionalgoviimiuont Thositua- 
tiofif of o^ane, vas Urn same ujt it the title were m the city or the 
pobliogeneraliy under astategOTeromcnt. A perversion cf the 
tfieela from their projMr us(» would affect the plointilTs rigbta 
whMter he owBod the fee or noL These easea were JlncsU v, 
WmUm C^«*o» 7W^. CoJ and JlcC^^rmU^ v. jE>i*iKof t^f ColtiM* 
U^* BUI< were fikd for an injtmction a^Ltaiit pulling up a tel^ 
ipaph line alongasLree^ in Washington in from of the plaintUTs 
pAaoe of busineaa The oompany had aciquired a rights under 
tbo ad of ciicign*3W of July 24, l^iUl, lo am llin MLnntta, and tho 
ecnuiasionersof tlietliBtrict of Cohimbla badgiyeu their con- 
nat,ao tiutUw only question VTa« whetb^rr privntc rights were 
iITectcd. It was insisted tbjit th« jiolew vrould aeriously ol> 
i&ict the ordinary uw of the premisee and of Uie street aa a 
highway oonliguous thereto, and that tbo wires were a source 



«a.itBas^MQFrdL 



ew (i»«>. 

M U«,ofcoy (D. O^ 8P4, Si Aa Beph 

3e4<id0a> 



Ill 



EIBCTXIO imSS d ffTEBETS AJTD BiaEn*ATS. 



IS 



of d&nger, and Uiat ihe noise of the frind wbtsUiiig Uiroogfa 
tliBin would be a naiAaace. The p<^» were oae bandred and 
fiftjr fivrt Apart, iind v^rns not dciu- tJi4i plaiatifTft doorVftpL 
Tbti cuurt Baid dial an mjunctiou ^touI J only be granted in am 
of serioDs and irrtporBliIo injurr, o&d that no soch injuiy tru 
threatened in thia ca»o. It cofild not be seriously cont«tid<d 
liiat tbe access or light and air were intcrfert^d with, and the 
danger and nmsanc« arisiDg from the vires were very alight 
Tlic l^ilb for injunction were di:»inisacd. 

£06. Tli65ame--LatereascQoa t>iesaii«slile.— Tbosede- 
dsioQs were quoted and follo'-ved in Montana id 1993,^ aad tt 
irna held that the pnrpoaee of the ti^lephone vcre ifithin lb* 
propel^ nso of the streets of a city, and tluit as abntUng owner 
vLo bad cot the title to the fee, and ivbo iras chreut^mcd vrilh 
no peculiar or nnneceeeary inconvenience, was not entitled to 
an injunction Against the erection of poles and stringing of 
u'trcs in front of biH lanil. 

There waa a dedwon in Miohi^n to the same effect In 16^' 
audthcconrtatid: "Whcathcsotands were Uikcn or granted for 
highw^iyK, lht<^ wr^nt nut taken or gntnt^l fur ximli UMca only 
a^ tuiglt then ba expected to be made of them by the comnion 
methods of trAVcl then known, or by the transmifiiioD of intel- 
ligence by Uie only meihods then in lue, but for auch method* 
as the improvements of the conntry or the discovorics of futnrc 
tJmc« might dcmantl" £o, abo, in Minnesota in 181*5,' the su- 
preme court aaid: **ltacenia to ns that a limitation of the p«l> 
tie casement in highways to travel, and the transportatioa of 
penons and property in moTablo vehicles, is too narrow. In 
our judgment publte bighiraye, whether nrban or raral, are 
designated as avennas of cooiiDnnieatioa;'" acKl they bold that 
the nav method of transmtarioo of Intelligence eamo within 
tlie general purpose for whkh roa<lE were opened, and was 
vitbin the *'hi^iway easement.** To the objectiott that the 
tdephone poles were immovable, they said that it was intended 
tn BUbfierre a proper use of the street, aod tliat if so they were 



T%if ph. Co, U UonL lO^^jLa, EL 

CM.Ta 



Ana. KL Om ST. U L. S. A. TSt, »Hh 
BoMOSUV 

>Oftt«r T. Sott&iriMn Enfa. 1U> 
epb. Cb, SO Utaifc Bttl BS N. V. Bptb 
111. a Am. Et Cte lit 



AOt u odditiOQal bunlca udIcss thojr uoroiuoaabl; impaired the 
etKmeitU of tbo ul>al*;iig owDer*. 

A local court in Pennaylvaiua,' after referring to the oob- 
flletfiig casos to otli>ur stiitM, t^id tho question ko^iuoJ to bo 
goremod in that state hy the decision in Uie Lockhart caso, 
that an electric railway did aot cooatittito a new burd&n upon 
tho highway, ftiid Ibat thunjaji]ii^nrrd U) hv no JiJiLitioLIoti Iw 
twoeit the t^IephoDe po\t-A and wlren and Uio^u^ of Uia trcllay 
railway that ia noi In favor of the former. And in il moeut 
mt6 in IiKfranA it tvas hrH t^iat tho oroctujn of p(>lr» and nin^n 
lot Um LeliT|iio(ii? U[>oo «tly HlroeU Li not an additional aer^i* 
tud< for which oirD«rs of the adjacent lands are entitled to 
oocnpensatioo-* 

8 97. Wires without poles not a bnnleaon the land.— 
In a codo in New Jorsoy * in which no polo was a-^t up in front 
af Iho eomplaiDaaVa land (for which tho stotutc rcqnircit hia 
ooucnt), aod tho oom plaint was ihat the wires were about to 
bo fltnCehod alon^ the stroot on his side of the way, tho court 
of obanoory refofiod to grxnt a preliminary injunction, saying 
that it was doubtful whether the coinplainsjit bad a ri^ht to 
oDEnplaio of the use of a street for stretching t«le^aph or 
taltpbono wires, and that Uioro waa no sneh urgent nucesaity 
u to call for a preliminary injunction. The chancellor (Kun- 
)*oii) referred to tho Jocisiou tu /'w-rcw v. i>nno, ibiit tho tel<>- 
frmpbdid not impcfteanawbunlvnou tliehi^liway,End,allud* 
ing to the statute requiring the consent of tho land-owner to 
the planting oF poles in thi^slrrct in froubof hisUn<],hc Maid: 
""Hui ItegisUturn of LIiIk HL:d,te apfif^m to Imvi! coiistdtMvd that 
the lue of the atreeA^ ao far fi£ the n-ins ara concerned, was 
Dot a fiotatioD of the rights of the oiruur of the noil in tho 
•troot; for, whllo it recognizee snob righta as to the erection of 

iTerfc TsUph. Co. t, Eammt'. 5 Ph. pan vtthont obj«otlciri wrm net ■!> 

filiLOOb RephSttfl^e Adl ELCia t07 Iawod«D injunction Agohut fVpteO' 

USKFk iDl eiit polM vith ii»w <io«a ukd 

*lltfffQ0 V. Orvnlihior, )£KI Inl 137. IniTnttatDj: tlwnuuilwrof nlrMfrom 

» X. & R«^ «ll (ISH). eifhi to tUrt«on. 

UiWcftLr, Tovtal TeL CsUe Ooi. Withr«ap«cttccattnisei<«walooa 

TObfa Ctt. Cl B«^ Uf»X n Am. EL tbo na4iUa sn tn/ro. 3^ 103^ lOft 

w^hftdAlloi'ViAtdW^mEtLtic^ to Co,UK,J.£q.»,9AiD.fiLCu.3ia 
Id Croot ol bee IjuuI for luuo <l68a[k 



lis 



KLXCTSIO W1XXS IST iTKKrrt A3ffB MlGHWATt. 



tsaa 



polo*, tt clocis cot do so afi U> the wirefL'' Tt h obTloos tiut 
tbd stretching of trireB over tb« plaintiff's land ia tbo etroct 
ifi no lees a violatioo of hifi ri^bt cf property id the I&sd 
than the planting of polos ; for if he ovrns the land ho owsj 
«*^itf a<f «*/Kff*.* If, therefore, the qm of the street (or tb« 
telegraph is a perversion of Its propter [uw and imposes a nev 
SOrvitii«tr\ tlio hind'4>wurr 1i:tK lu muoh right to cuiuplftin of tko 
wlrw att of thei iK]}es, The difitlnetioa made, tlierefore^ hj the 
chancellor hettvevn the wirps and the poles i« Bigninrfintf be- 
cnuso tho 0fiM.*5 in Keiv Jersey irlth reference to poles, itfa&oh 
iJo governed by a statute, are frefjuently cited B$ authori^ fw 
the general proposition that the tclcgmph impo«et a new btv* 
den on the hi^h^vay,' 

g OS. Caticfi OD tho other side — Decisions in Ktv Vork and 
Hew Jcruey.— On tho other side of tho question wo find a 
longer list of cases, although in some of tlie«e, as in frome of 
the others^ there ia disa^Tcoment among judges, and in aone 
tho decUiona rest upon the f [Kit that the ctatnte aothoriziog th* 
j^o of tho fttrc^ts hua made espress provision for ohtainicg tks 
consent of the land-owner or malting compeosatdoiL 



» Eloctrb ToL Ca r. Ormieen* uf 
tbo Poor of Sftir<^. ft4 L J, (N, Sj. 

Cli: "Whiitbiir tlio Uuo koo ua- 
dergrotiod or in tlio air, th« profTt 
«tore of It e«?l(uWdy oc«up7 a ccr 
l*in poftton i>t ApaoG, ot wtu^b thoy 
Ittfiti complete con tTcd." 

Tlie titlH <ir Uie IockI cuthorluoft to 
Ihe IftDd Ln tha Btro«bi doei &ot d«0' 
«aMril5 sstaod upwarda UiiMjiiC^jr, 
Imt & tUle Ki^^i^ ^f '^tainte hoA bfi>n 
hold to iDcltJtl^ only Uiv ifurrAt^uiiJ 
09 mXLch &L01? auU botow it aa niaj 
be naqulml tnr the uVH of a 4lrfvt 
Wondswortb Diitrit^ Boaid orWor h» 
▼. Uaitod Tebphooo Oa^ 18 (% & D. 

■Sw Lowi^ E[n.DonL,8l91 nnd 
i>ot^ CluLii«d]or Rdoyoiw boirovcr* 
in o Inter otoi^ rofcrrbs topoloa put 
up vdlhovit tb« CGOMXiE rrqniiwl b^ 
■utclMi Aid th« ffottpany, wiibout 
pTvUAM of kebUUT« ftutborll; iu)d 



«Uli<rut Ih? pcnuenb cf the r^*hitJtt 
tifkrl fut i:ip f«1«H upOD hii luiil (ta 
tb« BifHl) &nd bwk Ujmb pubjoctcd 
Uit laiiij " ia an a<iditHmat ttrntwh 
hcaldvft thill for wh^oh it «nu coo- 
deinrM>d.'* Broome v. N. Y. 4 H. J, 
TdcF^cc C<k. » K J> Eq. 141 4189^ 
3 Am. to. Dm 2:1*. llNf dll*i>r«CM^ 

00 dOUM, 14 tfaVt in thi* CAM tb* dM 

WM not BklbcriMd, bat in violaUov 
or ihm l««;i»laU«« cvnJilkiu; nhiif 
In th4 tnTTrnf oam liwire wu no nn^ 
iiit<<.n vbolal4KLAiiJtl>u0ompftB7iM 
iitjthoiued to use ihe paUi« 
Tky^Gnociaiov Ths Floel; 
in lUE«e7 V. itApfcl Tnndt Ky. Co., 
47 K J. Ek|, S@a 30 AtL Be^ BSH S 
AOL EL Cm flSautMi la ^Macuith- 
ing bKvwB tbo toLofinpk an4 tha 
olMtHo vaIlvE-i>f, uHunkfiii it ta haw 
beoii drctilrl hy tJiv fviiutiJ cunviS 
of Jndl(!£al AUthnrly t^t ilie t*A^ 
^npfc te not witbln ih* puUio MM' 

ia«atof aatro«i or highvar^ 



KIGVTI W ABVrnKG OWKKM, 



119 



111 Dvmniwy v. M^Uttal TW^^r^/pA Co-t ib tfae Nen* Yi)rk 
«ap6rior ooart,' th^ f>laintil!f owm^d lantlon anIla£«ctrc«t,iUKi 
bb tiUe extended to thi> middle of tha slre«t. The telegraph 
act* f{ftre & right of entry to telef-raph ccmpuues, subject to 
tbo right <tf tha oiriurr or ovriktrs to full ccnupeittntEoa. The 
oomt ocnutnied this as a conditioa precedent, aj^ilicable to 
etvoeta and highwA3rfi as well as to otl&^r laiuU, and li^ 
that cjoctmiMtt would lUs against a compiinj which had net op 
polfla in tbe street on tbe plaintiff's land. Tie court aaid: "It 
it undispatcd Uutlbe plHintiff oirne the Uad thus occtipiod, 
aubjoct on\y to Uio liigWriy cjiscmcnt, wlioli, a« between him 
and the d<ffendaat^ karea hia owuer^hip complete and esela- 
aim" 

In MeiropoIiSan TeUphan« and TcIryrapK Co. v, Tl^ Cot^<U 
JUad Cfi^ it iraa ht-Id by Judge Ingraham at a spcolal lerm 
that the k^slatnre bu no povcr, so far m abutting oivncra 
are conocracd^ tc authon/.v Lhu ust^ of the «Lr«t» of Nevr York 
f{ir the erection of telegraph and tolepbone pole^ an<l wir«e. 
The fe« of the street in tJint caso was vcsttnl in Uie oilr, but 
tbe jod^ tiiki that tJio oity bold it m trufil for nae as a pablie 
■Ireet, and that the tue of a street for a telephone line did not 
eono within the ptirpost^ of tbe trusts find tbut tlio pf^wcr of 
the l•gUatur<^ to rv^nlate streeU did not eit^cd to pvrmatJng 
anck a nae withoot the ooiu«nt of property ownora 

The nino concltuion wus n^ueluMl by r.hi^i:ii|in^inff cniirl in ti;ro 
nicfl in 180V An<l cnti of ibesL* was afUrmei) in the court of a|^ 
peala to 1891-.* TLiw wiu a caae in whiofa a t«l(?^nipli line hwi 
been aH op along a runil liigbw^iy. \^w tv%*. of wliirh »au m the 
■djoJnSng owcixr. Tbf* court held that ibe use of the land for 
the pole* and trires of a U^Ic-^aph lioft wa« not within tbe p<il> 
£d oava to whirh bnd Ir.k^-o for a rural highway was dedicated; 
thai the primary i:£c of tbe highway waa panage, and tbe pri- 
aiary Uw of it waa motion; nnd that tbo permanent cxcJnaiw 
pMieeaioB, erco of a Siinall portion of it^ cannot prop<ii'Iy be 



>Uw« ol New Torfe. l»a. cL. «U 
uwwlios net fruHSi eh. «L 
««r K]«w. Pr. BSK W N. Y. AxpfiE. 

a 48S fivaL 1 AcD. HL Oka eaa 
«Blwhfietd T, finirinSi«ioT«Jipb 



&Npfk IWkl 4 An. £L Cuk 140: B^ 
T, Atn. T*lrplL A 7«1o«. Cck, 72 UuQ* 
516,20 M. Y. ^irovCiXl 

* £al0 V. AID. Tolo|>h A T«;««, Co^ 
14a fi. Y. UI, 5 AoL EI Cte ai 



120 



BLCCratf) VIRSfl Df GTB£rni am> ntoitWAYS^ 



tsiia. 



TQ^arded as ft new mothod of Qsinj^ tho old public easoncut; 
jLQil \Tbatcvor miglit be thia rulo in iJtiaKely populatMl cCLEW} 
tlie eaadtuenC to wbtck a rural blghwE^v Is Hubject do4s not Ed- 
clade the erection of telegraph |x>l«s wiiboat compenntian. 
And tbiQ co[irL suitd it mmto no dtfTen-.Tirt!, wjUi nw[)n(?i to dw 
nature of tlic caatrmeut, wlifLhi-r tbe f^e wetft in tbo iMljotniiig 
owner or not, and that the rigbta of tbo Und-owper were n-ot 
iJTcctod by LugulAtion cf ttukny yeut>' standing which fconi«d 
to ignore hb n^bta. Thoao cases were followed bj tbo oon^ 
miasioacts of appraisa! in jToeCal Tdcgraph Gahle Co.v.Brwn} 
but it was found that tbo damagctt wccv merely nomidoL 

Under a statuto ia New Jersey auliiorizmc tho erection of 
polos subjeot to making oomponstition, it woa bold' L^at a naan- 
datory injunction abouid iflsuo to compel a oompany to lakfl 
down poles put up witbout tbe consent of the laad-ownerj aehI 
without hitving taken proceodin^ to condemn. Tbo cban- 
eellor spoke of tbe satung up of polei on tbe land in tbo bigb- 
way as aubj^K^ting tbo land to an additional servitude, and an 
inviL«ion of tlie plaintilTs propri^ftsLrv riglit^, for which tb9 do- 
fendanU bad obtained no authority under tbe terms of tbe 
ftt»tut«. Tho cbancollor wiik »|Hmkiiigf howvvor, of tlie plant- 
ing or polKtt witlioul thti r-on^ent rt^ijiitred by aulutf!, uniJ does 
not modify tbe opinion bo bad rocontly exprassed in regard to 
wircsn* In a later ca«e in Now Jcrat-y/ Vicc-Cbsxiccllor Van 
PliKiL, decidinjj tbnt an electric street railway was not a new 
Qse of the street, distingni >bcd bctwcea this and tbe telegfnph, 
flaying that tbo use the new method m£.kce of tbo street is tbe 
re^ test, and that tbia principle oxbibiu in a clear light tbe 
reason why it has been hold that plitcm^ telegraph and tele- 
phone poli^ in the street impofios an additionaj smritado qd 



1 3» N. V. Supix Saj IISW), 6 Am. 
ELCoA. I»t 

iDroaniff r. K. T. A K X Tbbiplb 
Ca, 43K. J. Eq. 141 O^M^a Am-EL 
Ou-OaSL 

> Bo&ke r. Am. tWlof^ A Telepta. 
Co., 4L N. J. r*). a\ rvJnrtttt to In 
S VT, «a;pra Km aIm Htooeu* v. T«J*' 
fJioiw Ox. «e N. J, [^ OH AO X, J. 
L. 43^ S Ahl ^X Cm. 20»; WiuUr 
X TsTcfibOM Ox. S\ S. J. K HIL 3 
Aid. £L Oaa trs; a« u> tbe nvoeasU j 



for rntTiiR tho aiu and tocatl^a of 
(he potce iJi A pctitioQ to *w><i*^i» 
and avcsB dtmasiw iBO w lo «lww the 
extent of tha hunf^n to b« Impoaed 
«1U1m7 t. Bftpid TvMttlt St H^ 
Co., 47 n. J> Eq. Sem fl> AU 
H;i»-aa4.S Am, EI.CkjL2£& See 
'r^^gan ▼. ffirvport «(. Rt. Col, 

iLi.eeti.t9 Aaiu^sseL s ahl con^ 

Alt ELE'*iK44,wtlfa£ri,U%7I.]LA. 
SO\a Am ElOaaSOa 



I»0 



AioiTTi or ABurnNO owif&rk& 



131 



Ukt Ictnd. He sxid: "They arc not plaocd in the street to ^<1 
th« publiom cxercijungtlie£r right or rr«dpa»Age,norto fAdli* 
Uto tfao UM of the street 93 a pul>Uc iray, but to aid in the 
tntmniMion of intcUigcDoc. Although our public higbwajs 
btre alvrayt boca uaed for c&rrymg iLo inttil». and for the pro- 
motion of other Hko mc&Dd of communication, yot tho Mse of 
tb^na for a like purpose, by ntoaau of Uio telegraph aad tclo- 
pbooA, differs so essentially in every ruatcnal rcepoct from 
tbm gon^ml aod oi^inary osre, that tho goacral cnrront of 
Judicial AQtlionty buciccbniMl that it vm not vicUin tbo pulv 
lic eaMinonL If attftohoaetts has, liowarer, by a divided ooort^ 
b«)d oiherviw. yV-ww r, i)nn^, 1^6 Kan. 75." 

With n^gud to the olograph and telephone, however, It has 
Bince been decided by tb© court of errors of Neiv Jersey that 
ttwir purpows ora not wiUiln Urn i^Lsrrrn.-nt of h public hjgb- 
WJLj, and that the rigbt to pkfso pol^i tn tie »irvi^t, wit!iout 
the consent of the abnttlng owner^ cam only be ac4.|iili^ through 
Qw power of cniinvot liumain.' 

§99, Cmco In aoine we-itern conrbi, — In WiMU v. ICrU 
Ab^raj^ and Ttfepkotvs Cv.^ the judgmont of the court belovr 
wu that the placing of tolegraph acd telephone poles in a oity 
tlreel. under licecso of tlid city aTitborttles, was an infringe 
Bent of ttic ti;^htB of tbo owner of the fee. 

On ippc«J the qiu^tioa was tbus ilatci by tbo court: "Ii 
nob a case vitbin the purposGa for vrhich a oity str<»et most be 
deomed to have boen eetubltishcd, so that tho indivitiuj.! pro- 
prietor is not entitled to further oompemeuEonrOris there a 
new approprtattOQ of the bind not embraced in the origiD&l 
dtdicfttioD or oondemnatt^n of the utreet for puhCio purposes ? "* 
On tills qoestloa tbe court was equally divided, find no opinion 
was written on eitbor aide, but tbe judgment bolow mhha af- 
flrtncii, 

Jioartl &f Trads Ttlag^ Cq. v. J^ameU * was an action of tres- 
pa0 by, the owner of lan^l abntting upon a bigbvnty (not a 
city itjvot] against a telegraph coiT>[>any for putting up poles 
Jut outdklo of tho hedge^ and cutting some of the trc^^ of the 
badge. I/y way of jastification the dLTc:ndant pleaded that 

i» aa B«^ aiT om> 



> te7 m. &>T, » Ahl B«p, 4S3 cisatk 



133 



BLxiTriao THtEs IS trr agw aikp mfitrwATfl. 



[f 



tbe ncte eomptaiDed of were BroesBarily dond la boitdiag % 
tel«grii()h Line auUiorixcd bjr biw, and hatvmg tli« oonssviit cC 
tbo county }>oanL U wu hdd that th« action would lie, and 
that the fitat^tory permifision -krs subject to tho confitttutionai 
iDhibitioo thMpnvat^ proi>c:rt}' shall not bo taken nor dam* 
aged for public use without just compensation. The court uid 
that ft telegraph lino vras not a part of the pubLio Ofisomcot in 
the hi^hwny, butu ncvr and additional banko thcn^oa, « HM 
to which it was cot oontomplatcd that the highway abould bd 
subjected, and for which the ownor is cnlitlod to odditionaL 
oomponfiation. Tho case ^aa likened to that of a railwar 
which had boen held in Ulinoie to be an additional burden fuid 
a now kind of use of the hfj^hwayj This case was distio- 
gaUbod ID Julia Buiidir\^ Auociaii^m v. BtU TfUphen^ CtK^ 
on tho ground that it related to a conntry road and not a d^ 
cctrouL 

In Smith V. Central DUtriH Prhuin^ and Tti^^raph Cbt/ 
the circuit court of Trainbull county, Ohio, followed Mcard {/ 
TW/yr V. UnmMy and ht^d that « tdepbooe or tclrrgruph lino 
upon a highway (it waa a country road, and not a city stnvt) 
WBB a DOW burden upon tho land not contemplated when the 
roiid iTUf Ktid out» and thtat tho owner W4ia entitled to oompooi- 
aatton, Poles put up pending the litigation and after objuo* 
tion were ordered to bo removed. 

In a later oa!«e, in the supreme court of Illinois it was held 
that a county boiud has no power to permit a telegraph com* 
piiny to er«ct pobs for a telegraph in a highway withont 
ooinpene;ation to the owner of the hind, in view of the dcdanr 
tion in ihe ccnstituUon that private property shall not be taken 
or dams^d without Jnet oompeneation;' and there is a d^ 
oleion to the same effect in the lllinola appeals,* where it was 
bold that the nse of tlia land withio a highway for the polos 
and wires of telegraph cofupanJ4!s inijKOitt a burden not 
torn plated In the original taking. 



in ft W. 1L R Ca v< Dartlor, 07 
IU.43a 
'SS HoLSSa(yootodlD§ia*vpra 

* E^mUI Tat. Cftlil* Ov v. tmML, VX 



* A m^c<ta Tvltr^i. dt Tatcfr 
jctvjt IS ra ApfL ITS (isf^ s«^ 

licv^w, JsycM -9. Ovnola Sfc Ry, 
(:898X r*fenvd le ia ok X, S Iftk 



8100.] 



UOBTS OF AADTTUIA CVNZU. 



las 



III Daily V. SUtU of Ohio} where th« qoartloa arose In on fto- 
tioii of Lmjuss for cutting the limbs of shade tre« growing oo 
tlui K>d» tiA A miul, tUn Mij^n^nin onurt of Ohio divUrt'd thiit tike 
land aud Lbe tri*at belcngnd to diir plaziittlT, Kul>Jt?ct only U) the 
c^wiTcnicaices of public traTol, oiift that the telegraph lin« wa> 
a iiev mt and imposed un additional burden, a&d tb^t tho totc- 
g^pb compftDy^ eren tbow^b it was u.ij&^ a port-road, waa not 
MUhorizM to take the p!&intifi^s property in ibo troca without 
eotapcnntion; and if there wen: nny ilistinctton between mnJ 
and urban hif^hways, it would bo in the latter rather than tlie 
former thAt tho telegraph and tolophouo lines really affectod 
the casomcnt of the l&nJ-owDcr^.^ 

In P(k^ P^^iUU Td&jmpK Co. u Trmn4^ roferriqg ton 
ooQiilTyroadftheeoQrtiAid: ^^Wbere the fee of the biglw^ 
li rested In the pnblte there can be no kgal objcctioti to the 
grant bjr the pablic of a right to ort^ct ^cb potes and wires 
without rfganl to the adjacent property cwnore; hot where, 
u ber«, the fee of the highway remaini in the adjacent cwner, 
and only its ose for the purpo^ieR of piiblio travel lias been 
granbrdy 1 tliink It U clfiir ttmt rvrry iinn of lb» pulilio high* 
way iKft in the Une of «ucb lravi?4 Li an addilJonal bordnn fur 
wUoh the proprietor of the foe ia entitled to compoDsatiotL^* 

SIM. Ca«ea In Vlrt'Enia^ Marylnail and HI»st3»ippi.— In 
the vapTeme coart of appeals of Virg;inia* a very strong argu* 
mcitt wae tnado by counsel '^ in favor of the propoflition that a 
lel^rapb as a moans of communication 19 a proper ohc of a 
IHiblio highway, for which no compensation need be mode; bat 
Uie conrt deoiileil that, by the oondcninntion of tho land for a 
roadt the public had aoqnired only a right of way, and that the 
extent of tile condcmnatioQ waa the ri;;bt 10 pass along over 
tlw road, and that for all other purposes tho title remained in 
the individual : to dig the sot! was to dig his soli, and to pat up 



>0I OliJo 8L S4ft, fl Aid. EL Qui IM 
fUHt Saa »bi> Smith 1; Tvlvgnph 
Cb,SMioGCm. 

^See EU« V. AiiiericBnTvIfli(pCd. 
BktaOelil V. Empire 8utu i'dbifh, ft 

n «M boU thftt la rurml If not bi 
ia\mti ■tn«4» ibo ide^jafib nr icU- 

'UFodB^JU4Ai&£LCu.H0 



(ISM^ See ako Spi-jkftoo V. GoLbj, le 
WMfa. t\^ AS P^ Bep Wa 
' We«t«ro Union Tdeft Ox r. WUb 

kmi^eOVjb tAl 11 a E RrptlOlkS 
I. It. A. 1^. SO AoL « Eng. Cbqk 
Cta, OCL 2 Am, R R ft C<a^ R^ 
Ana. 2^ U Auk EL Qu^lMCim^ 
' Mr. Uotwn &UIm of tU Vlrftaia 



1» 



BLEOTBtO Wt&£9 IS KTSfitrTS ASP OIDlIWAtB. 



[Sioi, 



a post wa^ to take [>osfi««sion of bis land, and the rigbt to do 
thcao things mast be paid for before it can be acqajred. Itiru 
hold thut the court bcloir ivt^s right in cduu^ng tbo jury that 
the owners of the BOil had the cxcliisti% right to th« land in 
tbo road, sabjcct to Uio right of pnbiio pona^, aod th&t tho 
inct that tho rofuJ wua a public hi^hwny iiid not aiithoHco tho 
Grection of tcle^^aph poeu witbont the owner'd consent. 

A Jn tor decision, oiido in view of all tbo prorions dociaions 
on Uftli K:d«^, wa£ that of the court of app«aU of Maryland on 
Maroh 24, IS91-* In an action of treepaw for plaoin^ a tele- 
phone polo in the «treeC on tho pUtnUlTs buiil, u plc& chat thd 
defanduita were a telephone company, authorized to conttmct 
fl line along poBb>roadSf ami having the pprmiftslon of the city 
gtivtirniuunt, wjialietd^ondeuiurnTr, tij \h^ Ivul, hrmtiMi iho 8tut- 
utes could not give HiG right to u^ the plalntiflTki land vridiout 
coiuperiftatioii. The bubjcct of the rights of abutting owaen 
was disuussed and many cases vroro aiti?d. 

Again, on May 4, ISi^l, it was hold by the aupremo court of 
Mississippi* that a city cannot grant a company the ri^it to 
erect a telegraph lino alon^ :i public strtx-t without maldc^ 
compensation to the owners of abutting land, hecauae the tele- 
graph id a no^ mo and an ndJitional burden, and it inahett no 
dijferouce whcthor llic fi>> of the strict is in tho abuttingowner 
or in the public? 

§ 101* Views of text-hook writers.— The Inrg^ majority of 
the deoifiions thus far eoein to be in favor of the view that the 
telegnipb m an additional burden on tho hjghvray, and this 
•ocins to be accept>>d by tho tJ^xUwritvrM who refer to tho snh- 
joot as tho bettor opinion.* Mr. Lewis, in his woric on Eminent 



Co. ▼. 3diwl»ai£ln. 31 All Ra^ 490. T4 
114. 8S.iAin. EL 1^ IBS. 
* Btavtn V. pDftttt T^bgmph Onbto 

Cou Svp. CL lltJK., M AlU L. J, m 
9 a Hvp^ ^% 13 1. R. A, NOi 

InT1i*obeld V. UniLwAj- Co^ BS Uii& 
«niO&Be(Li!eo.4L.R.a.T3i(tMh 
h wu nld In |a8«iKV (nfXt^rX Lkat 
tfav telcffmph U ui ftdJiltoMJ bttt^ 
^c«. nod that it EB4k«e ao4itf«r«iice 
wfaattiKf ttiA f «■ ui Lu Una l)icid««r»er 
or Uia |iul>Uie. 



■In AmeHcu T«lefili.ft 1U(«.C^ 
T. pMroo, 71 Ud, Oan, 16 ALL K«^ 
Via 7 1* R. A, fOO. a UlogiBfJi Une 
wu betd to bout vJiitioQiil barJis 
on bud alnadj TOCdcnuud fCtfj 
lightcrf wnf ofamilfiMJ, floe 
c«um oa thAt Mbjoot» •«• ok Xn( 

tLewii, Em. Dml 8 »l; Deb^ 
UurLCorMltiiod.l{|^flaa«aBa;eill* 

ott <^ tEood« ftA J Htnvu p|k m-eao, 



I102-] 



BlOKTTa or A£irrTTX0 cwxeiul 



1S5 



I DoouuD {g 131), says; ^Tho lines of a tcIogTApb or telepbone 
I ooiiipa&7 ftre on t^ somo footing a« tie et^am railroad. Thej 
b^na no port of tDo equipment of a public highway* and aro 
PVuirely tonfgn to its use" Ho makce a duUnction, however, 
Iwtweoa cases in wbicK tbo f ae is in the pablic and tbcee in 
wbiOh it is io tfao abutting own^r Uq s»yB that in th9 ktt^r 
cwo ttio owner i» entitled to oompensailon for the iiiiditionat 
bnrden placed tipoo his l^uid, and in the former case he may 
rccovor for interference with hi« ngbt^; but thut if there fs no 
intcrrfi'rrniy) with iJie Ingn-ss aiul cgruaut, or the light and nir, 
there la do tflkJDg, because there is Do daina^. Judge DiUoDt 
on th^olWr hjLnil(§fiOJ^T), Btty*h«"('Otisul<irnUi<j triwMhwlriro 
to be Uiat tilt? righU of the hbLitter, us betw^ea IjIiei hixi\ tliO 
pnblio, ore tfiil»«tanUalty Ltie same \vhetber the fee h in biiOt 
Kibjeci to tho public use, or is in tho city in trust for slroct 
mt» proper;" and his ooncluftion is tiwt^ *'on the whole, tho 
Bsfer and perhaps sounder view is that eiich a use of the »lr€cC 
or highway, attended as it may be, especially in citJGi, with io- 
rions damage and incocTCoieaoe to tho abutting owner, is not 
a Btreet ct highway uso proper, aJid hence enutlce buch owner 
to eompensatioD for such use, or for any actual injury to his 
property caused by poles and lines of wires plaoed in front 
thereof.'* 

i lot. Conelnsloat* with respect to the right to use the 
Usttvays for the telegraph and telephone. — It may be sug- 
g«0ted, tioweref, that it is not yet B^fe U> pn^liet wbic?h of the 
two views will JInalJy prevail. It in cf^rUiia Lbut no distinction 
Dan perman>^Fitly eiuliire which makes s. prH<itiefi1 i)ilT^n?nee 
between two publie Etrivts with rrv|HT(d Ln thti t4H:hiii<.'Hl tiUo 
to il)i3 soil. When men hty oat land for Htret^ts, they dedicate 
it for street vsee^ retaining all the prinlcgi:* of adjacent; 
when Ihi^ convey hind U> tho city for a «tri^i;t, or when the 
city coniltiniDS land for a stn:et^ the land is taken for tJio pnr- 
poBCB of a stroel) and for th(£c only, and thi: indiviiiiiul rtbLina 
Uw auxw rights of ad^aeency as before. 



W^mm tte ^f^*'<t opioiocL 3d oi, 
Bi* mJb If r Lfnrbr VoUm to Wott- 

aa A a Coi^ &«p. asti^ M% uid 



1 TbdU ^S-SBl A]«o w^ toTf^ntftTi 
v< NowKrrt 8L It It Co.. 9 Adl Corpb 
& R R C^ Ofi; fUudoLpb ou Biuiikcnl 
Donuin. 4UT. 6m aim notoi In S$ 
Am, fitat« R«p., p|k 3S^£U* 



ISG fii.EOT&io vnKEa ct vrftECTs £mt inottWATft. [J lOi 



) furtbrr 

itoloolol 
t>ortft vxH| 



Tlie deoiron of tho qaeetion depeads not on tb« iwUird of 
Hie title to the 8trc<;C. but on the qiic«tlou vrh«tlwr the riyhti 
and pnviLi^gwof tbe &UuUing oirner in the ib^ and mainte- 
nance of the scrdot b& sncb ard nlTi.s:UHlf unit on Uie furtbrr 
qmtftlion wlial is tliv vcojHt of Uii^ uati* und |)Ljq)cwm of 
MtreuL Tt ihohIv ivoi^ritly Ujjkl Ibn LNjurtft liHve Ije^^im 
at tlie auUjfct from tliia point of Ticw» Tbc older rcporta 
fuU of Gftscs wbich tat;e tlic? distinctloa witb rtwpuol b> Uie title 
of ibe bnd, m deciding on tLe rights of nuLwaya in tho fitrceta, 
and IB Uio kter caaea the distinction baa bocn grmduaily ig- 
Dored. At length tbo <|ue8tion W6a brought iKiuiirely up u 
the Xetr York eiev&ted railroad coacfi,^ and tho court of ap- 
L peals of ^e^v York held that it uiAdo no difforonoo vrhctbcr 
BtHM fee was in tbo city or tbo individutd; but tbat in eitlicf 
oaae the land-owner was entitled to dania^cea for tba injury to 
his rif^hta o^ adjacent ovrncr^ hia right of aoooaa, aiul of light 
ajid mx. Thed^^ cuaea itltL^nr^ie thii prfndple to otearly thac 
they may yet inSnence judicial opinion in dealing witli all the 
uses of a street, »nd :kfrord n tatiftfiictory Wkm iipoa wliioh thv 
ri^ta of lund-ovnen may be protected, \ThUe the atreeta are 
thron'n open to every improved mtrtbod of accomplishing their 
general public puqiose, so Lbd,t tbtry tnay iHsrvo tb« grafttoft 
public good. 
■ There must be an extcusloa of the uses to which streets are 
pnt, and so long aa thoy servo the pulitle ntnvT^nirnoo, and do 
not alTi'Ct the use formerly enjoyed by the land-owner, th«rt 
would aaem to be no good rcnAon why the Innd-owoer abould 
have a right to object, aioce in audi a r^aae* if he w«ro caUUed 
to dauiage^i they would amount to nothing. 

It could hardly bo said, moreover, that the rule wne aottted 
if it should be found that, acoonling to the ruli\ a land-owner 
eould objoct to the use of poloe and wires for the telegropb, 
but not lor the elcotrio Lif^lit, or to the iu« of & polo and wir* 
for Uio ordinary tolegrapb, hut not for tho fir&^larm telc^?«pli ; 



* 



y. \M-»: UkhT V. Hni. ei^v. RR Biagl«m,97T«aiLaS3,11 S. W. 

Go.jl0lK-T3ft4i Foa4v.Me&.Elor. 70S: Sinhh ▼, Ballroa^ C^,9TTtea. 

Uet EI*iT. a A Co, ISO n, T. S^; Pert^nd A \'t,ntnmvnr R. R Cb, ia 

At«B.dnMh T. KuUl a R Co^ 123 Orofr 37, ^ tV^ U«Vk Ml 



4 



§1 ld3| IH.] iwmi! or Antm^to ow^eiia. 



13T 



or that polos Tvith Trfr^ ov«riieai trospEiBs upoD tho foe of th« 
0Dil, while win** unitirgrounJ do not; mid jn^t^ lU wUM^mll iim» 
prvventl^,' it uqmt« clear that electric vivm for lighting a city^ 
nad U>lpgnii>h and toluphoQu linos for the lira ^nd ]x>[j'c« jnir 
pottCft, arti a [>r[>|>E*r uxe of Lht? HLr^*!, aiu} lliiil if gUM iujuk may 
bo bid underground witboat compeiuation} tliei-e can bo no 
ofaj^cUoEi to cables for fumisliing eloctrio tigiit to privnto 
boQMft. And if Uiu be so, it would bo Unrd to excladd tLo 
tetttgrftph and Uic telephone from tli« u»^ of tuu oame subways. 

S 103. DistiatUou bi'twn'u rurul liii;hwujA and tiij 
4itre«tA — Vrban and »ul)iirl)fLit easenient^t. — A dUtinotion ia 
between rural bigiiwaya and city etrccta, and it ia sug- 
Uiut Ui^ public uiicA for which Lbc one is dedicated aro 
dfJTeroot trom tboso to whiuh lUo olbor inuflt be subjctot. TL« 
qua^tioa raolvea itseli afterall into tliQ questioa of pubb'o neoea- 
lity. Bfiforo tbo days of tbo l^lo^npb tlic city street vni4, 
VfoMy witli tbi! rtir^l highway, free from obstruction by Col^ 
graph poke^aad the dwellers on the one as well a? on tlie other 
no actual aDtici|ntion of the u»i^ d tbe sLre«L for thia 
Aa a Matter of fact, tbo telegraph la sncb that the 
country rood b required for it ru well n4 tbe city street. 

It is thfi lat«r tiAi*:t of itlf^rtnrity, Llu^ ti^tcpbonEt or tlie filetrtrio 
U|[htt thitt httve GUt-d ug) the city atmeta with pok^a and wiro«. 

AnoUier difficulty ifi thai it is hard to dteticigulsb bclvracn. 
1 ntr^ and an tirUm sLrocti and that the nature of u »t]'(trt 
oboagea ijiseik^bly from the former to tho tatter, ullJ a rule of 
property wbict depends on snob n ebtfting and tndisliDitA dts> 
tinotion is a^H likely to prove Sittisfoctury. 

% lOi. Fire-aUrm atid police telviEraph — Fire-alarm and 
paliee leletfrapli arc public tuc!4 — ^o doubt the streets may 
be aaed for the«e vrUhODt comp^^nAatlon.— It would aeem to 
be buyoEul qu^^tion that tbo streets of a Dity, or even a vUloge, 
might bo usod by tbo local authcritics for sending slgnala to 
ffoard iigainKt diaorder and conflagratioa, and that tbis may be 
doaeby meatus of posts and wires in the strc^u without tbocon- 
HBt of abutting uwavisL Jt is not, like etectrio lighting, a oift 
<«'tn«;ct«d directly with the BtreeCa tbemseEv^ but it is a munid- 
ptl use of the gr^^itirst iraportaRni; nnd althmigh ti f s n lino 
«ldcb couUl EXJt bavo been coftu-iujil^ted crhen Koma of tb» 

>SlH'VVu. 



12S u-xcrvjc W1U4 in vrKKm JiBri> luonvrxTiL 



105,1 (Ml. 



'4 



etrects wcro dodtoAtoiI, it £s o&o wbioh by coramoo consi^Dt 
would bo roj^anted oj neoeattTy and proper, &Dd one which pnb- 
lio oplnicm would not aUow m<]ividuala to intt^rforo n'itli. 

Z am Bpeaking orl}* of th« clnim of a Lec^hni^ol right in tho 
soil, and of additional ftervltude. Of coarse, if the right of ftO' 
cees were interfered with, OP the wir€« became so nnm^rodfi 
tnat^^rially tu diniiri!};]i tlin light, Llii^ owni^ might \w i^iitilji 
to diuti7Lge!& And it bas been held tbat the imDdciesar^' cuLiing 
of trees on tbe sTdewu,}k is actiotmble, even tliuagh the fte is 
in tbG public, and ihvt wircM am btnn^ put up for the cit^ G^^'m 
eminent for the purpose of a fire alarm.' f 

§ 10^. 1Ii;;bts to compensation for nctnni dama;;f^8 fn oV 
atructin- Acccssandllgbtand air, etc^— Wha:^Tcrconcius)oa J 
may 1>& roaohcd aa to the rif^bt to plant poles without the land-H 
ovmor^ (xin^ont, there is no doubt tbat tlic adjacent ovrner h^ 
rcdrcva againnt any au baton tial oljatruction of bi» right of acccst 
or iatorforence with bia enjoyment of ttio uso of tbo atroct in 
conni^ion with hia Itind.^ 'Vhh right of adjacoacy is not tbc 
Hgltt tbo o^nor has in comnnoQ with otbcni to complain of 
obstruction of tbe £treot to tbo iucouTenianco of ^neral trapcLi 
That is ;i matter over which tbo logftlatufo has control, and tb6 
remedy for an unlawful obatruclioa \& by indlctmont Tbo ob- 
atmcT.ion must bo ono which inU*rrttri.'» wiUi his enjoyment of 
hitlaml with rcferenoa to tbe street For thiKbc has a remedy 
by Injunclior, whether be owns the fee or not^ and bo Kai 
doubtless also a ri^mcdy at common law fur Uiu diMurbani 
huiCJLSQni(!iiU* 

% lOG. Irdarytotreeaalon^rtho rofLd^Ide.— Onaof tlio 
tomary rigbU of an owner of land upon a highway is to mntn- 
tain fehudc trees npon or orerhaDging the Bidcwalfc, subject to 
the frcouaeof tbo land forthopm-poaesof a airoct; and whether 
Auoh tixx^s may be trimmed or ereo cnt down uithout tbe cos- 




l Tiiiot T. Orvat Southern T*L Ca^ 
8D La Ann. ^U. 9 & lUp. SCI ^IbUTX 
a Am. HLQui £M. 

I B.CIftuaoa ± BomiTBrtidAsC^ r. 
IltaTd(TC.CiX<K.T.VuDruut,J.. 
tM4X la AflL EL Cu. SH (UOii^nhpti 

polM fiTt fttotta duuwftVTj: ZAhna 
V, MilvAokM BuL By, A U^U Ca 



OtdqU 6t Uy. Oo^GOITvk 031, 7IK 
W. Ec|x #7. 

*Am Q»y t. Uutiul UnfOD T«U(t 
Ca, la JIa App. iSTs I Am. El. Q*' 
^:n; Pofi>>Ui V. a A a Tci*«- ai. u 

Ma Apfh 4M: Julli Bulii|ir|- Asa^ 
V B«Jt T«l«p^ Ca, 1f3 lli^ £;e^ 1 AflL 
EL Cm SOL 



loej 



ftioiTTB cr AttETTiffa cymzKs. 



1S9 



•Mit of Uie Itml'Owiier For ihe jiurpoae of making way for a 
tol^nipb lino ^pppQclstosoinePXtoDtGponthequEstion whether 
Um nae of stKh line i« o^e of lln^ |iar|)o»9 for which a litrrct 
niaj properly be used wilhont coiiipenaatk*ii to tlie laod-ownep. 
If tlio Uit<L in the street may not bo taken for the purpose of 
pUntiDg the poles, tho trecA nmy not be cut in onlcr to mako 
room for tbc vrircs; but if, on t!io other hand^ the fitrMt nnfty 
be lacd for ft tck-graph Udo without tho consent cf the Lnnd- 
ovQ«r, tboc, adnoo tho right to maintain the troci is vubjeot 
to tho proper public nscs of tbc street, it ia Inwful to cut <^ 
«Tvn romove the tr<fc« if the proper coDj^trHClton of the Jino 
oikeBitiidceeBary. The rif^hx^ however, is limited to "Dthat Is 
niewiiy, uul tho Uilefp'apb company voold bo liable for 
wanton Injury to the tree*; and Ef the cnttfng wore not justi- 
Aed by tbe n<?^pssiti(?s of the tase, the Isnd-o^nor would have 
ft right of «cUon for consecitiuntinl injury to his hind, anJ for 
iojiiry t4j the troes tbemvelvec an appurtenant to bis land. In 
a case in niiaois^ alma^ly referred to. where it -kos held tbnt 
tfco t^lcgmph lino wiw a new use of Ih^- highway, Uio trimming 
of a hedge and of trees therein waa re^anled a& one of the aete 
by which the ngbU of the plaintiff were iiLfnn£;ed; and in a 
later oase, in Obio/ it was held the uae of post^roads for tolo- 
(trnph Imesvraasubjcctto all tho rights of tbo landowners, and 
tka( the trial judge wm right in charging the jury that the 
'^Und-owncr luid tho right to have tho trees retjiain an<l grow 
there frithool injury, whether each injury was noccaaary ornot 
to tho UM of tbe linos of the telegraph company.*' So also in 
MUaaJppI * it waaheAd tbatnuder a eututo empowering county 
booila of snpcrrisoffs to pennic telegraph companies to put up 
lki« In byways, they ac<)uired no power to permit tho ro- 
Borml of tree* or bmnche« atoni; fbe skle of the road.* 

On liut otbor hand, m tli** wii|ir«iiiii] ttourt of AZiLburnu. nml in 
tbe federal court In that stale/ it haa been held tha: irr^icpeet 

»B(»^ ol Tndft Tolfft, Ox T. Ibr^ 28 N. T. Supp IIS, 4 Am. EU C«a 

ML ICT IIL 607. t Ai>t, BL Cm 50& Bd4 (IMML 

1 ntll«7 r, Oblo, ni niitoflt 148, M I SnMth^m Bell 7»ler>i. Go. t. Fna- 

Lft.A.TVlCAm.ELOMl|0<l8Wk. o^ A Alloo, lOV Ala.SS4,« Ant. CL 

<Qa7T.pMUlTa«frCWbbCi>,W CtelSO,l0 8.n^I(l80lj;6an»T. 

Ik ttl 11 a l£«^6Ml i Abl el CcinBUuiio^. 01 Fwl Eep- 41* 4 Am. 



130 



ELfiCTKlO WTKKS IK ffTREICra A^tt nlt^HlVATtS^ [§ II 



178 of Iha quefition whether the t^lograpU Hoe is a navr bardca, 
and aBftamiap that the IsLnd-owo^r bolrls th^ f^ of tbe land to 
the middle of ibe street, his ownership of iha tnea Is sabord^ 
natd to ih© powers of the muaicipiJity in providittg for all 
[niblic nsea, and that ft t^lfgrnph <*om|utny nilting Irvr* nndt^ 
uiitQicipal direction is not Itnble in tii^sjuiM to tliti lund-owoer, 
although it might ho liable for luinecefiaujriDJuryantl farooa- 
si?queiitial ilainagis to the property. Tn th«c cus«« odc of tha 
wives was useil for the purpoMa of & Tuunioipal flr&ulami,' 

It ia geaeraJIy agreed^ however, that whether or not Ibo 
eleotrio compnny may out Uie tre<^3 so fur lui it may bo nooet- 
aary for tbe proper oonatruction of tho line, yet it la liable in 
damap^ of even on indictment for ncineccd^ry or wanton in- 
Jary to tba shade ivt^:^ aEoog the roadside. It wpa »o held in 
Lomsiana, vrhete shade trees are of special value, in a case where 
two One ma^DoluhE overhangJog a sidcwAtk wore badly miiti- 
latdd;' and in other oasee in itatetwhera the olimate is colder, 
dama^^r and even punitive daniing^, have be«a allowed far 
reoklea^ ucd uncecossury iujury U> th^ tn^frs, ami t!ie companies 
have been held liable for tbe aots of their servanU ia this Ina^ 
tOFj even though don^ uidisob.iiliunue toordera.' In Cooneoti- 



1 In tfew Sertfij the aamo principle 
wu ni»Li]ii->il ui tbe eMst of aq aloo 

Tra,otJou C<^ 57 y. J, L. m 31 AU. 
OeCk «eOL fi AoL El Cai. SOI <169&). 
The court tatS: "Thtt hoiuch* of 
tT««i that i*«ro trfnuD»d ovorhiuiif 
th« «trvoti atbj wt>ro nubj^ot to r» 
muTttl by tlM niunJcipaT uutbutiliett 
whencTOr tha publla oxt^nc^y or 
ooaToat«Dc« rvqnirod it. TJto oitjr 
bfti ooitfoirei on tha 4<if«iiJAnt tbo 
r%h1 to oxt-Aud iti v(ns in ihn iiciis.1 
mod« aloas tt« 4tT««l«; luid m^d au- 
ihodtj luTolTcd bf Implioatioa tbo 
tsompctoDCf to do whfttaTer ww rwb- 
ion^bly tunkiuftrjr to offset Ilk* oad 
la vtow; but o& th« oUior bond, It 
i*iM held fn ftaotbtc oiw UuiC the 
Iffuit b) Iba DUkT-trfn rsflffaf moq- 
pftjojr ta tiot lp«L>/(iel9 a giBEt of the 
ri^bt of tho lovnAhlp to th« troM la 



towntililp of ita pov«T to conlrol tbe 
company wLlh napeot lo tbe iBittOC 
th^tTM*. CoiuoliiUtedTmotioiiOok 
v,Eitoi Onager a»AtLfoiL ecu b 
h>vYorlE U WM bddttettbe pa> 
(utisloD girea to m olortrlo riLtlvii^ 
cotnpanf Co ooutntot iu luM> ui tho 
slroet wa« no def ocuo to 4a Boiioa oC 
lr«ipu» by tbe hatd-vwnmt for oD^ 
tmgthotha'l* trooa gro vtnj ook tlso 
aidQvnLlk, UoCmJea y. Rooberte* 
R7^Co^2A*L Y. dapik 1130, 4 Aflk 
ELDH£34{ieM}. 

■Ttvot V. Qreat Southera Tdif. 
&Tdepb. 0&.3a U. AfiDw «Mia & 

Boil atiL 3 Am. n. Cte «ae o^^^ 

■ Qortisia V, £00 CbMlAT fiWoC 
Ox,iXt Bua, VM, «] Zr. Y Svpih !«; 
3 Ata £3. Q» in (1$»V; HoTt t. 
8^ tffiw Rr^ Tetf-pfL Co, eo Ge&ftt 
»ttS; So. EWI inicph. C^ T. Pna«^ 
& All«D. 10 6. Bei^ t. C Ab £L Oi& 
144; FwbiQ r, CumbeiUad IWeg. A 



S 106.3 



KIOHTS 07 IDUmSO OWSTCBS. 



131 



CQti when the statute giving pcrmifisioti to a telephone companr 
to eve the highwftV imposes the condittcn tlmt it stall not in- 
jure ftny trees irithoat the consent of ih& owner, it faaa been 
that tbe adoctmcc cannot give Authority to cut tho trcc^ 
Uuti the iKCCWty for cutting thorn doe« not justify tbe 
aot aa against tbe owner; * and in Canada, nnd^r such a statute, 
it baa been h«ld that an actL^tn mi*^ht tio mrifntaincd in tho 
abe6ikc« of anything to rebut tbe presumption of the owner- 
ahip to the middle of the str^t. or to show tbitt tbo street vrna 
laid out befon^ the psifi^^ig'* of any expropriation act;' and 
where tlw statute provided Uiat the telegraph company must 
■otcnttlown or mutilate any HhaHrt trers unlo^u it hIkiuIiI bn 
vnoencnry, a pW Uiat Uirt ctim[>any thought it nect^ssary waa 
hald to be insufficient The court said the defendant must al- 
li^ and pTr>Tc thi> nrocwity of the act complained of,' If tho 
a^Dt of the company, acting under orders to cut snch trees as 
nay be neoeamy, mnke an error of judgment and cut trvcs 
«faich be baa no right to out, it hoe been hold that the company 
11 liable because the act' of the agent ia done in Uie courgo of 
hia employmonL* 



TtdifAL Ox, H Toiut eftl ft Am ^ 
Cte SOS (180»>; Portal ToL Ca f. 

I Am- EL Ohl lar, tioto; Puvtal Tbk& 

Oa, as Oaiuk. 5». ^4 AiL »«p. IS9, 
IJa.KLCeal9«(]vasx 

Ca«BCkiuila8u{jLCt.B«|;.?7a 
lOflcartM V. Doml&inn Tnt^ff. Ca, 

a dDfhn4a«b S93v &airD>ed i^ Suph 

OLefCteiad^a ADLEl.CB^2ffiL»ota. 

A gnat of a rijibt of «m7 for a 

tali|lMBe li»e om ft Mf««l does not 

thd ilabt U> outer pnTal« 



property uul cut the Umbn of tmu 

iLltLough tho Imibi projcHM oTor tba 
p<:ivompint< Momphid BoU Tokph. 
Ok t. Bunt. Ift Lea (Tcon.\ <W. jT 
AtiL Itcp. :e37. 

• WoM. Uaioa ToIe& Ca v. SatUf^ 
flotd.&lllL Apfv 380, C Am. CL Ciu. i*^ 
(iSMl. A Ltnniuan(3iilUn;tror4UDdr.r 
OT^an Is &o( ?uLUr of maUekxa 
mlteluafl Cvniruonwoftlth T.Bmlth 
{V9,\ e -Uo, EL Om. ICJ. note CI88U 
A f lAjthAn* rompAnj, In putting up 
ft pc>1« 1& a place da«igiiai«d by tlio 
i&ftjor> out n br>^« La an svaiojCt ftuJ 
it ww» lieM 1UU« tu iJttiuftjCH); bul 
Dutcx^nifilaryiJHiiiugiM, i£da^4^ 
& Tvtcrplk Cr>. T. KcoBOdj-, 60 Ta& 



CHAPTER IS- 



Bianrs or abuttlno owsEns— electriguoht wiws. 

$107* In t1«w of tli« parpoM) oftlift usf, elect rff-ligkt 
irlres itiAf ht anilogous to gia plpe^ rather than to tde- 
graph lines,— Pintle the purpijse for which the wires ar« nax! 
is an impc^rt^ntelcmentm tbo decision of lli^qncstiocwhclW 
tliey are a legitimate gso of the ^tr^clfl, it it obrioDs tliat tbc 
dGcisicna in regard to the telegraph and tcIcfrhoDO maj 
Apj>ly to tbe poles and nirea for electric lighting. Tho 
Tua/ be the aa!tie and the wires vo^y be more dangeroua, and 
jot tho purpoac of the use may be such aa to bring tbo ckctn^ 
light vrircB pluinly within tho necessary osea of a fitroot, i?faUe 
tho telegraph and the tolcphone may remain entirely ootddoof 
tho tiAca ^bicb the courta allow to he proper 

Eloctriu-iight vrirce are, liko gas pipes, a meana of fnmisbiDg 
light from a central source ol supply, And whether they ar« 
earriMl in tubes under the street) or strung on poles overhead, 
it would aeem that their l^^al relationa to the ttreeta and hi^- 
ways must be antilogous to those of gas pipes, and that U ii 
safe to refer to iho hw governing gas pipe* fi>r tho principle! 
appHcjjblg lo the electric-Iigbt wires. It would aeem to be 
clear that thv rights of the abutting on-ner mast bo the same 
with roApeot to one aji to the other, ami that if tho i^iyingagai 
pi)>o in a city etroet or country highway is or Is not an addi- 
tional ^>r\]tudti on hist land, Lhti samo would hn tnio of laying 
a tube for electrtc-Iigbt wires, or placing post» in tlte ground 
for carrying tijo wires ovrrhcad. 

Thcro is, indeed, a difTE:n.'nc« bctwwn pipes underground, 
whetbor for gas or electricity, and poatai and wires above th# 
surface^ tn that the latter aro to some oxteiit an obatnicdoa of 
the street; but tho obstructioQ of a street is a pubLio istjaiy, 
and aifects private rights only so far as it affects the right of 
ingrcifis and egress, and the use ol tho street in conoectsoo witb 
the adjoining land. If the public a«thoritie« allow the obstroc- 
Uon^ tho Uod-onrncr has no right to complain unleas it dimin- 



1 



% 108.] Bioim or abcttino owxkss. 133 

kh^ Ul6 beoeSts coofcrr^ on Iua lend by the oponing of tbe 
street If tbe value of bis adjoinia^ land is a^octod, bo is on- 
titled to coiDpeBsatioa for tbo obstrtictioa; but so far otbb 
ri^bt is buod Ofioa bia oiTnersbip of tbo soil ia tbo dtroet, tbero 
is ito differeooe between a tubo under;;roaod and posts and wires 
f&amlaboroth«8Urtttc«;&iidif lbisnghtdcpon(Ua|ioa wh(;ther 
or not tber« b & pcrT<^nloii of the luei of a srlroet, thero is & 
cJoso uukigy, IS I bare said, between gas pipes and tubes or 
ontrhead wires for etoctnc lighting. 

g IM. Wbether goN pl|>«4 may be laid In cnantrj roads or 
citj' streets without troiiippibiattciii- — Lt baa bet^n beld by the 
ooort of AppoaU of Now y«rk * t;jat a gjw (^ompnny b:ui no right 
lo hiyiloviii u inaiii liimurgjift pipo in a countrv bighwa^' vitb- 
out tbe coTuent of Um owner of an adjoining fann or compcn* 
a&tioa made to biin. Sucb a uso of the street, the court jtaid, 
would int«rft:rc vitb tbe soil and freobold to a greater extent 
tban was ever conteanplated wbcD tbo land waa takcm for tbo 
onlinarj purposes of a bighw&y, but tho court cooocded Umt 
there might be a d intinction in ilvji riupoot bctwooa tbe street 

a oitj and a highway in tbe country. 

With regsurd to cities, Judge Dillon, in his work on Municipal 
LtiODs, says it seems to him to Ije clear tbat the use of 
Btreeta nndor legislative or mnmoipal Aaoction Eor the pur- 
poto of laying down gas pipes or otb<^r pipoe for tbe purpose of 
■Ofvplyiag tbe city and its inbabit^aU witb li^ht ia a legitimate 
QBO of tbe Btroots, for which the abutting; ownor is not entitled 
10 0ODip«>nsiiLfon. *■ Suclt,^ bif wiys, so far us hu known, *' £s tbe 
general underatandiog of the public »nd th& profeflaion." * 

So aUo Mr, fjewig, in hif; work un Fnnn^nt T>^"nam (§ 120)» 
sayn: ^^Gax in not, Wkti ysnitrj Tt iwrvTadiy, In tbe »mwi of Ix^iog 
ali»o1ui«ly indlHpeiksable, but it t^a become a practical necessity 
in all orb&n cotnmnniiies, Tbo right Lo lay gas pip^^s in the 

■BLxmifbkM A R. HiL GwL Coi r, Co. BS T» J, Q, Hl 43; QuncQ t, 

CUk&i^ aa N. Y. SSS llSiaX ClurluwoHh, IS if. K 1013; Qniwn 

Ift EsLgluid It hM bMD hal4 Uiat t, Tntlc* S Cox Cr. Com. !B0; Tborop- 

SMirfpanuinolbttlkiJinahlvLriiuy h^ w 3urHli>rUiQjl Oa» Ca. L. IL 3 

vltbTOl »xtir*» \0glalMin ^nrn-m. Rv. niv, 4?9, %w IVutnii t. Kirhnnl* 

B^fu T. Shdlftld Qu Co^ (Ct of «Cii), 13 Alkft, U^ Ms per Umj. J. 

4.II. Jvi>» 4. l'H''^\ S2 Bojc. Uw & «DUlon^HuE.Oori^(«Utt<i]kMQ>. 

Cf].3O0: OftlLmiUiT.jLiiftoiifMBBU no«a. 8ee abo EtIkM os Bu>^ ftul 

Xpf. Ck^ ri; O^ r. Sbl0«£d Gft« Straou, p^ 305. 




m 



Ki.K<muo WIRES rar arsKm jlhu uwhwaya, [§ 10! 






Gticcte of citicE and Tillng^s has ncTorbooa qiuvtioned, but 
often Indirootl^ r«oeiv«d judiokl flanetioiL Bat a coocLlry higl>- 
WAJ cannot bo hsihI for tht^ purpose of conveyin;^ njiturul gu 
to & distUQt city. TLis is ;in additional bur«lun for wMoh cam- 
ponsQtEon most be TDnde." 

Mr I>eivis refers to cases ^ an't process to make wn u 
tiDC of tbe principle ho os to incluilft wiivs for rU'i.^trir lig 
Heaaya: "Within the prindple of tbe foregoing caa«« ivonld 
be tha laying of pipes in the streete For the pLiqxwe of conduct- 
ing nnd digtrilnjting g^s or 5U?atii for lie^iting, or tbe Uying of 
Btkbterr^ne^n cables or wires for soppEyin^ electricity, eitlier 
for lighting or other general use* So, poles may bo wt ud 
vires fitruDg in a street for the purpose of lighting tJio oamo 
witb electric light, or operating o. fire-arm, or aiding tbo po- 
lice acmcc."' 

§ iW. Distinction between nrbun nnd rural easomentfl.' 
Tboro 18 certainly a di^croneo with respect to tho naes to vbiok- 
th«j would ordtnorilj bo put between <^ty elreoU and country 
loadr *'With rofQreneeto theLittor,'^ JadgoX>iUoaeiji,'*all 
tbo public roqnires is the easemant of passa;-^ and ita incidonta; 
, * . but with rca}Wct i*> $tr^^U vnpopuitf'Mpi*)^^^ public 
Ten!ence re^oirea mor^ than tbe right to puss over and 
_theTn-"* With the rapid growth of population around tbo 

tiea, it is not alwayis easy to dittinguiali botwecn city atree 
'ihnd country roadit. Suhm-lmn road.4 ^toon ret^iiim ihe conren* 
iencesof cil.y str&ets; and aselectriG vfireA are noi> often CArri 



1 




1 The cue< <Tit«(l nn Story v, K Y« 
Elirr, a B. Co,» IN) N, Y„ »t p. lei; 
WwitT»RuiDrofU83Vt.3n] Thump- 
Idtif v^ HodjOBcm. 3 Elun. tltt: qti4» 
tkiDod bi Boston V, Biohordik IS 
▲lloQ, 144, 100. Abo u to DAtunU 
gna la ft Aountr^ highvay^ lliootu. 
ttl^ ot«. QiwL Co. T. CftlkiDH a» tf^ V. 
8^; a €U 1 llomp. & Cook, aiL.a«»; 
Sl«rtina?a Ah>m1. UJ Pn- 8l «& 

■Tlitt prcJabty rofon to •ImiiIo 
fCir«r; boB ft wouU •eont U> lAotttd<» 
iba telaptioooi whicli b uuv »> g«iiftr- 
aiijQKd 

■Lowit'EnxDodL, gia(X Thttame^ 
cHei in min^ort of thi* pftraicrAi^ &r« 



:m 



^ 97^; Peopio T. TboRiptoii, B) 
Pi- 407. 8ooniboob»eTTpiioQm«o Um 
pom^rof munidpciUtics tognuitals^ 
trl<vtJf;1it c^mpar)i« tho Ttgbt to 
tho Btr^ctvh mipnx elk II, g 
tlto OMM tboro citod, 

4 All ta tho dtetiAcUoo 
tifban lUtd solioitaD aorrltudM 
rcfcroaco to tb« luo of tlw Hreela, Mv 
EUlott oa Boiulfl uil Slrwl^ cIl la; 
Atig»U on Hishnjt (Id «<LJ> g aL#; 
Ecu V. An- Tokph. Jfc 'DMefi. CiH. lil 
N. T laia AIU.EL 0>a ML perfWifc. 
tiAiD* J,; PaJawr v, lAiebmooc Eloiy 
trie Ca (K, T.}, e Apfh Uiv. IfllftAA. 
ELOu 1^ 

MDiU MoiwCo^ utfaodjL |aa& 





S wo-] 



mt«ffn or ^sirmvo owveiuu 



3» 



wber^tlierearoftofev ho1)XMd]itlt}l^ light is notncedodalon^ 
the line of the atrvel, h is huriJly nec^^ari^ U> dtjolde whether 
tliry vrn»Ul bif &□ adilittonal Kcrvitudd upon the Und in such & 
c:AV. XL lit pratty Kaf«! 1o aiy thiit, if Uic- jhiW uml tvirrx nmy 
he used in d^Btreeta irilbout com|>t^i:iHutloR, thej^ m^y \w UAed 
in iho wmo w*y whcreTcr they are needed for the same rea- 
nOQ; ftnd, on the oih«r h&nd, tbey mi^-ht well bo oillrd ;l]i nd* 
djtiooal bardea if tbo road were merely u»ed as a conYenient 
line for cztcadiDg the i^ircs from one town to aJiotJicr. so that 
th« wires oaniaoi bo said lo bo intended for the tuio of tho^o 
who tmvol tipoa or live beside the road.* 

Ia a crso in Pcnmylrania where polca and wires wore set &p 
aloBg a mral highway for the purpoAc, it nrould seem, of light- 
ing privftt© btiildiiifCST it vra£ held by a local court in IS&ii * that 
an injunction must be issued unless compon&aticn woro mado 
to the abnttlDg land-owners. A dietinction was talcon botwoen 
tUg cu« and that of the electric railway on the ^ound that 
tliQ lattar waa in furtbemntfe oE tlie uiic of tlic highwuy for 
pobliG travel, irhilo the oso which an «leclrii>Iighi compny 
makotof a highway hns no ccmnection with th« purposes of a 
paUIo road, and it vi-ut llirmil nLil]i\r Ui thi? r^sL* of a g;iir|n|iu 
carrying natarnl gas from a wt^ll toaciiyKOme irilt^awjty/Jn 
which it wflA held that com ponsition mnst be Euade to the land* 
owner. 

{llOt Pfpea or poles and wires for lighting the HtreeU 
kvmfptr use wherever thuy nr© needed for that purpose,— 
baeeua to bo well ^tllcd that wherever a load government, 
whether it be a villa^, a borough or a city, haa power, with 
authority from the le^slataro, to provide for lighting the 
tfioeti, and either to lay down ^aa pipea or set np pole« with 
el«ctnc wires for that parpos^, an abn^ting land owner ia not 
«DtlU«d to compensation for tiio mero uso of the soil, or for 



lit bw ba*n dArliUd ht Iitdluifl 
Ibat ppw tar coorvjlDj; Battira) i:n« 
la fnol fatxB U>9 nctl* to & town 
naooc hm I»li1 fn » iitborhaB hfgb- 
9KJ wUKoiit compcuMtScv made (o 
Vm atiultUiit owTjFL Ei& Aid t. Ind 
Bat Oat €a (tSMti 131 lu*l IIZ i{t 
Aa BL Si^ Hi, a K Ft A. ««t a 
aik 1. J. 30«l U N. & Rep. 105^ e 



g i*». ^ WO. 

Dftii, IS P^ Ca CI. R«p.«0(t«Atn. 
ELCkallfi. 

> Bt«rlmK^ Appeal. Ill Pa Sk 40; 
MoDmU r, rnirbi r^at. Gm Cil, 

leuPa St m,3fiLAtiu«p.iwL 



13e 



BLSCTBic; vi&BS ss trB&Bts Ass> niQnvrATi. [§ 111* 



anything except injary to bia easamoot, or dimagos nrisiii^ 
irom negligent con^tructioiL^ 

§111. Ca.^A. — In JitJiftJum u, Thofnjmt-ITo^uil&n €t>.^ it was 
held that where a village has by law tbo control of ^trccU, the 
villugc may autboriio the crcsction of poloA thcrcia for the piu^ 
posu of li^'hting the struts, and ihat the i'ACi tliat a pole ia also 
used for private purposes doca not cntitlo tho Laod-ovrncr to 
have it removed, ao long a« it is rco^nably DCCttsftry and 
propcT for tti<^ publio sctvloo. On the other hand, in a caw in 
Ohio, where the pallio purposo of tho light decs not appear to 
bavo been invoWcdi it W3« held Uiat, ovun tlioui;h tbo fee of 
tho land bo in tho pablio, tho city eannot, urithout obtaining 
tho consent of an abuttmj* owner, authorize an clectrio4ight- 
Ing cotupuny to plunt sl ]m>!o In front of hU land > 

Jud^ Haigbt, of the Kew York superior eourt, in 1883,* de- 
clined to interferd with pol^s and \nirQs put up lb the stT«et> 
of Kew York under an onliaaiiue aiiUiomed by iJio legiala 
It was objected that the statute waa u agonal ttudonnl 



I T«iir*« <in Fm. Dem., % 139; S WU 

For cB floa. ia rej^mrd to £00 pipes m 
0trvt?U> Kv Milhuu v. ^buqi. 1^ BarU 
aiO: Norwich GojlJ^lit Co. v. Nor- 
wioh Citr Cu C1^H ^ Conix. 10 f ISSft) 

Ufltrap, GasL Uq., 12 How, Pr. tW. 

Plptm for <vjiiT«7iD^ nntunU gn* 
Hotter ft oauDtvy ruft<Iw&y ar« on 
sdJiLfotaaL MTTiluile. St«rlina** Ap- 
peal, III P&8L a5; Kiuc^iJ v. Ind. 
NftL OmCa. I£1 Incl fiTT {laWX M 

N. e. lit^jp. 1006, 8 L IL A. 40% 8 Rr- 
A Oorp- L J.. C13. 4^ AIU L. J. SOdL 
Espeolalljr ir thr? plpm Arv u-B-tl for 

fuel 0M at diriinguiibfri from light- 
hii& Webb V. Ohio Cm Fool Co,, 16 
OUb Wwk. Bull 13L Bui ia Uik 
<Eu» H tt&9 boU Ih&t if tho lAui- 
otvnw does not owtt th« f c« in ttc 
auvct he k tiot r&tlltod U ^uuoat* 

Injaa^tQu gno-Ud to fsnore 
water pipes taid in » Llfihiroiy ivlUt- 




I. R 9 Ch. App, 931. 

TX. y, SuppTiaawo), 

Mc, U BuilDtiD (Uai^lDCKLl). €^ 1 

EL CkL 4ea. TU l^nled 
gum (hat U fiol0« eould Iw 
thay migbt b« pni up no rs to t>« lika 
a picltol f«so«; bot Ihuiiuoetiaa va« 
tiol wh«th«>r Ibe detait<Ianta bad a 
right I'T put up a p^rkM ronoc^buta 
talv^iph bIl1^ vrhicfk u a very £f* 
f «reDl tbia^ and U Uks poica w«a 
put toQ Dear tacBthen tbe laii4^>WMr 
vould haTv hda ivm*!^ Cor Ifijoiy to> 
till oaioiBiNtt of acccwk ltih«cov«U 
would bear io niinid llAt U;tfi luiS 
oB'nii!r hu b aftbMajitUl rl^hi ta 
altvct aa MrMit, tlwjr wo«ld not faata 
to troubJa ili«iiM«JvBt tn nmdi ovtf 
Lli rfgiiU Li iliA IftciJ aa landL 

«reopU ox r< Thc«n|MiB 1^ 
M(inu4, Co Bo«r. Pr. 407, t Am El 
Ch» OM; TulUu V. Bn»b EL lU. Ct^ 
ao N. r. Aifiar. U. iH (LBSjb 1 



1 



i nui 



nDdota cm Autrmsa owKEaa 



137 



it (lid not pmvidfi for compensation to ihi^ owners of aLutLing 
lasd. Ue said that Ump posts for ligbting the Btroota won 
»<lniittod to Ik a proper aso of them, nnd that ittwcmcd to 
hitn that planting; tfa« nccMSarj poles for be^rlnj; the wires 
that transmit the Gloctricity to the lamps wxis atnocg the pub- 
lic lifK^ to Vp'hich tho etrcctei mi^ht propisrly ha ilevol«J. 

Thodecision was approred in a cafie in tiio eamd eourt shortly 
aflvrmrdg^ and it was bold th&t tbo lighting of tho strot^ta wua 
a purpow not inecniiKUTrLt with tbe tru^t under ivhich tho city 
held UiGm, and that polos and wires niigh: properly be put tip 
in one street for tho purpose of lighting nnotljcr. 

Bat fn a lator case In tho «apr<.-mo eourt,' O^Gorman, J., at 
?tal t^rm took a distirclion between the lamp posis sod 
thn poh-s tisrd for mippdHiiig th<! wirtvi, iind granLntt an injtino 
Uon until It nhojld Im aw^rtairKMt ih&t they did not Enterfero 
with the access or light and air of the wl joining owner 

In anotbvr csao in the euprome court* a jimlimiaary Jnjuno 
taon was allowed to atand agaioat interTering >vith poles put 
in the streets of a vUlo^ to carry wire« for tho purpose of 

fbtiag a ncighlHJring riUage as well aw l\\c villa^ whcro they 
were^ tho eonaplamt allcfpnf- that the poles formed a part of a 
lino ncccasary for tbe tightio^ of thi? Intt^rr vilbgo undor a 
eontraet; and anoUmr deporlmont of tho aamo court, reforrin;; 
to this case, said: * '^Tho logialature mny authorize tbo uso of 
streets for othor purposo^ than trnTel, and electric lighting 

OIW of SQcb purposes/' And it was held that, in tho absence 

psooliar injury, no rights of tho land-owner weru' afToctod hj ' 
th^ oreetion of oinctrl&ligbi polos In a village street under law<* 
fni aathorlty, and not for merely private purposes. 

It has been held by the eotirt of n pprutls tlmt tim TranK|H>rUf 
ikiv Cnr|)iimLioa J^vr, MM^Uiins 60, 411, anthorUing cities, vil* 

'Tdtaaj f, V, 9b niuiaiF:*t£iiic Co* with peaiUng lliQ suit II vmalielil 



ST Umr- Ft. TX I AnL tl Cii (fifl, 

fll SS How. Pr: 407, 1 AiB. ElocL Cu, 

' ia«olH« OoMtr. C& V. UaSarrDse, 
$4 K Y, 8c Ri[>rv 430^ U N- T. Bupp. 
SM (l^lMk Tbm vr^a vvidsiua uX 
MOkorkj to put u[> xhtt poUs. Tlmy 
ImJ Ivan out dtwtt hoUa% sad tbwv 
ttia Js&ger vi tboir boins iolerfonxl 



Uist poliA en*otoJ Tor i>1ei;trio Itjch^ 
In^ in s h{ghiv«7 ovinot fc« Iswfullf 
cut dowa hf a pHvnte pofsoa •• a 
DiUianivt otatiuctlDg Uio hifthwaj, 
OTM) tbou^h they misbt b« sSstod 
by Afit^ciD. 

' Oowtwaw*' Qw dC E]«-. Usli Ok 
w. Con^rmi Qfuliig C^. SI Hum, ISH 
5 ASL Et Csfl. 211 U»V1> 



I 



lAgis und toTms to gmnt to electrio-ligbt 43ompanic« the right 
to erect poles and wires In thd ftlreet^ in tmch nunncrr lu tlic 
municipal authorities mjiy <leterinme, for the purpooe of U^hl- 
ing the streets, noil fDraJKhmg light, heHt and power to pabUo 
8Qt] private huihlin^ ia not a^ingt puhlia |]olu^j, «iiK« «I1 
nbuttiEig oirners Aoxq in the bencfii* of the improTemfiDt vUoli 
jmposc^s the bonlen on the streets.^ 

Yice-Chjbncellor Yan Fleet of Ifew Jeiscj, in a com alrendj 
referred to,' speaking of the poles set up in the middla of Uio 
etroctfor nn elcetric rail irAy, some or which were also osodfcr 
lighting tho Qtroet^ said thcro could be no doubt that orectiOQl 
can be LuwfuUy made in the stxecte for the purpose of lightiag 
tbom, and that this cso of the poles and wires would ti^gaim 
tboir erection. 

In MonLuia ibo sapreme eoart' in 1S95, citing tJus chaptor 
in the first edition of this book and refening to tbo o&tei then 
cit«df held tbat poks and wires put up for the pnrpopo of Ugbt- 
ing the streets of a city were within the servitudes of a uiy 
Btj^«t, and eould be aet up without conipeoBation lo the abvi- 
ting owDf^rs, unless thtjtri! were some subfitunlial intcrferenco 
with the access to llie land. 

g 113. In thfire adiAtinctton brtwrrn wires ti*ied nolelf for 
pQbllc lighting and tho»en»ed far private bulldin^n alsoT— 
&Oine of these cases seem to suggest that there roaj he a difTcr* 
ence between wiree nsod for the pohlic piarpoee of lighUng a 
city^ and wires used for some other purpose. 

Thore ia a casd in New York in which this distioctioa is 
taken. The charter of an clcctnc-Ughtang company gave it 
power to furnish light to the city eorpor^ktton for tbo stxeots, 
und also to individuals for li^tin;? private houeeSf and ibo ootut 
said the former might involve a public and ordinary use of the 

iPhhnr^r t. Ltrolimotit El'K'Irto of (he etreeto for «l«ctrfe llgWa^ 



4 



I 



(\B99)i reTflTBUijc Apt^ D\t. IS, 30 BtuiJi It^Kvt^ SSI* flU (IST^ 

*llalH^ r. liipfd Tnmtit Rj- Co. To^m and vires facBot b« raa 

47 N. J. Eq. 3Sai eh. U, g SI. blc«^ a pn^ato oll^ for the bcosit 

*LocbAr T^Dti<toGeii.Blectric]Cai of oae kud'Ovnur Tithoattk* e«n- 

10 UqdL I, a Am, £L Qu. IMI vint nf tho otb«a CarpBctttr ▼. Ou- 

For a disotwofi Of th« grounds of p«auc, 178 ilL 31; S3 X £i Htf^ S7S 

fippcaitioa ef laailownon £o Clio um <lfl09|i 




% U3.] 



BIGHTS GF ABrrntffo owniss. 



139 



ptnettf, wtiile the latter would involve ft priviitc ofic; and It vam 

|held thai the company uiiflt sbow tiifit the pole in quefltlon 

jTTAt iiM»narj- or highly ^onv^ni^nt for the public as wpU rw 

|thB private use, or i^laoAU tnjtJUcLiongmiit<<d ^loulil 1)6 allowed 

•lo stand." The distinctjoa, bovever, ia not made with reepeot 

to pipes for lighting bjr gM. It scorns to be now concodod that 

bOit J etroctd may be used for gait pipea without comperLStatlon to 

IftbttUtDg owners, whether it be for the purpose of eapplying 

^rato houses or for the purpose of ligbtin|f the Etrccta and 

ftmhlio places.* The pipes used for both purpoaeanro jc^^ntTaUy 

tbo samo; tho purposo is, in a aeofic, ncccasary atd gDOcral^ and 

tho Btreots are the most convcaicnt it not ibc only means of 

jkcoeoB. Tbe ame oonditioos apply to the cleotriolighti the 

ly dlff^rvnco is in the additJon&L poles require for carrying 

be wirv», and it can bnrdly bo maintalnod tbat they make a 

lAoiieiico in pirincipl& If the pijrpose is a ^ public purpose for 

hieh tho Bireets nay bo u^k\ it wouUl st>om tKat conijH^n' 

Ion could not propurly be required for the mera oconpaUcoL 

f th« soil by ^ pol^ any moro than hy 3 gas pipe. 

f lis. IlablHty for attnnl iuKtrferfttre with rlghta and 

prif Uegcfi or adjaiteney to highway.— It doefttiot follow that 

^the land-owner ie without redress if polca be put op bo as to in- 

jterfcro with hi^ ncceas, or oven so as to ho inconvenient or un- 

a^htiy, or if wir«a be hung so as to be dangerous^ or so £ls to 

jprcTcnt rady accoaa in cose cf fira- The land-ovnicr has m 

rifht to the free uae of the highway for aocoKf and other pur- 

IKI8C6 relating to tbc pleasant enjoyment of bia land, and all 

Ihoae righU and prirtlcgcs are under tbc protoction of tfao 

«ourtB.* 



t 



iteTattto V. Dnuh Ul C<k, SOU, Y. 
B«r«-0ttS4 
^Ol IX I 1«i npnL Sm aIw 

tt»«t Uu ud EUctrlo Light tj Mo- 



nf clfal Cbrpomtkina 15f> Mubi StS. B 

Ia IL A. 487, with n(iU\ v>.nd Cronlu V, 
FUthiuh WaUj WarkA Co^ »f Uon, 

TTLCianj T. V. a IlluiutibAUiig Cch. 
67 Uow. Pr. m 





CHAPTER X. 
BIOHTS or ABOmNOOWN-EftS— THE ELECTRIC HAn-TTAT 

$111. Opposition to tbo introduction of tbD trollcf flfs- 
tcm,— Thu latest u^w of po!c« und wiro« in tho dtrcctd is U 
supply tUo motive power for cioctric railw&ye. Wires oxv 
strung not only nlong the atfvot, but ncross it also, and pol9 u« 
set along tho tide of Uio footpath, or eUo along tha miMk ji 
Uie stroot, Tbo cars run fast, and aro daiLjporoiis to tiio qu vnry, 
tbo wires Are ohargod with a diingorou^ currODt,aiid tbo polci 
disfififare thd alrocls. For Lhcso and otber reasona thore i^ 
ia many ciJiseSt vigorous oppcditton to tbo introdactioii of th« 
OTorhoaJ or troUoy ay&tem, und iliU oppo£ition i* sonioUinc* 
coa^o by or through the owni>rs of property alon;j Iho Une of 
tbe fitr^t. It is important, tborafore, bold for property ovik- 
8n and tbo railroad cooipanicit to know wbat uro tho rigbUof 
tbo o^vatirsi of abutting lund with r^poot to tbo placing at 
{K>leE anJ wir<« in tha streets for thg electric railway. 

g 115. Pot'uHar rif;liL:4ortho land.oiffnoni in the atroet,— 
Tbere ift no doubt that tlio lanJ-oivoer has a peculiar iiit«n<& 
in rifiiutEiining the nso of the street for the proper piirpoMV d 
a &tre4;tf aad that lie biisproporty riglttxin Lht- tiM? of thosUixft 
as anob in connection with his land. He baa tho rjglit of fi«* 
acccM to thft Etrt^et, ^nd the rif^ht to rts^ive light and airDp«i 
Lid Uiid from owr thd £(tre(;t, aud all tho advantages of owih 
ing land upon a public highway. Theao aro rigbU in tbe nal- 
ur« of an etLSfrmi^nt, ami belong to him a» owner of tJio land 
and not m4:rely ag a part of tbe public umu In addition to 
tboM rights tho abutting Und-owaor may huvo a title to tb* 
laud to tbv middle of the 3tivt;t. or, if the foo ia in tbo pabliOt 
it is bold in truat for atrcct purposes, ao thtit ba atill haa an ia- 
t6r<^t in pri>vGnting a pcrvorsion of tbo purpoftoa for whichit 
ivag tak«iL 

§ U6. Two 4|iiOfitfon4 tobft conaHerod — Bights ofwUfr- 
cernvv and perversion ort]iea»64ortho stro«t.— In iii<]niring, 
therefore^ whotbt^r the landowner id cntitLod to coropcDsatioa 



'.] BIOBTS OP ABtmiNO OWNIUtS, JU 

for tlio lue of the Atre«^te for t]:e electrics r^IlwAj, Uicre ar« two 
cjuestloDs U> be oon&idercd : firsts whether be suffers injury 
intb i!t«peot to hix rigbU in the ii» of Iho street as owner of 
tlM abutting land; and Bccondly, irhctbcr tlie new nao is an 
ftdditioiu] aerntado npon Iho land in the atroet ovmod hy Mm^ 

a Tiolation o{ tbc trust upon which tJic land ia held by ti>o 
ilio for tho pnrpoftcfl of a etroot. 

Wttb reepect to the first point thoro i^ first, a qne^ion of 
fact irhe^.hcr th<rro U jn this cafto, n£ it m bol<l there u in Iho 
OM of elevated railroadj^Jictiial damagelD the wayof interfer* 
«9oe with acceesand li^ht and air; and socondly, a perv^moo 
of Qsa by wbicb the owm^r is dirpnvvd of «oino of Uiv udvan- 
ta^as of hU adjacency to a public street; and with respect to 
tJho second pointy the qtieslLon is also whether there i£ a per- 
Tvmion of tbo iw? ur suth & ritw u^o tut m either auu lo ittiposo 
a new itervltude upon the land, or to violate the tniaC upon 
wh»c.h th^o land is held by tho public. 

Tlicco distinctions having Ijern porntod oat, wo may rcficrvo 
IhaqncstiOD of actu&) damage and consider the queation of 
the change of nsic of the street with rcspoct lo tho ownorahip 
of Ibo land* and alao with respect to the right U> use tho street 
aaaatrcet 

$ 117. The decisions ndatfnfi; to the tetcfcraplL bare not 
determlDed the Jaw with ranpect to tbe electrle railway. — 
Judge UiUoo, in the last edition of hig book on Ifunicipoi Cor- 
porations,^ refers to a cuso in lUitxio Island, decided whilo hia 
boole waa in pv^tzf, in which it ^a^ held that iho erection of 
pol«8 m the streeta, with wires, for tbo pttq>0Be of profwlling 
atfwt eon by electricity, did not entttb Uie owner to compen- 
ntion.* Tbe ooun had di&tingnUhed thlt cum from thocg re- 
JaUag to tele^apb and telephone vires by uytng that tfaeao 
an not nwHl to fiK-ilitate tho iiiui of i\u; Htn^rts for :nvel and 
tnasportatiom, ^*wb>?ruaM the |h>]i-s ami win^^ at iXm railioad 
conpanyarvdirectlyaacillarytotbe uses of tJie street as sucfa^ 
■I Uut Otey c'Hiimutiu-itte the powrr by whic h ibo cafs are 
pTDpeLleil'' Jmlge l>iUon threw iliAcredit uj'uu thb dix;i«ion 

)| DOL Utta. Corfb, %'m, doU Ana URft CcmBn^-HwithnoH 



1« 



ELKcntic wicr^ m sTntrrs a^td bighvats. 



[ins. 



by suymg: "The distmctioa kst meotioin^ti is »> fine 04 to be 
aimoiit impalpable, and it suggests serious iloitbu whether both 
conclcisiDDs are sound and rE^concilnble. The general subject 
awaiU f urthi^r (lovelopment nml KrLtlemrnL'* TIiiKrrmArk wiu 
made in IS^, and the ambjeLt hlnce tbat tlm^ lias t(»eD Ta|>ti]ly 
dorelcpod and is govt nearly ecttted. The law hia followed 
cl«A6 Qpon the progro^ss of invention^ and vritfa the general ap- 
plication of ekctricity many of the courta have reacbed definite 
coikIusiod;) vnih respect to tho ri^htd of abutting onners. 
They have not alwiiyj inquired whether or net tbi^rc is & iO«ad 
diatmction botvroen tb« nae of tho street for tJio tel«crapti and 
the 050 of it for the milTray vnr€«, or n-hether both aliko 010 
proper lasee of a etreot. The eonelufiiontf tiave boon rt&ebcd 
rfipthor by eomparin^ the elootrio railway with the older forms 
of raJlway^and coasidorini; whether or not the oeo of the polev, 
wires and eleotrie motora made any ehange in the cbaraetcr 
of tho VS9 of the streets- 

§ 11$. Ifl the eleetrlr ratliray a new burden or a pener- 
alon of the iiHe«of the Ktreet — Comparliion with other rail* 
roiulA ou tho street. — Tho question i;^ whether the poles anil 
wires, and the street railw&yoperattHl by elecLrioity, <-ijnsljtnt0 
a new bunlen upon the land or a perversion of the tmo lun of 
a street^ so as to entitle the adjacent owjier to compezksatioB 
withOQb regard to actual damage*. 

The electrie rmlwaj,aanowgeD6ral]yikfied,u applied to 
same purposes and operated in tbo same nuumcr, with 
to the running and stopping of the ean, as the horec raUwaj. 
It is a street rwilway, or what is called a city pa^enger rail- 
way, operated with a new rootiro power, and with newapplt- 
aacea, but for the same purposes aa the old form of stnet 
railway. 

It seems probable that elcetridty will soon bo used to propel 
cars at a high rate of spoed, and on lines numing along cotintry 
road* tbe electric motor eren now tnUes tho plaeo of the steam 
dojumy, if not of the looomotiva, Qence, ft is ob^ons that the 
•lootrio railway ift analogous to otber railways and r«*0Dib1«« 
one or another kind aot^onling Ii.> tite usm to whicJk it la pQL 
It is important, therefore, tu inquint what has br<cn decided 
with reepect to o«e of the r-reeta by the older forms of nilwny, 
whedier one or another bos boon hold to be ao addidoikal worrU 



5 iw-l 



BIOBTa OF AJiUmSO OVNEBa. 



lis 



i^dtj and for wli^L r«a!ton. Wi^. may in ttiis vra^ obtain & ralo 
and a reoKin with respoct (o the rarious uses oC the att^eeta by 
Uic electric railimy. Tbc sabjoot has been fully discuiscd by 
tbfi text vrltcm, and I nt^ed only quote their coQcIiutons aind 
refer to tbo caaca. 

g 119* Hors« railroads ara (^cnoratly held to be a proper 
uwof tbefltreet Ini^o'iingnoiiovr burden — Dlssentlngopln- 
ioan.-- Thoro u a very gwoml agic^moat of a&thoritiee tbat 
the tiflo of a btreot for a hone railroad is a legittmato mo of it 
for pabtie travel ooiiBbt«til with the purpoaee for whiob it was 
laid cut, and do^ not impose a now burden apon th^ land. In 
many of the cider oaset a dislinc>ticti is made between cawa 
in wiuch the fee of the street ia in the abatter and thoao In 
which the f«e ia in the city; bat this distfnction is not now 
ganvniUy itpjiniTifil, and it vrfiimit t^j 1>o acce|tlpi^i] thut in tritlKT 
CMC a horae railroad autbori/t^d by statule is not Lncon£iat4^nt 
with the rightful nso of a atrcQt.* 



I BiDrhoMa r. P«E«rtOD B, B. B. 
Oci.n N. J. Er^ 15; BooDOUnp t. 
BuM^ n K. J. Pj^ SI: J«rwT Cltj A 

htkM a R a Co. eo N. J. E:q, «i; 

Patanoa A puscdc H. B. a a> t, 
PU««ooL U n. J, E^. l-'^8: w^ 
Jm^y & R Ox V, C>p« Hftf & 3. L 
a ft. Cb, »i N. J. Eq, lei; DrooU/a 
Qtf a a Co. T. Caaor lilMd a. R 
Oa.SS BarVsBU: F«ot>I» ' K«fT. 97 
H. Y. 186; Kolliii>cor v. rorbj«oooad 

m- MA a a Ol. SO K. Y. sM: ki- 
uou V- nuri»v«a A v«niriiia a a 

daamti a a Ga^ r. OtaDiB^UA*ill«. 14 
titfo m. OOa: HWX4V T, Rmnfel^ 

CUT a a o^ U4 k. v. 4:s^ ai k e. 

Rftli, IMS. 11 Anu 8UU B<rp. OTI; 
vaaaoU; Boban T^UIlvAukMCttr 

K a o>. fl7 wa ?M; athtcn ▼. 

CUntioa A Lf^Tiu IL a a Cob. 87 
knn, #1; Stanlflf t. Dibv«Bport» 34 
!»•«. 483: Staafi^ t. BPL a VmC 
t%baftw 8|n>c« a a 0»,U lovro, 
«•>. Bau> T. >lu»UAllU>«rB S-. R a 
Cb.«» lowft. TU; Eicbas t, Efa]i» 
«• BciMi a a Ikx, » lad. Ml: 



bott a a Ccx. 4a Gik 003 rbut lo 

GforgiA, «vh«re th« 4y)iTHt'lvtIoa (H< 
reotd tb&t prvpartj^ Bliiili not bo taken 
or d^maK^d wilhijxit compensnUou. 

an oL'iIri] muy bo njalnutDfut hj im 

Oivncr nhoso property ta dlkoan^ad by 
A fltroot reilvoj, evoa Chough it la 
oot a ooH ]iM> of tbo »liaa^ C^mpball 
V. MoL R!L&k,e3Ga.a30,aAK. 
Rap. 107H); Carton v. C«ntnl a a. 
Ca, SS Cut. £3Xi; Mnrlwl 13l a a Cbb 
V. C«iiittal a a Ca. r^l irnl \«3 : V^nah 
V. Hlvttnlde A Ar]|Dst<ui a U. U<x,&7 
C^ 5m, 35 Ptto. Il<Tp. 74A; ElrcvQ r. 
HupU^jtv U L«. Aim. e^?; TiJJk'ord 
T, B*IUmon\ i4l'\ R a Co, M Md, 
m; HiMtT. B<dUuiorv*«t4%RaCto., 
^H<i^43; GodKMr^BnlluiiumFtoa 
a a Ca,W Ud e03; BriinEs r. I^wifr 
tc« A Auburn a a C(>, 7C Mcl UtiH; 
AttorQer<}$aor&l r. Uct R a C<x, 

m it«HL 5ia< UDbuft ^, 3niwuiht« 

dij- a a Qk. !n Wla im. U Am, hl 
Jtcpt 'Wl. wiUi DOU: BoadftU ▼. Joci- 
BoaTiUe Sc. a tt. Cu. lU Fb- 40»; 
Qmod Kiptib A L a Oix T. H«lnt, 
3!rmcb.m; IV:ipUT.£'orlWftxaaA 



lU 



EUtCTKIO WIKKS i2i ^TKEKTS AND ntOHWATA. [g ll9i. 



Mr. Lewis, In his worh on Eminent Domain, says: ^ It tiai 
boon dot«nnined in sutcoroiis decision^ and without dsacnit, 
except in yow York, that tiic uae of tlw tlrcct by a Ijone rail* 
rc&d, coTutructcd nod operated in the ordinary manntt^ falla 



R. T^. Ca, na Mich. ,-^33. A3 74. V. 
lJG«p. 1010: ChlOAtrO, il « <^ K. Cb. 

«. w<Ht Chicn^ St itj. Co* i» ni 

83S. 40 N. F. lipj^ lOOS: TrvItorJ v. 
CbVkcj bUnd £ K R. Co., 3V K Y. 
Qupp^ SO; Eiut Enil R R Col r, Dojto, 
63 T^mt Ttri3 & W. Rep. Q3a; N. a 
R Ca V. O&nld^ 10 Kan. 35^: O, O. 
CL ft C G. R R Co. *. Irfimon. lOKiiQ. 
801; nmocT,A..T,&aF. RItOo., 

BmltK 40 Kad. !»i S5 Fnc Udp 6-iiI; 
BAflMfij Co. V. CujkCDdAhl, iS Eon. 
SSL ftnl otbnr Snimw rnww thAt« 
cH«d. Ifi KaTiHU, luiWAwr. II in ha|<| 
tbatft0to&m Aflroiul i« not&n«dUt 
.(kixmU burdtsa, itnJ tlmt the laa^ 
ovnor <<ADDol reoover ocjTjit)LViHftt{on 
Tirlew thora hM booa & pntcUca) ot^ 
etmctiom of the atrwtAnd ho b rirt* 
uidlj iJc|irivad of lumjob to liifl lami 
The f(4>orth<>1iLt]d intlioitrv^U ti in 
thopablia Thonuao bhfUkMi» 
NOUrL Porter v^ KAilnud Cix» 81} Ma 
128: ljLablAiiiv.i£AiiniftdOv.SIMa 
350; TaU t. lEaUNwl Co. 01 Ua 150; 
fi^dl« T. RnilTooji Cot 05 M<k 335; 
Bftflrooil Ox V, St I/iiiln. m Htl 23a 
SOOhlvi Ansall on Hkglivjtjn ^Sd 
el). Eg Ol-^ltff 2 Dia Mud. Ccrfx <4lh 
ed\ 8 T33 Rud iK^to; Lowb vu Eia 
BoB].. g mi anil riDto: hiillt on Rnx 
I>O(tL,SLS05;K]Iiotlon8tnK<U,n)'^3<^ 
DBS; Bwdolpli <m Em. I^ocuHlO?; 
liAwIt' Notu tx» TnK^iut T. Xevpurt 
8t R R Ca. I UwH Ann. Ani«r. R R 
ft Corp. l£o[k !ll^ 8aeh )iCiT«r<ir, OOtO 
on jApi &T. As totnuQvny^in fla^ 
linl kol Ihtt groatiila at oppCaUlOD 
by Frc«tA;^<fSbad nct^ IroDlaganv fco 
8 OlifT, ft RjcIi. Loniw SUibJi Aciiurlfb 
80. 1197; 1 aiff A Rli^ lOB: Rtcli ft 
lLchnol,34lL For r«if«r«tio»i to muny 
om* on 111* OM of iho itreetfl Tor 
laUnttd pafpooa^ SM uoCo Ui SUoloy 



T. t)AVftfipOTt> fl? Am. R«|k SM, ftlhd 

Tbwbftld r, Loolr^ tUn R R Co, 14 Atn. 
Huti4p.Z^i aridAl«OMil«loVcM>T. 
X«W|K>rC SL R. R Co.. 44 AnL ft tUtj^ 
RROmOI. KQt^rnn>««ttflilvBylfl 
If^d alotiftUio marRia of a 0id«^««Ue«> 
M Ic dioturb tbe cndei<adK>«« to b9 
In £mtI an olntmcCicni to iha cwbtoi^ 
ioTitikOiHsni to theoomplpitiui^e 1io<«ni 
compDOwUoci mnat b« madct Btitct 
Rr> T^ Cumimnsritto. H Ohio Hi. 3M; 
iULlvr&y Co. t. LAicnnCi^ 3V UUtf 
£L 41; Compboll v. UcL R R 
0& nsa 9 R P. BPE^ lOTIf L Vf LcU 
C R Ca T. Sm:th. 45 KbA. 
P»4X KopL 03Si ftlld KAOiU CAM! 

LAcklud r, lUtlnnd Ca.M lia ABO: 
Onad RupUa ft L R Ca r. HvM, 
SS Uiob B^c Nftobolfl t, Ano Arborft 
Y< St R R Cd, ^ Uich. VOU 

Id lh« folkrwinir ii*4«0 It fa>» bow 
held IhatBD otdinniy hon* luilrcal 
is &a ndditiovml burdoa ttpoa Ual 
taken for aCroet^ftod that Ib6« 
ii onUtJod to FotnpcimUloi^ 
t, l^liut«r City ft a R R Ok, tt 
K, Y. 10L tin tliU difC^uaHhv tha 
K«T cftHi^ jrufim, thm f« wm Id th* 
flbntUir) Thh^tald r. LoultvUhft. Oie. 
R R Cu., Oa M»i inft 14 Am. Gt*U 
Roti 004 {ttllh iiute); ImlnuupoluR 
A Vr. R R Ol T, mrtli>y,07 IIL «k 
Carlior cumb Ui 1I1i>oIs hvlJ 4ith«^ 
wido wheT« the foo W4» in tho put* 
ba TliD dfiitfnakHi b malotninvd 
intbitfCftM, lb*CMOwuft|ipr»m 
&a4 followed in BiunoCl v. Ikvd of 
TniU Tot(«. Ca, lO: la 007. 8«fi 
hoir^vor, WI^^DJi T. ew< HL Lwi* 
I'orr; Ca, tC? Ill, lAO. tlio Mm« db' 
tfnctlom h uisd* iti TtfwoMR^ Iron 
UnrmtalTt ROl. r. nrv^hUD. K7 Tmiu 
££^ 11 R Vi. R^ 70^; rji.<4 l^iU R R 
Co*T. DojJaSB T<i;a 717, (3 & W, 
Rep 081 6ai^ Ixntvtai; * Biwof 



120J 



viomv cr ABrmito owytu. 



115 



withia tho parposo for which strceU nre cr^ablishiHl, and, con- 
ae^DfintLj, that for any damage T«aittUDg from sach use to tbo 
abattlnf ovmcr le can rcccror do oompooaation, whether tho 
fM» b Id thfl public or nof * 

Hr. Lewts^ however^ goes on to s^y that in hU ovm opinion, 
although tbo dUrenmc^ between the ordinary horse railiray 
and tho ordinarj' ctc«m roiLvray la ohvioua, yet tho diff«rcaco 
ifl only one of degtoe. Tbe ««8enttal obanictorietio of both 
roods ifl Utat an ojLchuivo francbieci is granted in tho soil of Um 
■traot, and that if ibi) prinriplo of tho bono railroad cases ia 
aoBDd, thoa a itr^t may be so filled inch tracks as practically 
to ejcctodo all othr<r trarol and tralTic from tho vtniotft.' Tho 
law, howerer, Ik «etlled by tbo great weight of authority that 
tbe street railw&v is Dot in iu ^1f an additiooal bimloti, nnd the 
pTOTiso is tbntitsbjill liravo the land-owner tniv right of uMcof 
mnd ftcc>eai to hU land. 

Jad^ Oooley, in his work on Constitution a) Limitations 
' (S 688), mys: " Wlion bmd \n d^^dicat^xJ for a Htruvi, it b nn- 
^nestiooably appropriated for all the ordinary purpoMC of a 
itroet; notmorelyfor tho purposes for which such stroets were 
lonacriy applied, bat thOM demanded by now improrcmcnla 
k&d now wants. Among thcee purpoaca is tho nao of heary car- 
riagce wbioh mn upon a grooved tr-u^k; nnd the appropriation 
oC important «tree',A in Lar^c otttea for their nae is not only u, 
freqn^nt necessity which must bo snppoood to have been oon* 
torapUtod, but it is almoct as much a nuttUfr of coureo as tbo 
gtrnding and paTing/* 

Mr* AJigel^ Jndge DUlcn &nd Mr. MtUa roach tbe eame con* 
dudon.* 

§ 1% Steam rallmailH not within the proper uises of tho 
street — Rettfton^ ^iven for the diHiliietlon. — It is equally 
wM settled in mucct of tbe sub-st IluL tbo onliiiury 6U*um 
fftilrotu], as now conducted, is not witbin the purpotit«t for 

^^g^on tliftt t^ qoDvbhiD of wlic in&t» dm> of etnetflt 6 Ato. VL IL 
•»■§ Uui f«» la oJ llUk connqutfnce 
la EcguU ▼. FoctUna A T, a It 

<k. i» (ke«, sn. aa Fte. B«p. eK^ I 

ImlL H ConkSeihSi 
Ik Uvio* dmomim «l tbo teglti- 
10 



in&t» DMt of eineUk 
CoTTh R«p. )aa-w. 

iSm «tw tL« (ttnnitinjg- of>icJon of 
Eftrl J„ b Blory t. N«ir Y<vk EIct» 

E.RCa.«)Ky, i:»-ifla 

I Hdl> on Knj- Donx, I SOS: S DUL 
Han. Coqu t Tltt) Anfflll «a W^ 
wftj^Hgi-«t& 



lie 



BLDCrmiO WtBBS DT WTEom &3n> BionirAtt. [} ISOl 



wbsch m fttreet is dedicated, and does impooe an a4ditioml 
burden upon tbe obatting owner,' Tbe lUDe csiea irfakh 



lintfa t«BpBCt to ttmm mnwavv 
«• tnftT mfiM Ut E>rwfA on Rnv Duel, 
% 115 amJ noto, wlb«Tv th« cum am 
ooOeotodnd mwM^ bj- ftata wWt 
eiplustlovk 8e«a1w8|vta«MilT. 
Qanm. EItm B. IC. i Ctufa. OS: BUrr 
V. CwndM A AtL a R Co^ £4 N. J. 
L 3U; HUicbnuui t. P&UnaD Umt9 

R K. O)., n N. J. Eq. 73: jMwr air 

nobok«> IL a Co. » K. J E^ «J; 

Co. » y, J. Eq W:: Hitaer T. Rnpid 
Triomt St. Rr. Co. 47 S. X £.f. seOL 91 
AtL Bep. e:»; Tmi ikini« <r. Xcinuk 
PnH. IL fi. Col, ?1 AlL R«)l IOM. 4d 
S. J- Eq. 'Sli: fla Ajuthern It fi. Co. 
¥. BrowM. 23 Hft. IW : Gray i. St. Pavl 
A Pnc. ft. B-Co, U Mtna. 3^; Rcfcli- 
•rt T. Be. LouK 9Ul R. Ox. Al Art. 
401, II & W. BAp. «M, S L, L AAft. 
Ids, with itolm vitEcg EUftDf CMC*; 39 
Am. A Kng- R R Cjul *M; D- A R. 

T. tlAilnMLd i^L, 60 Ca iK% 10 Ptc 
EU-fhOlO; BuUl« V. CuTliqEk>£u Kjr., 
Ct, af AjipMhla, JftnuftTj II mm 10 S. 
W. Bflphe44: IMj-v. G«ovl«.«tc-R 
a Oa. 80 Ov T«^ 10 Am. QU B^|x 
&U> iMul roTi*: DtJL Muo, Cbrp, (4tli 
•1)* & TOl, :ui 7Di 7D4, TS3. Taa 7?i, 
«Dd CMH<ri(«l| L«vr«oo EoL Dom„ 

« «a«i FMa*i» »■ K«T, 3T >\ y. 1« 

|]StU43;{>14l£T. K^lt«u4Arr:(|y«RR 
a Co. 9d K Y. ItM (1^4); Kaiio^r 
T- F<iriy^i*con<l etc R R Co,. M S. Y, 
0>»: 3Uiry t. N, T, E^rr. R. R Co.,fO 
N. V- lEii IjiliT T. M4iL E1*T. R R 
Ce.. 101 N. Y. WW; iCfldfLU oa Buil- 

Wiai* V. rforthwnt^rtn A ». a R 

A»L« i:»5- R R tkn 70*; Cox t. U 
y. A. & C R>. CV « LiiL na 11874): 
TVIptil V. Kmi:* M In!, m 
Htm n^a A-iF»in* v. l1,.,m«,x B.* K 

K. Ctt (kwjx «« ii»fl- «7U^ 99 a, w. 




BflfiOca.! L.R A.m^ iritbDotM. 

Tba oDiin bald ihnt ui BlivtUnf 
omjtn baa m «M>Tn*nt mtbc »U«<lk 
i&4ep«iidflBt of Uu) Cc^ Aftd tfaM 4e^ 
pvirfag bin of IliU to any oaAeM. 
to ft tkhtng of privato fn^oporry. A 
atoua r^broAd w« boU OM to 
IROpec UM of A «iro«U atid tlio 

tbMt «o«^ cioofln«l toth« 

ot Ibo roftd ta frool of tb* 

tuid. Esj u iwt (v iiiidwdo diiiuac<a 

oomiiiOfi to the publki 

lUt dacaaSon wv Afllnucd In 
iMHua r. Ctiu»^ et Pftvl A kt R 
RCck, 43 MiEiiL Tl, 10 l^RA. M 

It vr49 bcU thatOie ftMetoeot fioo 
bojtnd tho ttUdle Una of tbft iumL 
Dhma^m ftom Kdio ntKl Jftrrto^ 
VNO aiEclaJod, bo?<u»o llioto doiM 
atfoct ibo omoiuut^ but U OcoUt^ 
■nn T. Sorani (Minn.! 5T S- W. Bfft 
lOHtltwv b«ld th*t tho loftod^vMi 
bod o riibt cf vlioD for tbo potbv 
iJon <ir tlio oir by Uii» vponttiuu oto 
rnUroiLl 

U loim ilbbddllttltfaot^U^ 
ttironiayauUioriae tbouopof iliwto 
far milnMufn witlirjut rrmprmoi»1fi« 
to tb« Hbullia^ r>Tt&un. <J3uttoD t^ 
Cf ^Tar RApids ft K R R Cu.24 tv«*. 
4^^. Tlisttottlta litorlilijk^fnrcAm* 
pMuotum do QOCop^ to AcoM niV 
wfty*. Tbo city oouxkoU nifty ootber 
ue tboH %'iihi>uL oowpPOMtioa 
Sav T. Hanfulltoini SL R R 0&, 
lU lowo. TU. Bui cciaimMtlQA 
iDutt bo Q:LOdo fvr actvol ihiigr 
done liy Uia ocouUiKllUB oii4 ogM» 
tJon of thB rood lo f ho Mtroot 8Uih 
Iffy *. Uorvoport, *4 Iowa. 408 Mntm 
donMny'; Drftdj t, Dn Hcdnm A li 
O. R Ox, fl7 InwA. 3US; StoagO Vb 
iVibnqu^ C« lowm 80$i TUnotd Vh 
Borlin^n A W. R G^ M lo«^ 
440; AVilaoa v. !>«» Uolnn^ a « A 



Qie bom railrottd to be wiUiin tiie proper uses of a sli^i^et 
Uiat the stsim nulrwtJ i» n^L.' Tlu^ txuLJson for Htc dia- 



ireo, 97 Tows, MO; McUmd v. CU- 
cftKOk I* ft O. IL Cx. 6T 1i>w^ fiOSL 

Thnm dm rjtjMt in wtitrh it in hfM 
tLot Uia <i|«>*r*fion cf a filWLiit riLll- 
ia»di if MIkvuMcI by ]&w tu»l mu- 
Hk^lpttl ftnaaat, iloM nrti rnikle Om 
biid4vii«r to oomp^QsihtioDH f^|1^' 
qHlly S( be iow net <mti tbo f«^ un- 
kBit pnotkaJly aUiuiKUili« Hlivot 
ft»4 tfofrivoa htm oif hli right of no- 
v*m, Tbi« iM iho wattM rrJo ia Kun 

U Kail Ui. i^ Pncv Hf^jc e2il: KkH- 

SI Fte lUfL mi. fttia «Mn dM. 
AI«o In UlMuiirL T^-klrinil r. H^U- 
fiMd Ca. M Uo. £W; Kairroibl Co. t. 
9^ Loai«» 14 Ho. 3?4; JulU Btutdiuff 
A«»'i:i r- Bell Wriibooe Cc^, S3 Mo. 
39^711. aD4l GUM olt«<l: Mi'i tl hrw 
b«*a oa hold Iq Cfelifomia, Mont 
Coawrj 7> Santa Aaa Jc W. R Ox 
itkLv *7 Pnc R#Ti TM, 23 U R A. 
Ml ItJ C»lfj V. Uwonbom ID Bunli 
nCf.X «& ilm held that buUdiag 
fta «« bwikintpt Id ili« mhldl* of ih* 
ttnat fof ft tnUrittvt Umtitif ft IOa- 
«iff*^ft7 tvita iiz to IlikUMi fo«t 
vUft fttf T«l!iicf««k i* no* aocb fta ftp- 
pnvpcialioo if Uw iiirMi ma Ci> gIv*^ 

, lftA4o«Mr* t. rlgliC of ftCli>[L f^ 
t. Ffon. a R Co.. N. J. 
CUf^bnUfy. 1^2. 1> N, J. I. 
J. » BMftlao Ai+i*ni: t. Wfi«i*llnH 
ft UarritilmTK R R. Cft, S3 W, V.x 
1, A U E. A. ffTh irtier^ it iru held 
Ibfttan ftbtrftlnj; onrnfr vm cot 0n- 
tl1l»4 to ftD InJoafTtion agKiiut ox- 
CftfvUftlCft Ml^r^^ f<»t ■ mJlrudduly 

iparft on prtiicr ildn far Iha 
pnrfKHwof «itrwt. Scoaolo 
Iftlfata m».*U R A,3n. liin«i* 
Y«rft tt U htUd Ltmt an Ahmif r wbn 

4om not nvn tha f«« bM fu> rlgliC of 

ftTlioi aiplrait n itiMm ntliyjit rnn 



puif IftvfuUj oc^upytDg ft pubUo 
MrvetfEi ftiidi H iimiiiiM- ha ooi ti> 
Hiaii^ tht> gmilf* nnr ]fit^rf«.Tf» with 
j>ul>]ic truvul; ttppr\iTiii|{ UnUco t, 
SuiIaiMi Rjvt:ir R R Co^ T DarU 508; 
FbbM r. R^rne, W. A Q R. fL Cow 111 
N. Y. Mi: K^nniTUC t. N- T, U E « 

w. i*r, Co,. viB N, y. 16:, 

IiL W»i Viij^iDla it hu booo lidd 
tbut iha owner of lonrb ttongft ftraet 
oa whioh o milrodd viu to be kii 
o^DQoi ohlafa aa tntuuovkm un!«A« 
tliB Injury vlU be »unh n« antlroly Xf% 
do«troy tb» valua of tlui pN^>»r|y m 
a* to atrnvtiUiVt a takiuj^ Yatce v. 
W«at GrafltiCL (Town o(\ ^ W. Va. 
T88,IS R E. HAfh ]0!D (I^VI). TI10 
oourt nliod on tiii> LikiitcuiiKf of Chuu- 
oeUor WUJtaroBua iu ^lorria A Ebh*x 
R R 0> T. Kewurk, 10 N, J. Ef|, <9 
8tocL> 3U. (looid«il in l^tlA. bat k 
lial U9C tL^Q boea octftbliabod b7«x- 
f>?n<.'rjcv that ttlrtxm nllroftdii wttM 
inooTi«iBt*nt with oth«r uann of th» 
ciropt within tho Itnc* of tho taiU 
rood fico S^ m, tnfrtL 

In Colorado, wban^«ii<tAr tho con- 
ftic^tlon and rttttDt«a. It Is cootorn- 
pUlod thaC thtstzortAof DonverfLiar 
Ij»« iiwil far sl«iu)i mllMMK Ami that 
p»rmt»iioii Duy bo grauto<l b/ lou- 
oicifiaLautlioriLy. (h« 4kbuii,iDK owtjoi 
b slill ^iLUtnlt^l lo ■.'oiript'iiHilioa for 
fhit fi^TlnonliiiKry ftfif! uniUiUiit uaa 
of i}w ilrwtB IU oomjvtrcFd with tho 
ii» for local convwiienoe ftni Im^iil. 
Dnain>r A K F. R. Cct v. Doniko, U 
C0I0.MT. SnalsoGJbertT.tiHHUfiv, 

a u Jt P. R a Oh. 13 cohx ao'l 

Union F&c. Ry. Cu v, Folry. Ifi Cda 
tiup. Ct. 8Sa, B3 Pao. Ua^ 542; Haii^O 

r. BouMft. as Fina Ro|b &li tO Cola 

I Huichnmn 7, nUdramn FforaoR R 
C*. 17 N. J. Eq. 7S; J»recy City & 
Bercvn B. Cob t. Jomj CStj A llt> 




^ 



1^0 



BLSCTRIC VIB£8 IX ffTBEBTS ASD BIdBWATB. [$ ISL 



of the ccrarU upon th« effect of mieli a change upon U16 use of 
tLe strtieto. Id lovni^ for ciaaiple/ it w^ hold Lliut stetMB 
motors autlioHzeil li^ a city to be afted on the Mtm^U iTRr«a 
nuisance, a,Dd tbat iho city vraa liable to a CniTekr for dan- 
&g«i. In >nnTiesotA, OQ the other baad, it vras held * tbftt the 
rtmnin^ of citb drawn by steam motors inclosed in oafat 
propor use of tbe streets in &id of public travel, and did BOt 
potfi A Bew aerritsde. 

Tb« same thing vras bold in acaso in Haino* ^hon the court 
iiafd: **Tbo motor is not tbo critorioo; His imther bho iK»of 
the street. A change of motor it not a ohiut^o of oso.*' 

In WiUiim9t\ City ^li^ctyic Jiaiitoatf C^.^ in tbe Uiut«d Statce 
olroQlt conri for lh& district of Arkansas,* h was held tbat a 
railroad operated in a city by steam motor* w;ut a street r^U- 
Mny, within the mt^nning of n statute gi^ui^ citi«fl power to 
provide f4>r the opf^ratfon of street riii)way», :ind that it dSd 
not km|»ofiea new servitude. The court said: "ThediAlinclion 
Attempted to be drawn bctitreim animal and mechanical power 
n» applied to street mitrxNtd.^ U not sound. Tbo motor is not 
the critarion. It is tbe o^e of th^ street and tha mode of tb^y 
nse;" and that if a railroad, \7hcther operated by horfi^poi^^f 
or meoTia-niL^al power, 13 In faet so operated as to be a ouisaiioet 
the land-owTier has his remedy. 

In Tennessee it has bvcn held tbett the use of a steam motor 
drawing cant and runmnjET alon^ a city street and fiw miles out 
into the country wns, in fact> a jnyv^ sorvitude. The court said 
that it ^05 u <]uwtion of di^gree, and d^apondod on the manner 
in wbiob the streets were used; but tbat ia this case there ^cr^ 
Boiee and smoke, tho trains irere loiigi>r nod heavier^ and tbe 
speed was g^reater than !n the case of horse cars, and the ue 
was praotioally inconsifiuot with other usee of tiie bighvraj* 

In a case in Oregon* relating to a railroad operated bj a 



lSt*al«7 Th DftTCDpOTti M Iowa* 
SSa I" Arn. T^ SIOh vith Urns noto 

H. It. ». Co^ S& Mian, IIS, ^ Am 

Ul IVl Bei^ 0» QUKb es. 18I0X 
> EMt Cad A a Ca r, Doyle, la a 



W. R^ix «3a m Team 747, 17 An 8b 
TU^ Stt3 <l««(l^ 
•Vi^QuuH V, Pwtlnvd * T. IL a 

Ant. a EL Corp. nc|x M 0c«sla>l& 
fr^rd to tt^mm ^madm, RAflnsd 
Co, ▼. Btoghani, S7 TMbb. BBS, H & 
W,Rcp. Tiȣ&mith T.BslbMdCe^ 
ei TiuuL 03V 11 & W. ^n^ 7W; fW* 



1S9, 123.] siciti^ or ijirmNO otr^Bas. 



Ul 



ct«vii dumiDT-^ it VB5 beld Uifit the question whetbfirtfaoowiutr 
of th« abnUJng laiul vtm cntiUed to <taEiages for the opcratioiii 
of a rftilwftir i& tbe streets dcpemkd or whether hit right of 
aoc<«t, iLDcL otiicr rigbt& appurt^naDl to his property, ^cir& in- 
terfered with, and that thb wot a question of JAct for the jury. 
Hie court said the questioa who own^ the t&o vraj of Littlo con- 
abqpftn c c, bocauio tho fM could not bo In any real BMise to the 
paUi^ but to b«ld for th<r pnr|>cfie« of a Mroot; and if ttio foo fs 
la th9 indiTiduat, he holds it subject to the public use of the 
>ti«et. 

g m. In a Inter casfi in Hichigan^ ft wiu held that n raft* 
road operated by a Eteam dummy running aloo^ a country roid 
did aJftxrt tlm rigliU of Uw owm-p of Uiv ailjuiniiig laml^ noi 
because of the kind of motor umhJ, hut ljtT^u;tr Uu; Vmn wua ao 
ooostractcd with cute and fllla «4 net to make a part of tfae 
highway. The court mid: "A stroct niilway llie railn of 
vhloh are laid to conform to the g^ada and surface of cbe 
iFtroctt an^l vrbioh is othorwiao so constructed that the pnbiio 
are not exolndcHl from tho use of any part of tho stiootaaa 
pnhlio way, carrying passcn^ra, stopping at street oromngv 
to receiro and disoluuge thoin, is a stroct railway, whothor it 
he oper&ted by hordes OT electric power or by st^am motor 
Bwh na shown to be v^&d by the def^Qrliiut in this ca&a/' An 
b^tinction, however, was granted a^fainat the mainienanoe of 
the road m <|aestion until conip(?n$:ilioQ should be made. 

% 133. Use ef the cable rullwaj-^Tlie use of the cable as 
the nioUve power involved the di^ng up of the aoiJ, and plao* 
ing a permanent ;^tni<Tturv> along i\\e midrlle of the vLrcH-t, und 
n thers mar pt^rliA|)H liff m>iuo likHnuins in this rt?Hpi>c:t to the 
planting of poles along the street. The slot or groove for the 
(nUe is not an obstructioa, but it is not quite safe for hors<a to 
tnve) upon, and il iloes, therefore, interfere with the obc of 
Ibe tnwks for one-horse vchiclcar^nd it certainly docs tiike pes- 



T, Coocwt Horn Rj. Co- { X. H A 
»AtLIU|k Uk whore iilAintiiTiia 
Mown Uiafvniuxlit v-MbeHlbul 
Ui dassaaa* ntm rmtiUntiA ia injury 
toeuainviC«f K^MOy^to; Humow 
■*. BrooUjrn Oiljr VL Cd^ lU >T. T 
M tt N> H Rflth 1{»>^ an mtkia for 



dninngui from nolndi lUid smolca In 
ti«lnH ft ift«Ani motor. For n discnfr 

HA Afii. A En^ R. iUttu ATS, S U R X 
371, not«i. 

iVkhcUY^Ann Arbor JcYivilsnU 
It R. Cu. tfT Micti. Si31 O^^]) 



ie;9 



SLEOT&IO WlKBd Uf StRKKTfl AHO HlOtSWAT*. [§ 124. 



sieKiioa of a greater [K>rtioa of tlie tand witliln tbe street Una 
that which is occupied by the poles of the electric railvray, 

Thu qurwtion of the occupation of tbo soil of tho Etrwt bu 
Dot betin lueutloned in the oanaii, but tlie cab]« hut bts^n oonspd- 
crod tathor as a chati^ of motivo power, ajid with reforeoce 
to the stjitute uoder which th« fnin^^hi;»o wus grunts. Id a 
€800 in the ^ew York court of appeaU, in which one of the 
coDditiona of the grant wiui ttukt no fltcani should be tised, tht 
court hv^Ui that Ibc; fraaohictc did not iaoiuJe the right to exn- 
vate and ubq tho strooU for & cablen' In a lator c«jo id the 
s&nio ciourt) It wa« ht^Ld tliftt a chango from horia powor 
the Ga1>le may be made without the eonsent of the ovnerv 
Uieiand.* Tho ohango wiitt madQb<*rorotho&raendiDesttoti]e 
constitution of New Tork requiring the oonftent ot the QWDen 
of onfv-half th^ pn>p<3rty along the line to the coostrcction aod 
operation of n Btreet railway^ »nd the uourC disUognished the 
decision in P^&pU v. OUroij^ relating to an eleottfo road, in 
which this [Kiiiit was not tuken.' 

In a loc^ court in Ohio * It bus been beld that a str«oi 
ytxy operated by cable is not to be classed with sUiain railvrajr^ 
and is Dot a new burden entitling tho owner of tlio land to 
oompenaatioa. 

Andugtiin, icthe United States circQit court for the northeni 
district of inmoid, it was held that a Innd-owncr wbo did 
own the fee wus not cntitlcKi to an injunction againat the 
of a street for a cable railway without hi< concent, in the nih 
Bence of proof of &otne sp^ial injury to faiiaself, beyond what 
be might ^uStTF in ooinmon with thi; public ut lurgo.* 

g 124. Poles and wire;* for the electric railway — Da tb 
aOifct tlie properly rIghlH of the abutting uwner?— The me 
of thi) overht?iui iiyntc;ni of eluctrio win^ prr-^t'ciUi some differ- 




nel 



4 

rl 



> In ra Third Atoow ft It Co., IS! 
K. Y. 3*5 (l^JO). 

■HnrrtHiD t-. Mc- AuUtra Oibid R. 

tL Co. 17 WMly. BiUL V»<HaniiUoil 
Com, Pi*fta» Ohiol. 

*Lor>* V. North Clik««:oOitjr RR. 
Co^t3Fed,B<i;i730, SttsatoixwICh 



rofcTCDCc to tho cabU m a miotic 
|)ovrvr, tnitkhnapoIU <!bbla 9t R. A. 
(^u T. Cttie»aft' SL H. H. Oi, tOT In^ 
3«tf. S I* R A. hn, V4 N. K Bi-|h I 
13 Ain. A Edc- a a Cu SM^ 
Vnbyn ^ a a Co. v. D«a aid 

URMd \AMi^ a a i:<L, ri lowi, 
T^vboot V. Di^ Moion a a a a 







■I 



SIQBT« OF ADUmtfO OWXKRS. 



l» 



eiitqaMtiaais Trom the tuo ofsLi:ani motors or cables. It in* 
volvcs KMne ob«UiJciicpn of t1>e ftLn^eb by iht polo* a&d wim, 
and » aaid to interfere with tho working of the t^lophonc. 
Tbo poLcA mait be ect op citbcr oloDg tlio fidctriilk or in tbo 
midille of iho »tre«t, and the wires rnuat be strung nlon^, and 
in aomo pla«c« acrc-sa, tho street. It i* strcauoualy objected 
that tbo plociai^ of the poles in tbo soil of ttto Ktroet i$ a taking 
of prirato property, and that erisn il the foo of the stri^et is la 
the g:^ it is an intorfortMico with tbo oasi?m«nt of tbo abnlting 
owner and hU right of acccce. It miut Ita born^ in mind thut 
the qoetftioQ h not whether the poles mtorfere with pubtio 
(niv«l, and thxis constituto a public nnigitnc^, Tbi< ie a t^uos- 
tion to bo decided by the legl^ature. If the legUtature d^ 
odes that the tnt^r^sts of public travel ard iubaerved by having 
U^ polns ]R tlio gtfiwtM, Lhffn the public bitvt) nogmiinJ for 
complaint Tho only qiitstion now is whether the pHvato 
righU of the ahiUter are alTected; whether it js s. private nni* 
mnce to Him, and wheihrr his lands aru iakvn or hU rights on 
tiio straeit infringed. In deciding this qnestion, it is to bo 
r^o^mbored that the land nscd ia a public street, and tbat, 
whether the fee is in the abutting owner or in the puhljc, tho 
whole boneficial iiae of tbo land is in tho pnbUc for the pniv 
poocfl of a street. For those purposes it belongs vrholly to tho 
pnblie; and so long 00 it ia used for those purposes it does not 
beloog to the indiWdonl at a.U} 

i I1E6, ComparNon with the elerated railroad eases^ 
Pil«« athet not the lam), bnt only Hghtn of adjacency, nn- 
Ittft tho ii«o l8 a perversion of the tue oftlie stroet.— Tbo 
abotcor rvtainx only hi» cjbtemonts of light und air and aceests, 
and tbeae are property rights; and for the loss of these, it has 
Wo Ll(K:qdod in tho Sow York rh^vatnd milnHul cases, ho i« 
entitled to compensation," It waa held in th^ve caaea that 



Bobolmn. M K. J. U 0«X &^U p^r 

iStorr T. K T. BoT. B. A Oo^ »« 
X Y. 1X2; lAlir V. Nm. Ktnv. It a 
C^tOI!tV.WIS; »Mbd ▼, AUt £l«v. 
ft. & C^ na N. V, mi B>rl«r T. 
ilei Efev. & R Co, laO N. Y. 3S#; 
QoritMttrr V. HftBlMtlAii R. R. Oi, 
U K. T. 0L B«^ lUi Oionittiw t< 



Mouluitlati R & C<k, SI 2^ T. SL 
R«p. i;^: Abpndroth t. UAnhattan 
R R (Ax. 1^^ R Y, li Ifi>7nos t. 
Thomu, ? led. BS: CMwford v. Dol- 
ftintn\ 7 Ohio Sl. 410: ^uk t. KMt 
8t L^uis. b3 Ul »rr. ant muf oOmt 
ew«ik 8» alao ui artiolo on th» 
EUr«|«d Aoad litiKnltMk, b? Eil- 
VAnI A. Hlbhuil, 4 Uatt. Iaw E^ 



lU 



Exccnuc tn&ca vs rnuiEts A3n> ]n4>QWATf* [% 13$. 



lUtboDgb the eorection of a hdavy iron railway a|>oa posta m 
the dtrootfi ttos not ft taking of tb« tnniJf rot it did in fact it- 
feet the as^ of his Und Id coDOection with the gtroet, and wu 
an inU>rferenco with tbe ri^ht of aooeea aod of Uufbt and air, 
vbicb ontitlod tho adjacent owimt to compoiuatlon.' 80^ 
alftOr the coart of appcab of M&irland, in a later oflfr,* frhll* 
tboy bdci tbat the crectioD of abutmenti for an elevat«<t rail- 
road la a street was not Liking of tba propfrtjr of abttltiog 
owDt^fH for wbich coni|>en3.'ition mtist f rst be made, yet d^ 
cUr»l ttiAt tho land-owner bad a trmorly at law far tbo bjnij' 
to im riglit of ligliL ami xSt and jiod'HA. 

It would seem to follow from this that if tbe iu« of cars fof 1 
local trarolf propelled b^ ckctricity, is a proper ose of the acrert 
m aucb, tb^n tbe oocapation of the aoil for polea rcAKniBbljr 
ni>c«0sary to supply tbe elootricity ia not a tnking of land be- i 
longing to tho abutting owner, and Utnt it docs not int4>rfcrt 
witb htA righta in tbe etrcot, uqIcbb it appcara that it affccta bit 
beneficial use of it a« a atroot in connection with lua land, and 
tbat ]tdoc« in fact Lffeot bia accew to blapf«m]$4t,or obsMoi, 
tl)0 light or air. 

It boconsdo, thoroforo, a <)n««t]on of fact wfa«thar the etdctrio 
railroad ii a mode of using tbe atreet for ih& purposes for vbicb. 
it was designed, an J wht^tJipr Uio poles and wires reall/ 



»Bt0fT T. K T, Elor. R E. Cq^ DO 
K.T lat; lAhr t. Mi>L BI»v. R R 
Ca,10<l N.y.»«S: ToodT. Met Klor. 
a a Col, 119 S. T leO; roitsr r. 
Mat El»r< a R Ol, !«} N. T. SUt 
Abvadfoth V. UjLTihalt&Q R R 0&, 
laS VL Y. I- But whcru it uppconMt 
Uwt^thv TnLiflT ift xitv Liroptrilj Imd 
bWd AMnflUf BCJiMUwiaml no Jun- 
■gjM w«f« ttiowii, ftB Inja&otloa wns 
niand. CKitoillr r M. Y. EL Br. 
CtaL (N. T ApikK 4d K. R. B«1L 10631 

Ib PbbM V. Bom^ W, A a R R 
G», till K. T. fiOft, it wBtf bold br ttifl 
court oi appDulfi that tbe abuttina 
o«n«i; not ovntinx ih» ft* to Ihm 
9lMt/L bafl no rijctit to ootapoimlkDn 
fot th9 vae of the suvot bjr a «iaun 
nar<«d ikulf mitbarlBHd: hut Urn 
aame oovt. Ik Abvndrocti r, Uvt. 



E3fr. a a Ox. m N. T. m% 

tlid^ ih« fomwr ofUM did Doai 
t'mt bD Abutting owDor baa not 
vented ^^bti Lo hli]iU fur uul ftCOOM 
In ■ pEiblk KUvnl wtJr-h 4m !iicl4«nt 
to his lot ftnd u« frlvat^ prOfiMtr. 
but that tiM oiirnlfoa of a •!«« 
mitroad uo tl« lEnidtf vf tb» lOwt 
van ont an favMia« of hts rigfcl& 

■Uamtt T, Uke Holaad EL Br* 
Gol,T» VtLSTT, ^ AtL RefLe30(l8m 
T1il« »«» ililTvn froiD fliB K»v Yoft 
olVTikMcl raiiraul caMi te that in 
tlio ljvitormjimcU««»«ere siaal«i| 
and in tbe fonncr the? trcrm dlttl- 
lovarl In tha («inmaT tho atrac%ttto 
W9B w ga n hd ■■ a dlTenloo of ilia 
)citct frow ila pTOfV usn bvcatua 
oTHavdrcL 



187.] 



aKJBr» OP ^ocmso ow»i:ie«. 



IS 



BttbtfantiaHy affect the uvc of tlio Di)jn«ciit UbcI antl iDt47rfun) 
irlth the rii;iit of accoda And liglit aoi] air. 

g r^O. Tbero b no cli&tt;;c of ti<ie in fmb^ttltutliifc ekc- 
trlcitj^ror horse power,— ll would umm to Ix^ rciy clear that 
tbe use of dcotricity iDatetul of hoTaca to propel ntrcct c«nt qa^ 
for tho samo ptirpmcs as horso cars docs not chatge tho nao of 
the sirt«t4> Tlio oar^ ilto of tbo s^uac Utnd; tbcy nrc naod ta 
tho BiLQke tray for takinj? i>eople frora doer to door, and fadli* 
latino tranl in and about tho city. Thi^ uso of tho road cor- 
r«aponds exactly with the doBcripuon of a ljorfti» railway in the 
>'ovr Jersey cssefi cit«d in soction 130, as distin^iiigb^d from a 
steam nulway, whidi oceoploa iba streou for another pLirpoce^ 
to the eiclnsicm of local trarel.' 

g 187. Qof'Htioii of inlerfi-rtni'i^ with tiw of vtreet Is a 
qiieatlfftii offarl* — Tlie (jiiL^stion whrthi-r Lhi? |ki1pj( »nd wlm 
interfere with the nso of the street us such to i?onn**ciioo with 
the adjaecnblund is a qantion of fact to ha determined in each 
eeaoi but it cannot be said wilhout proof tluit tho poltn and 
witea as ordinarily arranged would bave that elFdct. The moitt 
aarionft oppoaitioai is made to Uioa<? pUced in tho midiUe ot the 
ftreel; but howerer inconvoaicnt these may be to the pubLc, 
it is olcsr that they are Icaa open to objection from the land- 
owner than tboeo oa tbe eidewaik, in vrliioli, by eustom nt lea«t, 
the landowner has moro privileges, and on which ho is allowed 
to plaoo obstraetions, such lr awning posts and hitchin^^ poets, 
for his own eonvenieaee. Tbe land itM^lf oc^iupteiL by the elec- 
tric poles In the middle of the street belongs to tbe public foe 
the UMfl of the street, and if tbo [»ole is put there for meh a 
we, nothing belonging to ^e abutting owner is actnLdly takciL 
Scath seems to me to be tbe conclnsJon to be r^acbed upon legal 
principtrf And Much mu the ormoliiMnn of YiiTMl'hanixdlor Van 
fleet in J?o/ety v. /t-Jj'id Transit /ft/, (h.^ above referred ta* 

fHw lesJ qnestion is not whether the polt*s imd wires trespon 



>Smw kovrftTCf, BUX*K tirooa |>r«^ 

JsdK 8S, SA. vhurv tlio nlncUle ml^ 
wvy te 4eolsi«d not to «Jii««r thg 4»> 
WtpUMi •f tbo bone rSiliTftj glvOD 
HilknvGeii* Tli«mu>iic«ntft«lle>r- 
vud* ddtSiltd tfasi la tho teedft of 
^eC llie siieat* the «Ae:;Uic c&n uv 



vatKU&tfiillf Ukattf^horMicarfti J«e- 

A> AIL K^ OSl OaaiX 

'lUUiVf V. Kspftd ttsadt at Rj. 
Cku 47 K, X Bc). aW^ GO AiL Rffi »^ 
14 AiB. A Ciig. R a L^ TS (ISWf; 
elL'Vill.gW^nij.nt 



uc 



kUCCTElO Wl&Eft IX 9TKK£T9 A^I> VIOaWATS. [J 138. 



npoa wbnt tnuy bo tticltntcally tha land cf tlio ubuttiag onrsor, 
but wLetlier tbe nse of them a&d of the electric cats dofn, 111 
fact> interfere with the froc and oonrenieot ose of the street in 
coaiitx:ttoD Trith the bad, or diiaiTii^ti tiiti Tftluc of tbo J&nd by 
ohangin^ ita relation to the street. 

The [flnd<ovracr hn.s do absolnto veto upon the plaotiDgof 
the poles by rca&tm of his tcohnicAl oivnornhip of the soil, bot 
bta ri^ht to compensation wlU depend upon vhetlior tho pol«6 
aro go conetructcd or eo placed as to nffeet his free acoewto 
^vory part of hin pro{>4?rty, and whether th« carfi are £o ran m 
to he inconsiBt«iit with a free and safe oae of tbe street fron 
and to hU lanJ for other street users. Itin&ydvpvnd somewhat 
oiitbecharact'*rof the street, the purpose* for which It UiueJ, 
nnd that v^bxch gives tijo property along the line of it Iti pfr- 
GuUar ¥uluG. 

% 128. CafieH — Ht. Adanin & Kden F«rlc Inclined Ball* 
wajr CrO. T. WinnlovT. — I Tdtall now rff^^r to tlie cases. Many 
of them are duoiwions of XiKul ami infrrior coarU^ bnt some of 
these bear evidenc<is of careful exatcunation of the prinoIpUs 
and ftUthonti(7s» and tbf^y arc aU iatcrestiog as tho beginoiiiga 
of the application of the principles to new conditions.^ 

One of tho earlioat coses was Mt Adara$ S Etf<r^ Park /a- 
clmi^d Hailvxx^ tV. v. Howard Wiiieto^ ct oL, in tho court of 
oommon pleas of Hamilton county, Ohio, in the yoar 1&$8,' In 
that coBG it appoarod that poles were phicj>d aion;; tho margin 
of the etdevrnJlc a1>out onu hunUrud foet apart, and wji^ 
stretched aoroaa and alont; the street for the purpoM of 
plying electricity to strvH^t cars. An injunction was j^nted 
to preTent the defendant, a luid-cwner, from rentoviDj^ the 
poles. Muiwell,J. di^olred tbe InJonciEonand i»aed amaa- 
{latoryordr^r U% rrmov«i Dm |K>les. lie referred to cases in Ohh> 
efttab!ifthiug the doctrine tliatiUe riglit of tbe adjoining owner 
to ingress and egrNH, and Hi^'ht and air, is jnat oft much bh 
pn^pi^rty ^ the ground on wliich hts building stands, and can- 
not be taken from him witbont compuu«ati<nit and that bo 



' 3*voni] of thoM COM* are not r^ 
ported. ftDi Miue ollierv apo oot Kvti' 
nnX\y uoohiIj^ I ftia loilatited to 
Mr. Jo)m & Win. counvalltfc tiA E>it. 
aoa Qonemi Sl«c(do CocDpanj iu 



If«w York, fo* ooploi ^ t^o CMS* M»i , 
DfdaioM. 

>2e Wwk, Ball A a I^ XCBO^OT. 
IT. 19M> 



§!»-] 



uoRTK 07 ADrmsa owkkju. 



16T 



will not be ]«ft to faU rcra^y at law. Tic said it yrgtB cot 
enough to eay tbat tUceo poles are in aid of public iraT^t, 
lad tluit e^iy Tohicle is an obfitructiozt of tho «tTe<>t. Ttcro 
Ib an OKential difloroaco bctwixn a Hxct! ohiitraction aiKl a 
raoviiij; 0A6, 0n9 id exercisicif- tho easement of paasa^ luxl 
tho oth<>r is intorforic;^ with it Then) is no di^inctioD bd- 
tween Uio poles for tbc ifl<>ctrio railway and t«k'gruph pol{*s, 
nod iLeither one nor the other can he set tp vithoat the cea- 
•eut of the InnH-owDor 

On a|i)M<al to thd cin^ult oourt this deoisioa waft revi^rxed.^ 
The court beUt that the sidewalk was a part nf the hij^hwaj, 
ami to be Hnilt with as siirh; thut i}w m»rgin:<i of Hi^lrwiilliA 
haTe for <M*nLtiriRi litK-n apprf)|irijit4Ml for pl^'iri^ *hudn imtn^ 
lamp poaU, bitching poats, and dmilar atractures, and that theBd 
nev pok« did not, in fact, obstraot the access to the plaintifTs 
land and impo4>ed no now burden npon it; that lU» electrlu 
^UTont oaed waa not dangerous; that the usq of tho street by 
tha electric care was substan^aUj the same as tbat by horvo 
can, the mode of trarel bcjln^ thi> aanie, the only cltanj^e being 
is tlio motive power. The poles were allowed to stand. 

$ IW. Pclt<»n T. Kn8t llereland K. B. Co.— Thin dociftion 
wae qnotod and ajjprovod by tho court of common ploaa for 
Ooyahoga ooonty, Ohio, ia I^t^Uon v. J^i^ Cifv<iand li. li. Q>., 
January, 1BS9.* Tho court Mid tlmt tbe question of irpoed and 
of danger to trarelen on the street mi^ht anfely he left to t^ 
mnoJcipal aotlioritiea, and th^it ntthoiir;h the polo^ added noth- 
}ag to tbo bcanty of tho strcc^ vr^t tln^ burden or otiMLruiaion 
created was more fanciful than real, and thai it could not be 
«id in scrionuiesa tbat the polps and wiri« would, if pmp^riy 
placed, obntmrt tbn liglit and air, or inliTeritrci vrilb tim in^^ratt 
aod isgren to and from tbo pUiDtifTa land. An injuaetioa wan 
mfnted. Tbifl case camo befom tho circuit court of the saoin 
ooon^r on appeal, and upon a supplemental iietitiou ailing 
that tlM running of t^Lo caia made a great deal of nodso and 
duger, that tho electric cnrrent was dan^^eroufl and not nndcr 
OOtttiol, and tbat ttie whole system was a public nuisance and 
Acndd be abated. Ttio court bold that tbc noise and speed 
vm matten for tho oonuaon council to regulate, and that the 



l| Cblo Clnnlt Court lUpL 4Aa 



)2a W««k. B«IL ft O. I. J. CL 



15S 



K(.«:cTKto vriKXft IK vTVKvnf AVD maswATfl. [§ 190. 



weight of eridcsoo wni that tli<) curroat usod was notTOiy 

§ 130. TftBirirt T, »irport St. Bf. Co.— Th© flwt dedt- 
ion b}' tlvff ftujirom^ court of a stsito so^ms to bo lliAt Id T^ty- 
^rf i>. Jfewport Si. By. Co., already rBferrisl to,* ThU irw 
<[vci<liMl Janinry 55, t*4W>, und tl«? opnwn wafi r^ad by Chief 
Justiw nMrfL*«. A bill irai Cird by nu'tii-nt of abtittJtig land 
to restrain a street railro&d con^pany from ereoUog (K>1et and 
wiri's in front of thrir hoiisos for the purposa of currying an 
electric current Lo propel tbe atKet c&i». Tlo polc« w«po to 
be placed one hundred and twenty foct aput, and along tlu 
margin of the stdcwuLks. Tbo sict of incorporation of tho com- 
pany pronded that the road mi^ht be operated "with Btcan, 
horse or other povrcr^ as the connciU of tho city might froa 
time to timo direct^ The permission of ihc council to oae tfao 
overhead elMtric ayitom had been given by ordiriAnce, 
oourt held that tho ri!»ht to uso electricity mi^t be inf 
from tho word« of tho diarter, and ttiitt thU was probably moanl 
by the word* '^ other power 'Mnaji act pas^ tn the year ISsy, 
tkit tbo poles did not incumber the streets^ withta the meao^ 
ing of a Glouae la the charter forbidding tho inoumbntnco e( 
any portion of the street nr>t occupied by the track*- and 
lastly, tlmi wf rr-j.-t railwnvK "}"»n(iiHl by i.*4otTiririty by 
poles and wireit do not conatiLute an additional wrvftacle 
tbe land. The court SFiid it wns ^ell si?ttT^d that an ordl 
st«am milroad iWs in>[>osi? a new survitiide, and Chat a horn 
railroad doi« not ; that, although the diittnction is often stated 
a8 a difitinctton bet^ciMi stcjini and borso n^ilrDads, it profierty 
resUf not on any difTerenoe in motive poivcr, but on tho differ- 
ent i:tTi;cC.^ i^roducedby them respectively on the highways tod 
wtteela which they occupy. It is not the motor, but tho kiadi 
of occupation, whether practicaJly cxclu^iirc or not, which 
the cnterioiL A aieam railroad oomee into aerioos conftiet 
with tho usual monies of travcT, when.'iasan ordinary street nil 
way, instead of adding a now servitude, operatet in ftrtherane* 
of the original uses of the street. Tbe danger from the ol 



R A. 90», BHth ttole. 1 Ani. R R « »ja 
Carp. Eof* iU with not^ 49 Am, A; 



SS 13L, 139.] sidin? or Aficrrufo owsrBfio. 



169 




triocarrocit, or from the fright«Diiigo(Iior8Cs»<]ot4 not appear 
to bo tuflieieiit u> creat & n«w servttuii«, 

!n answer to the 0U^gcstioD tliat t4^icgraph and tolcpbond 
pol«a aad wirc« haro be<;a held to coiultt«to ft d«w MrntaJct 
tho court s«id lUat thc^> ai^o rwt used to facilitot« the use of tho 
Kreet for travel and tratuportatiom or if so, very indirectly so, 
*- wbercAS tb« potc» nad «irc)« oow in quoHtion ikre dirootly ao> 
flilkrjr to tbe ism of tho street as sucb^ io that they oommtmi' 
Cftta tti« power by which th^ vti^et cars aro proptrllod;'' and 
ll» ohM jiutico allnd«l to the ttgnificant fact ihaX :<*li?^ruph 
Umb #t«cted by a riilfoad oompany ivitbin iiA right of ysay to 
inereaae the safety and «1Hcij?noy of the railroad wen* held not 
to be m new buril»n, but only a Vgltlirut^* di^v<^1o|iiitciit of tha 

»rnt aJready ai.'quire*!-' Tht iujiinctioQ wa« refused. 
Itl. IWtrelKli^ Itailnaj Cit. v. MilU.— After this camf» 
rnd in<>riTdi*cijuiit]Hi)f infifriordouru^ There liioni! by Judgr> 
lly, of the circuit court of Wayne county, Michigan, vrhicb 
WW aft<^rwards a^rnml by tho AUprrmc court.^ Hofcrring 1o 
JndgeCooley'ft Of>inioa in a casc^ in Michigan' that a. »trijct 
mflwaj was a proper use of a city strict, although a aloant 
ruiroeid was not, ho held that a slrcrt niilway operated by 
electricity imposed no now servitude. Tho |k>1c4, he said, being 
placed alon^ tho tmrj^in of the street, where oihcr poAtA are 
pot, do not interfere with tniveL The cars, tic Eulmitted^ 
fdghtCDcd hones (they bad frigblened his own), but the horses 
tVMtld ^t acciutomed to ihem, and the wires were only d&n* 
gvroufl iD caj4o of oecidenu He granted un injunction against 
oittiKg down tlie pole& 

g Its. lowrg&n T. Larajotte SI. Railway Co.— In Zoiw^ 
fm » Jjifay^Ue St. I^nU^ti^ C^j.,* alrt»aily n.^ferred to, it WM 
hetd tbni the ptupofio of the street railway, wbetlier it woe op- 
vitod by elet'lricity or by ln>rs<N. r<?in!iine'1 the same; tbat it 
Via woll aelttnd tbat Lurj»! r.tilruadH aru a proper use of the 
ttrcet, and do not iupoM a new aerTttudt^ upon lh« land, and 



'8m ^Mfileir Xn ea T«legrftpha 
ca rtuS-nMdiL 

I D«rott City It E Ca T. Mllh. C^^ 
Mil Covn of WnpiaCoL. Utcb.. im^\ 



■Gnuid SapildSL «c & R Ga t. 

* CtrvaJL Couit al lAbjiftt^ Tndt- 
aaft, Jul; %, 1«S>; iiqirc^ cli. 11, g S& 



i» 



BLZcnoc «is£a t^ wtbrstb asii BioavAn. [{ 13^ 



that there waa Qot^ in the mode of operatkni of the vAteina 
roadf snfflciecit in the wny of noiso or danger to maks sach a 
safasUiitial or pcnn^niTnt iiiipairineiit of the ii«o of tbe stivct 
hf the j^eDeral public as to lead to the inference tlot aa addi- 
tional harden bA£ been imposed upon the land. 

§ 133. LoQisTllle Baling Haimractnrliig Co* t. Ceatral 
Pass. BallTAj Co.— The suhject waa discmsed m all ita u- 
pects in a long opinion by Jndgvr Toocy, of tho LouisnUe lav 
and c<iuity coort, on Jnna SO, %i^^ He referred to the 
itica by which it bae been held that a horsG railroad ia 
new MTTitudcs nod, <)iiotiD£ the opinion of the Khode laUnd 
oaao, said that be waa satisfied that the coareruoe. of the hoiM 
oats into electric cars, and the coostnictioa oCpolee and ^ 
[dfanocf neoecsary for iho operation of the can by electricitjt 
did not conatituie a new servitude entitling the plaintiff to 
compensition, Emmtning the question of dangor to the plaint 
itr» s<.*r\-iinb( and prDj>«rty from the OTrrltnnging wirvA aad 
from running the cars by eWtricity, the judge discoursed do* 
qnenLly on Lho mystcn<» of I'k'ctncitytand afU?r examining, be 
KayM, Uw. ttvidt-niM in iht; e^na, and all the accnauhhi Itteralnio 
on the subject, ha decided that the single trolley vim 8yiit«ia 
hod proved to bo »tfc and that there Tvaa no gromid for an ii^ 
junction- This decittlcn waa afEnned by the court of appeal! 
in L698.' The ccnrt said the ayatem of overhead trolley wirea 
aoomcd to be as yet the only ono ia pnicttcal cue, and, althongb 
new and not fuUy perfected, the ay&teni wns not mnoh. If any, 
more dangerous than bono povror, and the cars, aJthon<^h ilioy 
rtui at ft gruLter ipood than horve oaj% were more ceaily con* 
trolled and did not really more obstmet the Etreet or interfere 
nnre^iflODnbly with the business therein, and it ivafthe]d that in 
vicjxv of ibejte facu the oourl ought not to enjoin or limit their 
jMGu II IB to be oVwrved^ however, that the «:ourt said U was 
*' wc^H «uttlo(i tJiat the uko of a public street for Imrel and tran^ 
portation by nieuoa of rallu'ay cara falls within the purposes tat- 
which Blreets are established and dedicated; and it is only 
vrhen othnr ways of travrl and tmn»partatioin am pnivcntrd 



Central I^ua Vtj, Q^^ LouiiriUe Idw 
and Equltr Coort LavUtiUi% Sy., 
Jnnit ^ ISMVS Am EL Om, &;^ 



Cefitrol Pm. Br- fo, «} Kj< (A 
& W. Beci set S AoL EL Oia IDL 



S1540 



Bioin? o» Aanmsca ovxEaj. 



ICl 



or tinnttM>cu1i1j ol^lrui^U^l Uuit c^nurU cjin inlrrfi-m to riUi^r 
eDy>m or limit operation of nu]nKic1& u|>od a public sitreet.'* 

% 134. nul^j V. It&pM Transit St. Ity. Cik— A wetl-cx>ii9ift- 
cred decision i» lluL wf ViofrCbaiiceUor Van Fleet, of Nrw 
Jfitaej, hom ^bich vro bave quoted already. Tbe ca&e ts //^ 
»qf V. Saptd Tntftaii Si. S'j. t'o.» decided in the court of cbaii' 
«ory, DecetnWr 6, ISW Tlie company ^viu^ or^^i»i«il umlcr 
a geoenU law, po^ed in 1S&6, " to provide Tor the incorpom- 
tion of fttrvct nxilivays and to regulate tho •omc" Kotbing is 
Kikl in tlw act about the kind of motive povrcr to be oscd. 
Tbv gaoeml grant wu of itaolf euiticient^ tlie coiiH said, to ia> 
ttlsdo electric povror, and tho decision on ttils point bau b&&n 
quoted already. ThL>re was, laoirever, other U^^aJaticn; a atat* 
Qto had boBQ p&Med aultiorizing any stroet railroad to use eleo- 
trio motors, with ibo consent of tho city. Such coruicQl hitd 
bten given by resolution specifying tho overhead aj'stem, and 
pfforiclmg for p<>lafi either on llio siili^ or in the miiUlle of the 
stn«t, every other pa)t? in tht; middle of tlu; ntn-vt to 1m fur- 
nielied with a group of incfLu descent lights. Tbe nkilroiid com- 
pony wna about to put up poles one bundnxl and twenty-five 
feel a|NUt, id tbe middle of the strtret, in frontof Uw couiphkin- 
aat*a tannery. Tbe bill waa filed for an injnnctjon, and !t waa 
insistod that tbe resolution of tbo ccionion cooncil went boy<HiJ 
tbe statute in autborirJug the use of pc^ei; that tbe poles occu- 
pied land belonging to the oomplainaot and interfered with his 
SSMmentB io the street; fornlt oFwhK'h be was entitled to com* 
pmation, and that tbis not boing providi^d for, tbe acta oC tho 
Mnpany wore unlawfob 

Tfao Tioo-chanocUor h«l<l that the ovoriiead system was in- 
oladed In the kgislatire grant ; that tbe testimony of Thomas 
A. Edison and otlier witno6S<s showed that this was the best 
cbelrloal system^ and the only ono which as yet bad prorcd 
SDPoesiral. and that tbe poles and wires were^ in tbe present 
kfltr of tbi^ nrl, naccaHarj to the sucocssfnl opiTmLiun of the do- 
foidnnt'a railway by eleotHoIty. 

''They form purt,"* he said, ''of tbo means by which a new 
imri-r, to bo usoil in tbo place of animal power, is to bo m^ 



if7 n. J, Eq. aw, M AU. Bcp. $10^ » Abl & EC& B. R Cm, T^ with 
nt«IAn.a.Gk»m. 

u 



A 



Ut 



vw or w vtMMn mm» Httttw^ia. Q 134. 



ptied for Ui« prop(d«ioQ of flTMC c«n, ■»! Uiff hsT* bnn plaevj 
Ja Um itr««c to £actliUl« iu nje w a pabUc njr, ukd lhai»U 

aiaived ttp in a nnglft amtfoot: tbe poles tt&d vtr«« Ivto 
jdaofld £n tfatft »lf«K to aU tfao paliUc ^ gimr'aing dieir r^fat 
of £r« p^Ad^ oFifT tbe ttreeL Tint bei&jf so. it aaesift to on 
to bft ctosr bejoftd qqMtioo that tli« polca and viro iBo not 
in pQiO ft ikew bardeo opoti the land, but miaU oo tb« coatmy, 
b« i«guded both ia U v tad naaon asl^itimitcftocoavonMto 
tbo cue of tbo IjAd for tb6 rtry ptupoM* for wfatcti it ww bo- 
qoirod. Tbejr ore to be tved for tfao propabioa of slfvet oan^ 
oad tbo right of tbcpalriic to ue the streets br mcaiu of street 
cm, viUioat makiDg oo in pcniatioa to tho owm^r* of the aakod 
fooLDtbe BtreeCtiaikowBOthoroiiicUyBOtUedttatobeiioloaj^ 
opoD to dobato. It ^oald smiq, th«a, to be e^tmif ooitata that 
thd oooDpa:ioQ of th« ftreot by polo* and wIrs takes ^^^^^^M^l 
Srom the compUinant which the lavr reaorrod to tbo ori^^B 
proprietor irhcn tliv public aaaoiDent was aoqnirad.^ 

The Tice-chanceUor ciW with approval the caaat aboTV 
w f errad to in Rhodo hla&d, Kentacic;, Ohio and Toduwa, and 
aaid the <^di3i!u»ii wlx-tber lIhtq wiu a ornr bunlcro inuct he 
dctormiited hy Uie use which the new method ntakea of tha 
stnctf and not the motJTo power which it emploje in soch 
lue. And this iwinciple, bo saitl, "t^jLhibitJt in a rcrj dear 
light the reason wb; it baa been held that telegraph and fele- 
phone potc9 do impose a new bordoo, stnce they wc placed m 
the street, not to aid the public in thcLr right of freo paasa^ 
but in the tranHDiasion of nktelligctiee; and althoofh straetB 
are need for this purpoae in oarryirg the mails, yet this mode 
differs ao eeaentiaUy from their ^^(K^ral and ordinary oao that 
the genera] ouTT^nt of autbori^^ with an ezceptioD m Uaasa- 
cUuib>tu, has deotarod that it doct not eocao within the poiUio 
case meat" 

llie TJvo-dmacolIor addod tbat the poles in the preaont 
case s<irii\l an ordinary public {niqvMi^ in lighting ttie streets^ 
and also that, with respect to daoger from the caireDi^ ibe 
proofs Nhowiftl tliaL tlifi curn^nt ptttploywl might be tued with 
entire safety to erorytiofly. In auHWrr u> Qa* (»uC4*n1inn that 
the poles onght not to be placed in the midiUe of thn Klrmt 
the court aaid Uuit thta part of the street was especially sn^ 



§158.] 



OlOBTS or AfiUTTCEO OVnffKBfl. 



103 



jo«t to publto oMitrol, and that the complalnaat tad (ew«r 
pririlegei with reepecllo it than iu the sidewEiIk; an*l tUat tlic 
pol«8 wore plACod in a purt ot tho sUvut of wbiob, »o long ad it 
mi used u a street, the oompUiEant, by virtue of his title to 
tfae f«e, oonid not mak^ any Dse what€»V4}r. 

g IU. HfiNi^j T. Nfttarb. — An npplicaiuin was ra.-u]*i to tha 

Mpftf rue court of Kevr Jersey, before thtstlecision was rcntlored, 

for writs of fvrt^ontrl to rcvirw th<i ri.*»olutii*ri of tlw comtnon 

oonnoil of Kcwirir, giving pi^rmiKeiion to tii« Rapid Transit 

Street "Rj, Co. and th« Newark PaBaeogor Ity. Co. to act up 

poles utd witViA for tLc electric ctureat, ftad to also review m 

MUoanoe of the commoa coxukU of Trentoa, giving o, aiiuilar 

privilege to the Trenton llor^e liaW inxkI Ccx to use tbestroote of 

TrcntoD. Tbo court altow<Hi ih^ wnt^atiTi testimony if ai taken 

toehow whethGTattbo tivneof the paasage of theactof March i^ 

1806) olectrie motors implied tho use of poles and wires. Tbo 

M«et were tiecufod JaQuory 3, 1S'J2,^ and iho court, whfla ex- 

prenly laying tb^t it did not ren its decuion upon the rights 

of tho nbuttmg owners held tbnt tbo {loli^ and vrirv^ tveiv nn 

ohvtTTKrticn of the «treet which wbs not authorized by ihe »ta> 

ate gi^^g p«raiisfflOD to use oloutrJc motors. Tbey said tbe city 

Ooan<t:] bjul no ^niwi^r wiliimit dixtTniH' Vgi^tbith'ii ttuUii^nfy to 

permit Lh» olMtruction of tbe ^trecU, even though tli» olotruc' 

boil was inctdf-ntal to tbo laac of n street railway. Ri?ferring to 

Ibe evidence, ihcy «aid it 2Lpi>eared tbat caj& operated bv »tor' 

■go hattenea bad been in operation for live years at the time 

<^ the pajfiage of the act, and tbat, tbcreforei tbe act did not 

imply the right to use potea and wires. They said the electric 

tailtray with respect to it^ o1.«tructton of the street wa^ rather 

to be compared witb tbe atcum rjiilrouAl timn the horse railrond, 

and that the planting of polea was not an or^liLary or proper 

use of tbe street, but Uint an abi^itin^' laml-ouiior bad a rij^ht 

leeomplain if a pole vrai pet on any part of hiA land, even in 

the middle of tbe Btreet,Hnd was entitled toawrit of ^vrfi^^n 

to bare tho rcsolutioo or ordinancv tot aside. The ooort did 



iSUt^ UafKr irrcn. r. Kawftrk. A4 anminjuy of tba DndoDcaonlfc^vut^ 

JL J. L. KM; U Ml Rc|h 9n, il K J> jc^ of lie prior luo of tlu> rt««iica 

L J. »; W^tUt If rccQ prai, t. Ttco- liaUvrj and tlio trJUy My^itat uul 

ttm,iUK J UaiSS AaRnp^iia mr^rting to cnmL 
JL J.L, Journ. tS, vJtb m oote ^Tiu^ A 



ia» 



KUCTMIO VtKKi XV VHiVXn ABtD StaBWj^TB. [g 13& 



tricdly vould b« anDoving «tu'> dan^roos. Kothmg: was said 
ubout poles, but it vas li«ld tlut mere apprehcafiioQ oE f«tim 
lAJiLry was not saffideot, wpecudJf ia a cuo in wbiob laij^e 
fiumt of money haro alroiLd^ boon Bpo&t by defendant ta 
fttraeticg tLeir electric apparattis. In the otber case, its 
that the track iras wholly on the rnrther side of thd Gtn!«t, 
that the defead&nt had rcmoTod all poles and vrii«t 
front of the prumises of the plaintiff; and it was held that tb« 
plaintiff wafi entitle to no relief except & prr|xaii*J Injonotion 
ugftinst eredning polvv itnd vrires in front of his premiaea (and 
on ^ia aitle of th« street) without bia coosent. The subject was 
not difti^iiBsod, btit it would seem tliTLt the oourl UioughL Uui 
the Milting np of point in the pliuatifTa land in tbti street was 
an invaaion of hm rlgt^ts. 

I W8, Detroit City By, Co, t. Mills on appeal.— These d^ 
GiKiDus irere fdllumvl, ho^vwer. hy ;uioLher at the arao lerm 
relating to the same kind of electrical apparatus.' The con* 
pl&inant vras a stre«t railvray company baring lines in the citr 
of Detroit^ And vos iLUlhortzt.Hl by the conunon eounoU to ex- 
tend it^ liQL^ thrcu^b Hack street, and to eufaatitnte in iiou of 
animal power such system of olcctrio or other motiro power, 
exoept ateam, as shuoM saom bef^ upon any nnd Jl of its Hnce. 
Poke were put up alcng both sided of Kack street in ^nt of 
the defentlant's l^in Js„ and he cut them down and threatened to 
continue to do so as often as they were pat up. On a bill filed 
for injunction a^nst this, and on a crocs-bill praying a per- 
pettial injunction agiiinxt tho tm? of tbo niilway, it wan \M 
that in the absence of injury to his rightof ingress and egreei, 
rnd to liiH riglkt uf fr^ie pussnge ovx>r thi.* stn^i^t, tho ubutting 
Innd-civrni^r bail no luil!qk to cornplaSii of |)oW tct-t tip for the 
purpose of propelling street cara for public traveh 

Thcrp vfH9 n di(Ivrcnc*?t of opinion IwHwcpn the judges. Thp۩ 
o^ncnrred in the decblon and two diMented, Gntnt, <T., with 
whom Long, J., concurred, m^ntaincd emphatkalty that how- 
erer it mi^'ht be with country highways, it was well settled 
tha* the atrccta of a city might be used for any purpose wUch 
was a noeoscary public cnci and that for any such nao the ahoV 
tiDg land-owner would not bo enttUed to a new eotnpensatioo 

HWtncrtft n»t7lLRr. UllKa5UKl>.«H4aK W.Bep. lODT, lORRA 
Corp. U J. lOi (BlAf 8, UXfl). 



fflwtljcr ho owdcmI ihv fo in iho stppot or not ITe referred lo 
ibe cases in vhieh liltad been Ik^IiI UiiLtbor»vm!lroailft aroiiot 
4 Dew burden apGn the lane), ami s^iii the «]ectrFc mflnay wbji 
onlynaiinpmvE-il tmttiKHl or iimScing the mine use of th^ streets. 
"The poles," he aai<l, *'ar« a f)ec4<SMry f»rt vt thrt Kpt4-in. 
WUcA they do not interfere with the OTrner's access lo am! iwa 
of hU Unci, ve see oo xtMon wby tbcy should be hold to coo- 
stitnte an additional servitude.^ 

Oh^mplm, C. J., while concurring in tho decision, said he was 
not prcpmred to any that 4 stn^ot railroftd tr^k vras In itcoLf no 
additional bnrdea; that ho thcught it wsis^ but to what cxUnt 
would depend npcn all tho ciicnmstanccs of tho cose. If in any 
one it bccom<« a nui^nco and oawies damc^, tho abutting 
ownor haa bia romo'Jy at law. And ao with re^^ard to tb© cet* 
ting of poWs tn 3id Uio propulsion of can byol9ctricitT,hflsaid; 
"I do noc think ordinarily it is aacb a taldng of private prof>* 
erty as r9<|Qirv« oondemnattcn and compensation before tho 
poks can bo lu^t; tut 1 think that if the ownrr KiilTi'r>; dumago 
on account of the oreiiUon of potea, he ahoulil a^ek his remedy 
st law for Biic-h r1ninAgir%'^ McC^nith nnil 'MarM^, JJ.^ (Ii«8cnt«d; 
UcQmth, J,, iiixLttt^fl moRt earme^tly that ^ Hfn'iiL nLiTwj^y^ 
whether operate] by animal power, electricity or &t£^fLEu, was aa 
additioDAl bnrdcn. *' Any Gxcd right of way in & street*^* boaaid, 
" if a burden upon that stn^et. Any uio of a atn^ct, a tike uao of 
whkb is not common to all, is a new s-^mtude. Any uac of a 
itrcct which narrow* the strc^et, or which intcrfcn.'a with tho 
ue of any part of the street by the public, or 0DnflD«e tho 
public to a uso of but a part of tho etrooU is an added burden-*' 
AndhonaJoa^stron^ar^umQQttoabow that noroilroadoogbt 
to be allowed to be operat>»d in a street without makin;^ com- 
punation 10 1h^ bnd-owncr for thry dnningo actually susUuaed 
bj reason of the c^n^ ia the use of the BtreeL 

Hone, J^ concurn^il in this opinioo^ and insisted also tbat 
Iha opomt&on of a street railwiiy, and ei[>ocialty an i^ioctnc rail- 
way, hsterrered with the access 10 property and with ordinary 
IrareJ, and was injurious to tho property nnd disagreeable to 
thsowDrni.and tbat puhlco coDvi'nteiiE?ii wax ntAagttod reason 
lor ioflictiog injury upon individuaU without com|iea«itian. 

It is to be obeerred tbat these <lt«scnting opaniors makti no 
dittinction between tho eioclTic railway and tbe hor^ milway- 



The former nuy b« a little wone, but both mre on principle ft 
pervsmoD of tbo pnrpoM of tbe street aod & dasui^ to the 
lAnd^owner. That is not m quMtioii we need attonipt to dts- 
ciiBi. We hare to do only wlih use of the poles and wina,aad 
tlwrv is no reason given in itese disaentinj- opinions why the 
eteelTJO i^t«nn nwj not be nsoi if it is dctrrmmed thatft horm 
railway in & jiruiirr lutu of tlii; atmi-t* In a lat^r c^m la Vichl* 
gnn relating to a railroad operale^I by a dummy steam engiae 
the decision ia l\tv Mills caso was spjiroviM], and the ootirt nid 
the aoflwer to the ()tte^ion whetber Lhti tand-owner was entitled 
to conspcnaatioa or not depended on the mode of oso of the 
street rather tbaa on the motive power employed,* 

g 130. Tbe same — Later cases— Maryland.— In tbe first 
edition of this book, when tbe subject wss new, it was impor 
tant 10 d««cribo in some doiail ail the casos that had tben 
appeared, and it aeems beet now to let this acoomit remain anb- 
staatially as it was tbon writtea, bat the iater casce hare boon 
nLuu^roiu, arwl tltoy !mvJ3 geuerully followed the tendeney el 
the earlier decisiotts^ and it will noi b<> neeessary to examine 
niaay of tbc^oi in (UtaiL The early duct«toD« ia Bhodc Island, 
Xew Jersey, Penuaylvania and Micbigan hare been the lead- 
ing cascSf and tin? priD<;ipW su^^^st'i'd in tiivm have b«^ 
ulupttHl uud foltownl Ut tliHir projier conclusions. ^^H 

ilnTimcy v.Tro^ft lAa»i»jEbun£lj coimnnt of Uic t^nngra of one fcdf tbo 

[ir»j>?rty bsLn^ rpqaiCMl bj tli* ooa- 
MitutioD for the ocMwtrvotion of a 
Blroot milvnj, It wu bdd Ihst ■■ 
«ltcU^c nilnny cuuli not bv ImBt 
ttiti^out It; but la Uio TUrd Avne* 
Railroad QUO. whora It apponradthsl 
Ui« chorus of ft hann nUlnjnd wtt 
gnMUtdit^trnf tUapmrn-iuwinnnl pro 
rutoQ wi ado;A*J< It HWi li«LJ Uul 
tbo c^nxAut wn« Dot mitiirvl fov a 
ohaQgii to tfin lUiblv ^nttfto. 

3 Mrh»la r Abti Arbor A T. St R 
a Cc^ ST Midi. 801. 40 IC. -W, lt«fb 
5391 S0«<li.X.gi;i 

and followed [a Utrr cima ia Ulchl' 
CaiL Poupttf T. FL Wajne, auu A 
S, W, R*ik JO W; Itasn V. Aaa Jlrbor, 



K ILCoih 04 Honn fh'ia li trai hpld that 
«n to joactloa agnioiit tho use of potc* 
ibould be vjii^Atod wb«ro It appnuod 
tbat C)i» plKiMJff hart oo (urihvi In- 
^luoiamoDl CO praai bin mil. and ilmC 
tbe ^<ct of tbo f nJuDct Job viM>u]d bo 
to rt^t&rd tt norb i^f irubJl-: utLiHr- 
In n» Ri>-hp4<i^ KbvtHo R R. Ocx, 

It was boM tTiAt whf?r« tb« ccujftitu- 
tloo raqnirm cvmn^nl of one-tudf tbu 
propvt^ Oirnotit bt'foro prcOMfdingii 
aro tnliui to c>?adoma bad tor % 
«trwit nillwAy* tlu* eooarct i* a pro- 
roqubau (A pFaMHKllnf|*t ta nondiwnn 
pcimto pruiMrij foe AH olocrttw TSil^ 
way. 8eo aUo Poopte v. (Jilroj. S K. 
T. Supph a*>t« asS; In ra Tliinl At*. 
Jt IL Co. M N- C Kvp^ set t!C, Y-V 

la Ui« loirnet n«e (Oilt^jr'i^ the 



$i4a] 



HtaBTS OF lAimiyo dVSVHfl, 



t» 



Tbo eoort of appeals of Karylan<l, ia Jannaryt ISflS, rofer*- 
rln^ to toiDo of tlioM iLociiionSf said tbd qxid^lion bat] been 
fn)ly consi<len>d l>v the h]ghi-s.i eourl* of ntla»r ^tatt-ji, hekI the«o 
rourU, 1^'itlioac a single ^xcpptioti, bad hold the use of olectric- 
ity fiw {wijtoniDg Blm'Wtar* Ui 1w » kgitimiitft lsj* of thv strwTt 
for UtaL pu^J)nsf^ iiml UiaL tlio <tiv^iNliinH |in>c<tit4l u|kiti tli» prin- 
ciple that it ia but a now iziotlvif power, in no aiaucer iooon- 
sittteot vitb U» iue« ami piir|iii«i?ft for which »lrrot« irorc opi-^nc^d 
and deifkatf^d na vravs fur public travKlJ ThiA decision was 
npprored aad follo\Tci by tho saino court in IS9^^ and it waa 
hold thflt am electric railway might be built and operated on 
a tnrapil{^, wiUiout compenaatlon to tbe abutting owDer% &1- 
tlioogb when tho land vras taken it vta.s not contemptatcd that 
any nulimy vrns to bo ki<L upon ttio niaJ. Tbo oouit gaid, 
however, tbnt tbo company must remember that it has no ex- 
chasiTO right to tbo bi^^bway, and mndt ro^tpcot the rigbta of 
otbtfTB equally entitleil to it^ use.' 

5 IW- Later cases — Pennsylranla.— There were several 

drains in I'ennsylvanin to the »amd effect <liiring Lfx' yeiLr 

18Wl In Jiufah, */<!. 7?y. Co. w, 2>u B<yi^ Pirn. 7'y. Cc. the 

aoprane eourc alBrmed the deoi^nn of the common plens la 

which the court followed the Taj^gart nnd I-ofrUliart nttimf<^ and 

ibal thnt^ if ihn npplittiiliim nf rleolrklty to tbe hauling of 

•treet cara did not ma^temlly interfere with t)io ueo of tbo 

llrert by the public for other pnjprr piirjwuMis, it did not iin- 

fomvL ncwaemtudt; oriiireL:ttherjj,'hU(>f tbr^abuttmgowner.' 

80 alio in Fca n. Cat^arin^ d!- Baititfri<t^9 IStr^'cU lit/. Co,* tbo 

Phihulelpbia comiDon plea«, following tlii) l^ckhart oaae, ro* 

toied on iDJunctioD at the »Qit of an abutting land-owner against 

tiie constrtiction of the overhead trolley system in the etrcct> 

la Wat^in I). W€/ft PMhj, Pa^. /?y.* it was conet^led that a 

coapaoy orgnnixcd before eleetrio jK>vrt>r vaa known eould» 

ttd«r it9 old charter, adopt and nso eloetricity ; hut an injuno- 

tMft iraa aliowod bocaueo tbo necessary municipal consent had 



B^m 4 Am, KL Cm. U1 

^ 111 AM. » AtL Rctx G^ i Am. 
IL (^ 9G& 500 fthu PcxjIv y. Falls 
Ovi Oj. Ox (JU-h «1 AU Bi>i^ 10fr» 



>140 Fd. St. t S4 Atl Rep. 179, 4 
Am-ELtbiLSlTILeOBi 

<13 PLCaCt£opk:aOL4 An-EL 
Cm. l£9<isafi!. 

M Fa, DUt Ct B«p. 4a3(JuDa8S^ 



L 



IW 



BLECISJG Vma T3 mSETS >5D filOBWATa 



[S1«L 



mnrmnr oocnmoa pinw suil, wkh scirnn rttluu-tAuoi), thiit Ui« quet- 
Uoa mta no Ifnger bh opea one, bat had been decided b^ tie 
npreme coqK in furor of the cotnpfliiij, aod Hm carlior cotMi 
quoWd m Uuft ebapt^r v«r« dt«d And «pprOTed by the ooiirt<tf 
comiDOii pkftB of Loi^rne coao ty, OQ FebruftTj 8, 1892 ; ' bot in I 
later ca*o in Uie raprenM coul'&ii iDjunctioa w««gTUit«dtc 
an abntting owner agninsl tho constmctioa of aD electric nii- 
iray witbout Uvfol authortLy. oo Uia groand thaCk beio; n&ifr 
tborixxl, it was a aidaanoe^ which be^ hariiig a epocial lotomt 
in tho sitrott, bad a rigbL to a^k tbo ooort of equity to cajoou' 

it aoenia to bo now well iotUcd, hoirerer, in PennsjlTmok 
that the q>en tktt of a Btroet railway oa a pnbUc fitrooi, whotbcr 
by bonce, cnblo or oloctrict^, wb«a auibomed by law, is- 
poaea no addiUoaal aorTittido apon the land which will «nl^B 
tiw owmar to oompensatioiL* 

Tbcca oaaoB rafftrrod to alaotric ratlwayi od city rtroota^ bat 
on Janaaiy 4, 1S1>2, the supreme coatt decUne<l to paa on th« 
qiKatioa of the effect of an electric nulway upon u rami higlv 
way, but dicsolTed a prelimiDary i&jaactioD *o that the ct» 
migbt go to final boaring; and aftarwards In IS9^ the saprefot 
oourt decided thai under the FefintyWanM sbUates providin; 
for taking lands for county roads they were notanlijcct totha 
0ino nurnu'tirs as city sirv^l^ and the construetion of an elcc- 
trio tailway imposed a new servitude for which the liind-awnm 
were entiUod to i.T>tii[>c'iisattnn* 



lar^ Di^ Ct B«p. 45^ 4 Am. EL 
ltl^CaCLK4^4t7,4 Am-EIOu. 

Mil 

Ca, UT F^ Bil«L SI aa BciK 4»» 

aAa.KLOi4,n^oaasv 

fiif*h * <VJMi «ntK mtuiied on tlv gtnuiul 
that tbe pUtstitf m abntuog ova«r 
hot) iKii0QahaR;itiri»ltat«*«i4in|ho 
nuiirr Ki to «Ql it^ hilm to nlW. but 

Cq,cv>^P it^lIBK J. UJ.aoa.33 



Aan«Tp.2:asAoxELGk&iTftrtfln& 

Bui OA ui sfplkAtJon nftda bf ^ 
■ttonsoj-gift—l witb Tcap«ct totba 

iVm VM snnud- StccktAn v, A^ 
kuUSo H^hUacte «to Kf. Co. OK 

J. El). 418, aa Aa itcfL «8o (taou. 

*P«tcenoo T. mutton. ^ Oo^ 

PtMi^ 8 Eirfp, &3* (1»9T»: lUOntf «. 
Ccfiitnl T»rtio« Co, S& W. N. a Kl 
» ML Rfr|L e$4: OolUitf T. CMoo- 
dAlA Trnntoii Ok, S Ptt, DivL K«ph lAt 
FtiUft. A T. fi. O^ T. Pbihb ft E Pl» 
K7. Gou 6 ra. DbC Hep. 497. 

* II«l!inAn T. I^baaoft ft A. 8t B|^ 
Ox. ! ts F^ Sl rj. 4 aa. el CbA 13S: 
Taatu R S. Co^ V, M^mtcomvrj Op. 



gg lit, 14$,] EICBTB Ct ABUT71K0 OWNKIta. 



171 



% HU LaUr coses In New Jersey — In thmiMry.-^Tho 
dDcisioa of VtcMlJh&QocUor Van Fleet in the llai»<T cows in 
ITew Jtrwvy trai foUowud tho Doxt year by Vioe-Chancellor 
Oneo IQ a roU-oaiu>d«rod opinion. It wnA a bill by a 0b<«t 
nulwfty coiDpany prajinj* for an injQOCtioii a^&inat cutting 
tha electric f<Nxl wiro su«p«Di]od in Tront of the defeatlant's 
bociaee. There were tk> pole« in fron: of hi« land, and (ho wiro 
iws vUvtcbod alon^ tbo line of the cnrbstono about tvrenty-two 
fwt above tli« gToti!uL Tlic TicMvchnncHlor suil that if tho 
toe of the street fof an electric railway wiu aiitljori^^l by utat- 
llto tho righte of the defcTidfiiit were subject thereto, unless 
VBcli fWB lin]]iMeil an itflilitinn.U iHrrvitmlo; that tfif^sprcial righbi 
oftboabattin^ owner were thH^//W-eaHnriwrt till of li^ltLaai) air, 
the ri^bt of ingnsa and egri^ssj and the righu to have the upper 
vtorktf free of obatmction in ouc of firo or other emergency; 
and it was obrioiis, be said, tbat the wire could not interfere 
with any of tbcso except the last, and as to this tbero was no 
proof of any danger^or that it could not be qiuckly and sofoly 
rrawred in caso of cmer^ncy, and be beld that tho act ctf tha 
eomplaiiuuii in stringing the wire in front of the dcfcndant'n 
ppemtBeft, if aathoriz^ by statute,' woe not euch on inrasion of 
Ibadofondant'srighuof adjacerLcy as to entitle Mm to com- 
paasation. 

g 149. Later eases — »w Jersey — Supreme coart and 
fanrt of errors,— In Ho^in^v. Trentonj' in 1894, on nn ap- 
plicvtiott by an abutting owner for a «tay uf prrK'i:^iing« on 
ttriufrari to an ordinance autho riling til b conitrnetion of an 
electric mtlnray in a rily ?itr<<i't', thn Nrw Ji%nM.ty siiprvme oourt 
■ikl: ^ It is dcmhtful ^vhetpher the pruhtH!Ulon< or ahuttiii^ own- 
m have in the street any right if hich is violated by the ereo- 
tioo and taainlenaiKc of trolley poles and wirce in front of 
^leir premises andcv- legisUtivc autbonty/' The appLication 
wns denied^ and tho decision was afterwards aJfirmcd by tho 
coart of errors on tho ground th^it the ordinance did not necc*- 
suily inTolTo tho taking of phvato property without compdD< 
lation, and was thert^foru not invalid." 



fM. iiy. Co, !if7 f^ IH. as.ti All 

* He liold MM It WW m atuhorUcd. 
6h lb* ^Mnuadna of ilili cam la 



> ve AU Hop. i«A ^ XttL kl Cm. laa 

<11AIK 

1^ 17'^ tn/ro. 



\n 



XLXcruBC wtuxA tat tmmm ±xo tuon-wxr^ 



Co^ a stcmni mtlroad oorapany sought to enjoin the cnndikg 
of th^ir Ibe bv a trolley railvrsy oh & public str^t^ c 
rigljUasowtii>nioriiLii[l rronUngiiii tliOKtriwU Tlioc 
(KcOill) wu'il: Tbe owaeniLIj) of the fe« In the waM of a pnb- 
IiD street was subordio^tu to the na>) of it for tbe parpowa of a 
higfawajr but that th« nicjins of ^cb use coald not bo dclinJtcly 
defiaoilr but ch;ingo(l vrith the incffsAse of population iinil ktiUi 
new wanla and itDproremt^nts. The iM)m railway had been 
hold to be a lawfat «{^rvitade. white thcstcamniii way bad been 
fouDd to be incompatible with the oonunon use of th<i highway, 
Tho electric railway aa now ordinarily in ubo stands ia a de- 
gree U'twccn the horaj and steam r&ilti'fty. Ill rails do not 
mnterially int<^rfcre with tbe ordinary' use of the highway; its 
motive powor, while grater than that of the hc»ee ear, do» 
not involve the noise and danger of tho sleaca locomotive an4 
tr^n of cara; and although ita capacity for speed is gri^at, thie 
is subject to munictp&t control. As ut prcaent operated, tbere- 
fore^ ho fj;id h^ thuugbt the utio of the electric railway in the 
fttrc^ta dill noi Impose a new servitude upon the land nor en- 
title the abutting owni?r to cotnprmsattoa. ETe made tho sag- 
gi?«Liou, hitwifTtr, that tlds question depended wry muoh iipoa 
the mode of opi-nilion of tbe railway; and tlial if tbe olrctria 
niitway shtnjld bs openited with tmios of cars for through 
traflic t» tbe obfltnictiou of olber iisi*s of tbt^ Bitrmft and with- 
out any accoinmcxlaUon to i\x^ ordinary local travel, the court 
might be obliged to declare it incomputiblc with tho ordinary 
u;»c4 and an additional i^t^rvilitde iip<jn the land. 

With rcapoct to the planting of poles near tbe curbstone, tho 
chancellor sotd that post9 of various kinda had been placed 
there for variocait ]>Ltr|>o!to[t incidontal to the use of the highway 
and woro not regarded as an additional burden, and It waa dif- 
ficult to porooivo why poles which accommodate a convenient 
use of the highway by a street railway should be ivgardt^d dif- 
fercDtly from tbeae. He added^ however, that if tbey aeioaUy 
iuu<rU<n;d with ncccss to tbe land or injured improvements 
made by tbe Uind'Owner in the sidewalk, he might be ontitled 
to compensation. 



'OK. J. Eq. 3b e» AU IZrp. U9, a Am. EL Cha 18T (June 13, UH^ 



1 



JUi] 



viaaTs OF ABimnco ovxbesl 



1T8 



Bfiforo ibis, hoverer, th« supreme coart m another case ap- 
prored &Dd foLlotr^d tho conclusioiu of th« court of ohuncory 
abo«« refecTed (o. In Ktnndlif v. Jersey Cify^ tbe queetion 
410*0 dlrecUir whether the lrolli»ysysl#in, invuUing the rrpction 
of poles umI win**! in t1it; slrni^U, Ix wlth'm Lh« puliHu easeitient 
over orbiui highwAvx, atiil the t^ourL itcH^iOM) thji£ H wan. 
DIxuu, J^, reading the opiDion of the court, said : "That eu»rt- 
ment incluUra tikc right to iisv tho stret^t for ji(ir[>oirs of |ihb- 
«ge by thr jnihlic, and tbertifijiv to t3ti]lQjr any in«unft djrccUy 
cmdndTO to that end vrhich do not subataatiaLly latciTcro 
iritit the ctutonur^' use of the street bynnyporUon of the pub- 
tio or with Uio rocognii^ rights of nbuttJng o^rntrrs- The curs 
propelled by tbo trcUoy sN'slcm do not materially diircr»citber 
iR ftppcerADCc or iue» from the ordinnrj' hor&o olvq. Thoy arc 
pennltted to go along the street in auob a manii(>r only i\3 is 
compatible with the customary modoa of travel by otbers of 
the pobjia' And tbo tnolfs, polcA 4iiid vrtruts cnu^ no greutcr 
dfttniDent to adjoining property than do the tracks, soircrfj 
pipes, posts and treee which, iodtfipntably, tbe pablic may au- 
tborise to be pln^od in the street. Th<40 conKfii orations^ we 
tblnlc, lead to tbe condition reached by the learned vice-chan- 
r*Ilor of this slate in Hahfy u. Iinp\d Transit Sl Ry. Co.^ sjid 
fiO^rtttn i?y, Co,v^ ^ritW^/jind by uhri Irariitd difirrvllor in 
Wat Jer^^ Z^- ^' *^' CiW^^n^ G. rf? W. Ry. Co.* t*lJLt the 
OtaJoptioa of the tJoUey syatom for the Gonveyance of passen- 
£m Uirougb \li» ntn<etit of « city docs not neocn«itate thu iavft- 
ton of any private rt^ht." 

Afterword tbe court of erroTB affirmed tbo judgment of tbe 
npmae court id the Eoebliog case.* It wu> a <rrtu>rirri to ait 
erdbunee aothoraing a horse railroad company to it»e eleetrio 
&oior%aiidpQti3ppoleeaiid wirca in the streets, and the court 
ittfosod to set aside the ordinance as an atti>mpt tot^l^o prirute 
{mp^rty iritbotiioompensation. Dcpui?, J,, reading the opinion 
eftbe court, said: " lagree with those caecB in our courts which 
hoU that the suhstltLitioii of the trolley sTOtein for horses oa 



"m N, J. u »ft 30 Ml Rt^ m, 

IN -urk Pmot. Ujr.CaT. Block, 03 

^.a. i-sia 



<K! K, J. Eq. fit 

< lEaablLUK *- Trecloti PiWL By. Co. 
OtI X X L* 45e« 110W}. U Aa Kap^ 



lU 



BLEcmiC WIBK8 Uf STBESTS AVD BlOOWATe. [| 143. 



Atrcftt n:1ro;idfi does not j>er k create an additional caaomcDt 
The injury w> property which woold giro the proscoutriac a Ic^ 
grovod of compluint doc4 Dot K]»riD^ from tlio kind of motors 
used." With reganl lo tho contcntioa that tiio pok« wen 
oroctcd on tho Und of tho prosecutrix, and tfaftt to thii extent 
tlicTO waa a ttihing of pn7ato propiMlv, the oonrt avoided a 
direct deciBiCBT and aaid that the statute which underLay tbo 
ordinance made no prevision for llko condemnation of pHTat« 
property, and |>urport«d only to confer the public ooB^m^^ 
and to moke it ih^ duty of the muotcipality to dcfiignato th<» 
location of tbo polva with a vk w to tho publio conveni«n<^ 
leaving it to iho companies to ne^tiate with the land-ownav 
if any private rights were inierfered witk The oirlinaiicif, 
thcivfori^^ wu« rtrjl. inv^diJ, utid if ;iny privMii^ proportj weiu 
UtkeiL by reoscin of the ]>)antln)f of Ui^t poles, or injnred by r«a- 
BOP of the iLOflo of opur:Ltioa of tho railway, tho lund-owocn 
bad their remvdy by Kuit n^UQftt tho oompainy- 

Tlic^e dcctsitinei related to city streets, and in a ca^e decided 
in June, 1S95, the chuacollor doclorod that it waa atili an en- 
settled question tu New Jersey whetiicr the couttraotion of an 
electrifl railway did not impose an additional servitude upon a 
country highwoy. It hod been decided in PonaaylTftoui that it 
did* bui^ that decision n^€tcd, he said, upon the statut«« by whioh 
land ia acquired for country roads in that state, nnd there h^ 
been no decision in Xow Jersey npon tbo claim now made that 
thoffo is a wiirked distinction l«twe«>n the servitnde of land fee 
country roads and Uiat of land for city ^reots.^ 

% 143. Later ca«es In other statea. — In >rew York the con- 
troveisy between the tvWphoDe eompiofea and the electric mil* 
way eompanies with regard to tho right to qm tho streeu tot 
their olectrio otirrenta resulted io a decision ipbat tlie electric 
railway waa a proper use of die atreeta wtUiin tho purpoww for 
which atreeia were laid out;' and, as a oonaeqaenoe, it haa bwn 
ht*ld tbut tho rights of abutting owneva who do not own the 



iBordou T. Atlantic Blslkluid^ 

•ir. uj. ctv, IS N. J. T. aai. ai au. 

RopH if;0. ^ Ank El. CoA iTI'i P«cn. 

Bj, Ox, 167 hk sc ax ai Ad lUfk 

408, & Am. EL Vm, IQL Sw> bcw. 



Vrii4rTll«e TurnplkA A R IL Oou H 
Hmi. «7, 131 f(. ¥. an, 13a K- T. 301 
Hicve aoBea w fulljr dbooaod m 
otLlLiaiand ch-XlV.gaianLJ 



§145-1 



SlflHTS or AB17TTri«a OVXKSO. 



173 



iM oro not affected by th/& mere changes o£ motive power from 
hone power to eleclridty.' 

In a rvoont ouo noting to a »tnK't niHroail in X^jw York 
city, irbere tlie w1r«s were laid in a condmc undi^r^rouiid, the 
Mtipreme conrthetrl that U could not Iminfi'rrnd t)iH^oven witli 
ibfl aw of four tnrk« htuI i^Im^Lrit; ^iov/it, Llvri* would 1hi sii 
exclmire appfO|iriaiioa of a f^nrtiouof tLtf street to otticr tbaii 
tli« cdstofTury street uks, anil th»l tli^it would dqK^md upon tho 
Mined and fr«<]uvDcy witU ivliicb tlie can were run; but it waa 
bold tbat the ooodent of a, c^rtala projxirtioa of the property * 
owners most first be obtained, bccanso t^ stittitc required tho 
oonieiii of the prot>erty owners to tlm kind of motive power 
proposed to bo oaed for a street riiL^ray.^ 

Id DMn 9. Aj\n Ari^or St. liy, Co} (October 27^ 1S93). tiio 
supreme court of Miehigaa rcaEfirmt^d ite deciaiona in Dairtni 
City V?y. Co. t^ JfUU and I'^^-ia v. /?. Wjt^A^, ^<t, J2f^. Cc* 

la a COM ]Q Utah in 1995, the su|ircme court bold that 
vheiber tbo fee of the land in ibe street be la the municipality 
or in the abutting o'^^ut^r, tbe abutter has the eii«oinrTit« of 
■eeoea, and of Itgbt anJ air, which are property tigbta of whloh 
ha cwmol be depriTwl without compensation; and that althoagb 
U ekwtric railwny is a legiliimito wso of tb« %iTiv.i tar whirb, 
as a gTTK-nd thing, [h> coi»|H-ii%;ilio]i nrii^d ha iiiaile, yet the 
abutting owner is entiiled to an injunction agnin«t ihu lay- 
lag of a third track and tho rroction of uiiditionul pol^-9 mIiii^Il 
maid affect the alcch^ to ht:i land and tTijnre hia property,^ 

ta a caae in Tcjsa^ decider] in tbo saeqc ycur, it w^ hold tbut 
tbe conatrnction of an electrio railway in a alreet whore there 
irere alresdy two tncka did not impoao an additional buiden 
ipou tbo land, altlioiigh the line was ni-tir tiio ourhtitoiie, and 
lAfi nmaing of the ean interfered with the plaintiS^s bnamees. 
Tb« court aa^d it had been decided in Texa^ttiatborse railroad* 
M not inipo^io an additional buivK^a on the street, and that 
be autboritiec were all agreed that there wna no diatinetioa 
m UlU refrpect between an electric railway nnd a honto raiU 



iTTwlftifil r. Cjyvif UlAnd,*tC. IL 
avd*. U <K. Y. Sup. CU, ISUOt. 



m umb. 030, fid N. vr. vt^ sm, 

4 Ahl UL CWk im 

«pe uioh. saa. as n. w. Ui^ idiol 

» Block «. Sail L«k» city l£>4|»d 
T>iuitf( Ca. $ Ant R RACorfhEUiL 



L 



17» 



KLKCTBIO WIOEA ISf ffTIWrTS AVU UIOHWATS. 



111**. 



vmy} The electric con bad no exclDsire rtgbU in the strFCt, 
and the use of tbem is subject to th^ ptaintaJTs nght of loons. 

AnJ in anotlirr c:l5o it n'ms ht^M by Uio Tt^xaft (?ourt of ip* 
peaU tlj;it wbt?n Ui^ ft?4> of t!ie str^t in ia the public and the 
mitjority of the nbntting owners have consentMl to tlra gnatof 
a rig^ht (io coTislmct the liri^ in the strct-t, tlici iMiilcIin^ of iho 
railroad is not a " diking" of privulw property, and etjuity will 
not gntnl an injuncLioit, bat will leave the owDera to tkdr 
reniedy at Liw ivitb rc«poct 10 thrlr olaiitis for dmnages.* 

§ 144. A dltfereiit riftir tn Nebraska.— Another view of 
the matter was tJikcD by tho euprcmo coart of Xcbmik^ 
Itagan, C, in a cn«e dtci(ictl ia 1S&3,' disniMed many of ih* 
anthoritica cited in thU cba-ptor; and, while admitting that 
Uic use of tbc street by the electric cars was practically tita 
daiQ€ aa tliat of horsu cur^ he c^iticUT^d the asaomptioti made 
in some of the caaca that the electric railway did not occupy 
tho street tiny more cxolusiroly than tbc hcrso railway did, 
and said: "Whether a uae tnado of a»trceti9 tin nddittooal 
burden upou tho casomoDt we do not think depends upon iha 
motive povrcr which movca the vehicle employed. It dcpeods 
upon the question whether the vehicle and appliances ti«d in 
and necessary to etTccLuate that pnrpoae, permanently oaA ex- 
clusively occupy all or a portion of the atroct to tho exolusioa 
of tho rest of thv publLe» If they do not, ihon it i£ not an ad- 
ditional burden; if they do, it is." Tho case was heard upon 
demurrer to a bill which &lk^;^d that tho polijs and wuva am! 
pOABige of trains inierferGd with tha plaiuUtTk in^rece and 
egress and depreciated the value of her property. Kyan, C, 
who concurred in tho jndgment, said bo preferred to pUice tJi 
concurrence on narrower gronnds, and. n>ferrjng to th<^e avs^ 
Tnents in the bill, said he thought that if poles and wiivt 
wore so plucetl ns to interfere with the ptaintifTs inj^^re«a sail 
cgFLss ;iiui her view from ht?r preiiiisysj and her property hul 
depreciated in value, she waa entitled to redress in viow of tJiat 
provision of the eonstitutioa of Nebrjiaha wlikh declares that 



I UmtHirgBT T, San ArlflfiTn Rnpfil 
Tmnait St Uy. Co., Sa Tex. 7^ 5 Aol 

18 Tet CiT. App, 158, B6 S. W. 1£«J^ 



JUl Sea t.\no StQwnrt r. ChiOifOlL 
8tv lly. Co., ^ la A|-|\ ML 



$!«.] 



BIGBTS OF >3CTnK0 <lW>'£2a. 



177 



" the property of ao person shall bo taken or damaged mtbout 
joctcomponsfttion thorofor." 

Witliout qnotlvg other cascc in dotoil. It li cnovgb to sty 
thai i: hafl novr been deciddd in many other stateB that the 
chftDg9 of motive power from horao to eloclricity dotx not ol 
itmAS cfaani^c- Uxe ciiLumcu-r of a slroet railway of iho rjgbu of 
ike atmtilcg owners with respect thereto, and that an electric 
str«et panoQger nulvray in city streets, opvrutoci by electricity 
by meiinji of wires ovt-rliead »i]f»j»fiilijd on jwiles pbct^l on the 
edge of tJiB fiideiralk or underground in a coniluLt^ docs not 
impoAO an a<kntional bnnlt^ on tho fee of btic lund In thv >trcct 
aoaa toentlUe Ui6]andH:>nn>^rb( U»4^ufii[>HnB?ttion-^ 

S 144, ConclnBtontu — It is no doDbt tr^ that all niilroadfl 
do affect in Aomcdc^grvothciucof astrcct; th«y do claim some 
ezcluaro use; they divide the street into two parts; and if it 
is Darrovr, tiicy nuJcc it impositbic to Icarc a ^vogon jitanding 
at tho cnrbstona The electric road may have some additionU 
donontfl of daoj^er and obstruction, and it may woU be that 
the fiolation of tho difliculty is to ho found in tli« auggcstiozi 
that* person who suOora aetual dama^ gUall be entitled to 
eoiapGnsation for the injury he fiusuinsv %Vb«thor tho opcra- 
taon of the railnnuliaa ncwbunh^n la a different (]iiestloD,&nrl 
It might tond to a reconciliation of the eas^^s and the adoption 
ef a uniform nile if the qtieslion of new burden were Left on 
9D0 sideband Vtw, atLontion n^cini din^oted to Uia practice queA* 
tion whether or not the rigljU and privilegea of the abalting 
owner in Vtto nso of the stroct wvrt} afTtxTtixi by tho oiwrnUon 

■Taylor T. FUttmouth. K. £ V. St Uelud iCtootrIc Ox, 9S Tftan, 40% ES 

R W, Rep. 101 aSU); SU-«*^rt r. Gbf- 
cn^ O. 8L By. CU. nd ni Apj;. 44S 
( IBOUk rhlmgo A W, L R (>L T. Owi- 
•T&l l£UK:triO Ur Co^ TV III Ap^ fiW 
{ISOOi; riAckov* Union Dapot Br- Ca* 

S-*I1« ». ColumbtM 8L fty. Co (OliiOl, 
n Wkly. U a 17U.4 Am, Et. Cm LCa 
Aa kj tilt* rijclit of odioii for pliu> 
!nc Ik tml!i^ polv In ffonl of jilniot- 
Un» pronuMi witlictit ni«aMitjv»d 

Is SDOll « W&r AH to ciuuc oSllorMKO 
iBon 8L l*j, Co. lOtt lowu. "J^ 70 K. 

Mf, vuf^ 170 liases 



Br- c<^ 1^1 Uc 103; so au Rop. noo 

Oh. I«r HWA 44k 44 K K, P^F^ ^VK. 
«lUiiWte(lBil)iCkaa«LoUKulr»Co. 
V. NffirfaiKtai Tramvttj <%>. <tD Cbnn. 
t« aw ALL rtffi llJyT; R>>M v. Nor- 

bfL 498, se L. a A, n (t8»n u*t> 

lU V. Inln>=>a(]|iuM Rj. Co. 119 
K a lep*!, »4 ft V* n*Ti <W7 (IfrWi: 
IVI^ W. * R R R C<i •- Wii- 
■Inicbxi Ci»T At- Co^ f1>«t CK). 39 
AtL Bcfv lOOT nmm: BlnniD^hnui 
T^««tkiii Gx V- IttmiEnshaai Kr. dC 
Bn. Ok lAlft-l, f4 & Re|\ !»»} (1 WS)e 
QiAbtfbDd Tvlog, dt X«i«pk Ca v, 
IS 



KB 



BLKCTBIO WntEA (H £Tft&ei8 AXO BtOatTATf* [S IR 



of the railroad. It is not iho raottre power, but the mode of 
vsiiig the street, wbicb determines the qac^tioQ ivhctlier the 
nitrond coflutitntcs a new bordco Dpoa the Uuitl ; and if *be rul- 
roftd ifl not a new burden, tbe polea and wirea, being in fibc^a 
port of the railroad and intended for tbe parpceo of opoEiiiog' 
it, do not constitute a bunion aiKl nro not an injnrjr to t^e land- 
owner, imleas, aa a matter oC fact, they obetnict tbe acoost to 
the street or in some way affect bis hgbttotb* iu« of tbe s tTDot 
ia connection with his land. 

It aeenu to be nov generally accepted in the light of expeH' 
moo tbiit a slroet raitroudr for carrying pftncngim in a dty 
street^ operated wltb due regard to the righta of pedestriaiw 
and vehicles of every kind, ts a prof er use of the street, of whicL 
Ui" land-ownrr bus no ie^i gniuttd t^j complain \ thttt MMib a 
railway may be o;>er:ited by eleetrieity without alfectiJig tbe 
rights of the land-owner; and tint if the uso of electric power 
bo duly authorized, the neixissary wires may be tlriing alooj 
Uio street, either overhead or aniiergroond, and tbat the naeef 
ao mnoh of the loud in the street as may bo rt^qnirc^d for pole* 
CT eocduiU ia not a taking of tbe property of tbe aJyu 
owner. 

§ lllr. Tbe eiectric railway on rnral bii-liwa}-^— Xode 
nfie the eriterion. — This ooncluijon appUej to tbe elcotrie nd- 
■way used for the same porposos oa horse cars, and operatod on 
the streetii of a city* Since the reasoning is based apoa the 
perpofte of the use, it may well be that if can were ran at a 
high rate of speed along a country rond from one to\rn to aa* 
other in such a way an to afford no access to abutting land, 
OF K as to make the use of tie street dangerous for orvlinary 
tnvel, or lao lu to take excltixlvv: |KtK:«.<H4ion of a pari of the 
i;lHn^L, it would Im Ut'ld that tbu wa& in facta perTeraon of 
tbe usa of the street.^ In ahorl, if tbo electne railway were 
usod like tbe Bt«am railway, ;C woald be classed with it and be 
oubjeci to the same ruling; and if the electric motor vera used 
08 tbo steam dummy ia used, it would, like the dammy, be in a 



ieoP 



* SeCk howoror. FWtoa v, Gvi Cbiv- 
Und R R. Cu,Oh>u iCu^»1>ush Od<d* 
PbnNV 23 Wuk. BtklL ST, wliom it 
VM Wld Uut tlui Cjiot tlist a «p««d 
oi tvolto milo:! aQ Ijcror mui luitbo^ 
ifi»d nuulo i» diHoteuce wlili req;>eco 



to lh« rif[bt of th« ow»«r to 

vtali^h tt wnn nompiiMit tor the 
ccvacU ti>lj>,iUlBt4> 8m aW tf icticls 
▼. Ana Arbur X Yi^lluiU & IL Co» 
ST lUdkW. ^ »> W. F.4II. ua. 



$!«.] 



fttoora OF ABunivQ owN&ad. 



17» 



doubtful poBitioo. di&nceUor KcGill, of Kew JerMy' (la « 
CU9 docHled since ttiis was irrittoa in the first e^ditioaX sug- 
^t«d Umt If with tbe great motive powor of iho olectric 
nitway the attempt should be made to q» the hj^hira^a by 
timiiu et cars of by raiU and can oC snob a character and sisd 
ii praoUcally to work all the erils of a atcTara railway, and to 
baTo a STStem of tJiroai*h care for rapid transit between diataat 
points, ivhich burden the direct withoat accotnicodnting the 
local UM of it,chi« might be fto in^mpatible with the commoa 
QM of the street that the courts might nia^ke a distinction and 
be obliged to ducLar^ oguinMt this ^ creating an mlditional seriri- 
lode; ^tbe crucial teet for that distmetlon being whether the 
1U0 oont«tnplat^ is compatible with the pQi'^Kwe for which the 
htghwAj Wfl3 onglniiUj' dt^ftignml-** ' Tliin prininptu was Jifliir- 
wArd4 applied by the supreme court of PeanayWaDia iu a L-mw 
arising under the slutulcs of that statci^' and the court held that 
ollhotsgh the construction cvf an ordin^Lry pfiSsMmgt-r nil way in 
a city street was not a new aerritude, yet there was a di&tinc- 
tioa between nrbnn and suburban property ils to the right of 
oorpotaiions to occupy a public highway for a street passenger 
raUvaj* 

The qacstion afterward* arose in Wisconsin in two caMS, la 
«ae of which the railway was to carry freight as well as pas- 
sugera. Street railways bad boon authoritixl to extend their 
Unof from one town to another an<l operate their can by '^otlier 
power" ibia hone power, and to carry either pasaoogers or 
freight;* and in » ease in which it appeared that Use defeod- 
aat's proposed eleotrle railway wiu part of a line eonneeUng 
two or more towns, and JntcmJed forth^ carriage of znorchao- 
dias mud mail iim wnll as |ja!«eiignrH, Uivt i^ntErt held Umt this 
was in fact a "conunerclaJ rjulroad,** aod that the use of th«i 
itnetv lor sodi a railroad constitutes an additional burden upon 



a « w. Rr Co. as K J. i^. »l 2u 

ML R«|K at; Am. EL Cm. in 1 ]MU>. 

■■^isannsj. 

>8m dUo 8o<d«a r. AtL HlghUa-b 
X^ Odw le ^ J. U Jour- SOX 38 A£L 



«Cbk«fo ± K W. ny. Ca t. UU- 
WBukH IC A K. KlocTL Kf. C<x. 95 

lasa aiaJuidnEDttAibf M«Qiitci, 

Ui BonJ^n v. AtUetkc UJshlftbdj »j. 
a>, 19 N. J- U X 8C0, 33 Aa B^sn 



ISO 



xLscTEic iriBu IX mEg^Tt AXD mcnvAn. {% 14& 



the land, for vrhioli tho abutting owtwt Sa entiUod to MnnpOD- 
jtition. Tho»ubj^t vrus moro fully diicmaed tben^ztjearby 
the 8ain& ooorl ^ Id a case in which the ddfaodant was the Uil- 
Tvaokeo ELoctrio I^Eilway A Li^bt Company, eagagod in carry- 
ing paas^DgOTS only, but the pecaliiu fe&ture of the c$M waa 
that the company pro|xi3^ to change the grade of the atreet 
and cut it down ab(>ul right (wi in trtmt of tbo pUintifPa Inada, 
Ifeavitig tl]*?m twelve op fourtevo f<*t uboTe tbo levd of the 
atreet. The plaiDiifTs lota vero aititateil on a coantTj raid 
about n niilrr and n bjilf from the limita of tbo city of ^iloran- 
kee. Tbc u>url aaul It Eiad long Aiace been aetU^ in WiaooiH 
Bin* that a horsQ ntilroad constrnctod upon tbe grade of Un 
0t^^tt und by permission of the city a^itboritica woa not an nd< 
ditioaal burden upon tbe fe&, and after citing tbe recent cases 
in Wisconfiin and Wobrnfikn, ^bovo referred to, said: 

"Wc have been referred to no case which squarely holda 
that the mere fact that the can upon a stroct nulvarin a city 
street arc propelled by eloctricily by the ovcrbcfld trolley By§- 
lem instead of by animal power mak<<c the railway, at a matt<r 
of law, an additional burden, nltboti;;b rery Tjj^orous diBKAU 
ing opinionG to that effect may bo found in Dftr<nt Cits Jiy> 
Co, tx MilU.* Tbe qn&slion bos not been preaenuxl to thia 
court, ami hence bos not been J<?cidcd, and cannot be d 
now. Tbe (juestion bero prE>3timU^ i« whether nach a nil 
ia an ^dElitlonal bardep when it ia to be oj>erated in a ccuntry 
town and when the company proposea togrttdedovrn thH}ii^b- 
way for tbu purpose of Utying their tiftck to such vn cxt^^n; ss 
to wrionaly impair tbe right of aocfsa of adjoining ]oton-u<<n,** 
Upon both thc^e conaldcratJons tbe court held that the mitwfty 
in this c;vK wa» s,n additional burden. The company, althon^ 
acting under tbe pormSsaion of tbo aiithoritiea in grading tto 
atreetp waa nesting solely in it^ own interest^ and, tbe land*- 
owDcr'a aeo&sa bcin^' cut oO or impaired for tlio benefit of tbo 
company, bo is entitled to compcn&ation. Theeleotrio railway 
Jine on a country n>ad k vary cUCTerent Ln its pnrpoao and effect 
from siicb a railroad in tbe stroeta of a oitr. It ia bmlt and 



EeeU^ 



1 ZcJiDKT T. UiU^uVM E^«ct Ej, A 
lighten SB Wit. 63; 74 Iff, W. B^ 

a3aiian9> 



•as utciw m,4ss,v/.jtb^im, 

qiMa«<l incbXSl0&«>tfnu>Ul 



§ 144.] BIGHTS OF ASVTTtSa OWKEBS- ISI 

operated mainly to obtain through travel from city to city, and 
only incidentally to take up a passenger in the country town. 
It carries passeagers ^rho otherwiBe would take the steam rail* 
way, and bnrdena the road with travel ratiier than relieving it 
of other vehicles. The difference is not so moch in the change 
ct motive power as in the wholly different kind of ose. ''Oar 
conclnston is that an inter-nrban electric railway mnning upon 
the highways through conntry towns is an additional borden 
jtfon the highway." 



<^ 



IM 



KLkiJtmiC VIOCS Ur ^TRKVn Aim filOAW^n. 



t j >«- 



obtaining the reqtiired coi&cot or othenriae oampljiss vltb 
tho oooclitiood pnoedoct,^ and the attOTiioy-ge&«r«l majp fil« an 
infomubt^oi) in tbo n»liir^ of a yvo wammia^ 

$ 119. BeqaUlta^ of tbe runsemta,— Tli« form and tnft&ior 
ill which the oonaoQt of property o^nien moet be fflcprcstod 
depends upon tho t^nni of the i:tatut« by ivhich they in r^ 
qaij^. Tbtj mujt, of coartd, be in writing, and it Is oom- 
moAly required tliat thej bo ackoovrlodgod u doorla of land 
^ns dir«cU*d to be HckDow]«dg«(l. The question tiftvo 
wb«Lh»r tb«i specified portion of tb« frontflgo 14 th^tof 
street or of Llie whole route, and tiiis also depends upoii' 
iunguAj^i ijf ttie stitttite^ In OLio il hju l)ntTn liuld' that under 
necticin 3i2d of tUd Uevisod St^tutea, rtiqulrm^ the oonsent of 
o^vncra of more than half of tlio foot front of tho lands abvfr 
ting OQ '^tbo Btrool or public way,'' Uto uso of tJio ringnlar 
caoiber inilicat^ that, if more than one atrc«t id to bo ocoupi^, 
tho consent of tbo ovmora on each atroct mo^t bo obt&iaocL It 
it not n^cadary, under thd Koviaed Statut«« of Ohio (par. 2S0S)k 
that tho property holdci^ should conaont to tho mode of 
struction uni nmnncr of opvrut^on of a atroot miLiray.* (ti 
alao been held in Ohio^ that, wb«re tfao oonaenta oro pi 
tothecouncilbeforotho^7intismade,it iBtufneiont,aJi 
they bad nut aJl btii>n obtalaixl bvroro tho publication of Ih* 
notice,* and ibut the oonaenta naed not he enterod on the n» 
ordfl of tho council ; ' iind ihut conacnta given to an ordlnanoe 
which proves to be invdlid nuiy be used to make up tho 
satd Dumbeo' for a latar valid ordinance;* and that coi 
»m not Fn|itinH) for thii o|)i?nitioR of an ftloctric railway €■ 
«TaiMing trucks.' In New York couaent of Uits onnont of ono 



■ FraDkbn TowTAhip w. Kutkj 
VatorCo^ 63 N. J. £q. 001; WanJl- 
woftki OoarJ of Worln t. UnitAtl 
lV!»ph.C<L, 131}, a Dlv.«04: Major 
Of D«ir«aport v. VlymonUu «4c. TttiD' 
wftyi Co.. 53 Uw T. & lau 

■ Scocktoo T, North Jir^y By, Cn., 
B4K.J.Kr^3St Uota blU Eli^^i iu tho 
ttuoocf tho Mlomex-JCOMnl ws> du- 
mlflwd wbm ft >ppt9ftrod th^ It *» 
filnl not for ti;i piirpo«e of prt)t«rtfenj[ 
mrj pvbllo riffht, but oaif for Utn 
twoeCt of a lirAl DOdpaoj. Poople 



T. OftOAnJ £loctrte R7. Co, ITS lit 
iaOkSOS.^HoixlfiSittlAO% 
>E<«aj« T. Mt Atitam QddA ft^ 

Gx (ctncUiBau supev. (XK a* wkrr< 

U« DidL 171, 49 rf. & Bop. 7«& 

«8lowN» v. Ftefilo'o EL By. 00^7 
OhbCir, Ct 1I«|k»4 

* Suficot T. Toledo^ 10 Oblo Ob CL 

'IbU. 
>IbU. 



«J«-] 



luamt OF Arrrrufo ujn> owxebk. 



IS3 



It v^ns held in If ow Jersey that a Und-ovntr was entitled U> 
un mjunctioa where tho statatc gavo the right to act up poke 
-ivitb the consent of tbo ovtdct of the Innd and gave the right 
to ooaiicnui, but iio condeot wad askud and no ]TroociMlin;;3 to 
eondciniL vrcretaLcn;' butinalatorcufo/ut which an abutting 
Initd-ovmer asked for an inJLWction agaiiut an cl«etrio railway 
OA tha ground that the roquisite coo^nu of lanilowoers t^ 
AOi boen ohtainod, thja chuncollor mliI Uiat it bad not bu«a <le> 
dded in Xew Jeraey wheth<»r or not an el^trlo railway wa« a 
n«w banian Qpoa thd fe^ of the land in a mrsl highway, and 
that ainoe the legal Tight at the [ilaintifT worn not elotr he wac 
not entitled to a praliwinjiry {njunction. Ho Kiild one who 
afka for &a iajnaction ag^nst the olistruction of a public high- 
way miut atioir %ame legal right in himn^lf Hint is afTerUM] 
which be doe« not hold in common with die puhlie.* 

60 nbo in DoUwaro it wil« held that nhcrc tho act of an 
electrio street railway tn crcising the traclcs of a etcum rail- 
toad doe* not work somo damage to it differing in kind from 
the daoiage suffered by the rest of tbo community, the railroad 
ooni|MUiy haa no standing to oflk for an injunction tneroly bo- 
oaoae the act of tho cloctrio raihvay company ia ultra vires or 
u&AtithoH2od.* 

In a reoent case in Now Tork, however, where th© oonsentof 
pfoporty owners wa« held to h& re^uiait^ to the change of m^ 
tiro power of a hor«o railway to tfluciricity, an injunction wa« 
imed on the application of an owner of property en the Ihio 
of tho itroot, aJthoogh it wns h^^ld thai; the change did not in- 
ToKe an appropriation of cbe street to new dmgs.* 

An injunctiiiti niay &lway9 be obtained by the local anthorl- 
tin if an atUrmpt ie trade to exrrciflt; the franchise without 



I Droomo y, N. T, ± N. J. Tdopfa. 
Cft. tt tfl. J. Kq. MtOAM)- 

>Bordi«o r, AtbDtle HlsUaAdi^ata 
Rj. C<k, 19 N. J. Lav Joum. tf«, 38 

I SMttbo mockloa V. AtU&Uc High- 
kni^«t<vKj. CavU2 AH BoF^ 060, 

tt rt J. &t «*-^ 

«Phll^ W. A EL R ft Ca v; IVO- 
VlnglMi Citr Kr U^ <D|L CK, ISlCx 
n AtL Rep IMT. 

»8L WohMl^ Ckank % Fiirtr- 



Socuod SL *tc Ry. Oa, 57 N. Y. 8 Jpp^ 
a^L 30 Utw Rfqi. <Ff. Y.) AOI llASO^ 
b40 al«» U'Brlan v. t^iTiUo TnkcUon 
Co..C«N.Yp Bapp S33(1WX In which 
it -iraji hisld Lh«t Iji tt suit for iujuiUV 
tJon th« bi:tht«a of proof to on tli* 
pUiaUCr to »)u>ir thAt Ihe nfuJuit* 
ccnsenU haie not fivon obtuuetL 
ConulL HrLenn r^ WrvU'hnter Elao 
tne Rr. CO-, 05 N. V. 8nn^ A», S 
Bflbc Bo f^i Yo ^ (I9«A 



us 



vi-icmc wn«s ix vrvixn asd biobwats. [$ ISL 



1 151. SUtntM of^one of the states protfdlog for tmh 
4emnMlUm,-^li would te beyond the Bcxjpe of thii diaraaira 
u» 4iitol« in detail the prorinoBs of the fJatnc^s of mil the 
«D thii iOb)ectf bat Et maj be well to refer to some of 
b^ WMj of Bbowui^ what private righto uv rrccgniaeJ vd 
what proTukn is maile for compeusLkio to 3ibntt:iig owem. 

!■ Ohio the coontj coiomrwicitets an to appoiaL appnuaen 
to lenM the damogrfl of pmoBft otct wboee l^us'ls t«flrgnpb 
live* iball fam cr oa which the poete or piera aball be builL' 

Is HeanchoBetts it is provided th&t if property abutting ot 
tk highwaj is is anj iray iDJurioiulj affected or lesscnecl it 
valoor whether try oocopatioa of the ground or air, or otiMfr 
wiMt by the conitrBct^oQ of tdegmph, telepbooe, oiocttic-Uf^ 
or electjic'power lines, the owner, whether he La the owner of 
the fee ia the way or not^ may apply to the mayor or aldc^ 
ir-ca or to the aelMtmi^n lo amem his damagea.* 

In Conaecticut H h declared that ao telegraph, telephone or 
^octric Hght coni[MLiiy, or company eDgag<cd in Q«iag eketm 
wiref or conductors for any piirpoae, may exercbo aay powvr 
conferred opoa it, on or tmder any highway or ptiblio grond, 
or chnngo the location of the eaiue, without tho consent of U)« 
adjoining proprietor^ or. In case such eonsenicannot bo obtained 
without the consent in writin;^ of two of the county commit 
sionent, whtcb shn1l only be given oo lieanng after due QOtJOd^ 
The common coundl or selectmen have full direodon and eOD- 
trol HS to ihn plucitig Hnd removul of wires, subjert to an apMtl 
to a juilge of the saprente court, who DULy apjHiiot three oocn- 
tnljuloners to appraise dnnifiges.' 

In IlliDuis provisinn is mnile for paying for property taken 
or injured* Inlndlaoa the powerofemtnt^ni domain, witfathv 
rightof aaacssmcnt, isgiren to telegraph aild telephone oocb- 
pantes,' In California the county court is acthorised to appotat 
thrvo GOinniiitaioners to assess daraages* 

In New Jersey provision woi made in 1S90 for tho appotat 
meat by tbo circuit court of threo commisaioaers to rtrniWdani* 



» act of July BL 184T» Otb Ror. Btat 
1890 [JH'itii .Srfl also (ST:)3l ^»4MJ, 

tUwa 1683. Ob. It^ Qoa St&t. 



* Lews 188Ti oh 88^ GeiL StoL Oona. 

iRcT.StntllL, cK 131 

> Ind aa. ohs. 43, 43. !$ 41<3, 4111 

t Act ill April 33, L83<L Oa 



A 



3 




xionTfi or ABrmxo laicd owxiuu. 



187 



ji^cB to oirncre of tbo coil of any roud or hi^hu'sj aloDg whiob 
a telcf^ph or tolepbo&e liao is to t>o conitnicAod.' 

In the rcvi^d LairB of Vcnucnt thon> isa prorision tbftt vhon, 
in tho erection of a tcl<*gmpli lia«, tbo owner or oocnpont ot 
lands or teuonidnta sustains or is likely to Buaiain daioage 
thereby, tho seloctmen of tho tovn shall appraise encfa dunag^, 
aad thtt lAiDA ihall be paid before tbe line i« «rt>ctod ; and tho 
ddctsioQ of the teleotmeti Bball be final, notice being gir^n aa 
pn>Tidod in the suttittr.' 

^^c» al^o in K^iw H.-unpibire ft ht pmridetl tbnt it any jM^n^on 

^^Pl be aggrieved or damaged by tbe erection cjf electric wirea 
or polna^ or by Uin Kin'tchliig at wjrh win.% or by the usf? made 
of tliH Kaoie, lin may a|ip]y to tlie mayor nrul aUii-nimii ro- Lhe 
t^lettiuen toofscfistbo damageawbich be claims arc occasionod 
thervby, wbo sboll giro notice to tho proprifrtors and all others 
inttff«»tod ; and, af t«r hearing all parties may award viidi dam- 
age aa may be kgally aad justly due' 
Id Louisiana teJogmpb ooonpunicM art: given a right of way 

. over all lands owned by the state, and over any hi;:hwuyd end 
naTtgaUo waters^ but they must so oonfltruot thoir works as act 
to intorfere with, impede or hindur thu frcd ujo of Uie higbwayt 
or navigable vmters or drainage or naloral acrvitude& of the 

' Uad, and no prorision scorns to bo mude for compcnsatioEL^ 
Thero are many ttatea, however, in wbieh no proviaion for 

; eompensation to abutting owners ia madG^' 

{ 15f. CondemRAtloR for the telegraph and the tele* 

Utooa — They are public uweit.-^Tbe telff^raph if a public and 

l^ftapriraUi n»i-!,*and si-atat^-s aiithonzing the condemnntioD 



1 Lawk K X lAia rrlL SMi 
<&«v, LnmiVL ISzML g »an. 

m^9 37891 

^Fvr » Uatof Ih* eonipila4SoiiS of 
4iairirnn MaIuKb ea tlae telesmiti 
ml CaUphoiH\ MO nnto to § 47 in 
f*a|4U'VL<wfw>- FoTftaaoeonfitoi 
lh» liafahitioa la e^rcrj- rtaC« rd AtiDH 
to ISbm ooadeainiUiuu uf pitipi^j- ta 
aOUMCtiOtt with rkr^nit numldpal 
flimUlwa WMEoMkoiEU>L«^iiiUtkin 
U ^ Um &uu«fc or Uko Uiv vi la- 



rorpnnitAt rnmr^nlf* Ofw^ttBf 
un'!«r iluiiioip^ ^'T^DahiMa by Alkn 
IL F<»t«t CLDcicjiati: Itobnrl Cl&rb« 
A CcA, l^aS; aubdivfaiun HI in |L« 
Motion relating to «aijb Uote And 
for »a abctn^t of the staiultv rcbi* 
inK to tbo oloclhc nulwsj in aach. 
M&to fnia jear to 7«ar. Me JUnorloMi 
CotpoflKtioa Legal Uoaaal (FUa- 
fisld. N. J.». ui Un ohfi|««ir oa auwt 
ICAllinijc. by iho odkor, OiuIm U 

« Pi«r<.v V, Dnwt IM U»<a T5, 1 Ata, 
m. Oml 571; Cbnttal U». TalvftbOu 



1 



198 



ELxcTuio macs cr ffr&BErt asv nionwxr^ {% Ul 



of primto property for the ooofitraction of 4 t«t(r^nkph \mt an 
not iu>conft£itQtH>nal, And this oven tbottgh tlic tclogmpb ooo- 
ptny 19 not fTxpn-mly rMiturrHl to KTTd ftll Alike. The aoBC b 
traeof tbo i«lt-phoDe, wUkh isooljaifcother fonnof tclcgnpfa^' 
serring tho Bamo gcocral purpose wilh tfa« saino eleotno cv- 
rent and with th« same poles and vriroa, o&ly deliv«riiig tbo 
mflflsago in « diffc;ri:Dl way.' "Tbej aro both," 0079 Mr. Ji» 
laoo Itccd, of Now J«r»ey,' " »enrioc« of a pabtto nature irUcki 
iroBld permit tbo ;og:idIaiiiro to confor tbo povor to ooad«mii 
for each usis." 

S lo3* The same — Bl^bt acquired only sQcli as Is neec^ 
aarj. — The Hgbt acquired tinder prooeedini-s for condem^^ 
tion fi only »U(!h as is m^coatsary to pat up and loaJDtaiii th$ 
polea aad irirea. 

Under th« statute of lUmois (Rot. Stat. 47, Eminent Doraa^, 
and Rer. Stat, 134, Tolegmphs), it bas boon b«]d that the co 
pany doea noi acquire a fee in the strip of land de^^ribed in tfcl 
procoeilingH, and acquires Aneiclusiva uao of only such laml u 



T. Bmlbuiy. 106 tnd. t. 5 N. K Hnp. 
?31, 3 AnL EL Cod. t1> Stuto t. Poata.1 
IWcfr Co., ir rod. Ecp. Oyil, Neir 
Of I WW It & T. B. R Ccx V, Sa £ A tL 
Ttl€9 Oo^&8Alantl.UD.£LCwL 
100; Oull A & P. Bj. Ca T. & W. 
Trtl.»|jh. A T»-Ih«. Co. iTnx- dr. Ap|i-), 

llltht «m)fAn5 ti Wiin J to ««rT« all 
ftUko CmciniiHti R & U Ej. 0> t. 
HcnrliugGMea (Ohloi, 4U N. E. Itejk 
191 (tSQ9;i &tut«. Tn^Jiton Si K R 
Tumpilu} Co> pros., t. Americ&a A 
EuropMn Comm*irTifjil Np»tFi <>>,, ^3 
N, J. 1. B^l. In thiri Inet mk it wiui 
boM that the aiatut^ imposed v,pcii 
a tf^^egrajih nomi>an;r tlid duty of 
ftarviiig nil aliUe. but the €M)urt said 
that It had not bi-KtaoatalJinlied ^ n 
mil* thnt In onliir tu n^nitor Um use 
jiubliti iwanto g;lv#pov»r[r>takupri- 
vmtfl pn>p".'rtj". Il"^' ilulj must *>p m- 

ii*r«» All wlkvj milks KiWinwM** J»- 
mthnda upgn it; ci^Ve^ Lumbard t. 
StoATiUk 4 CuaIi- OU: 3i?i]fiil(?r v. Tmn- 
toai:>«lFAlbCD.,S«it.i;U4,7-»:MilZd 



oDE:iii.noiiL.f3i<«L swaift>Mii 

what ooikMlt(it«A a putdio mx, Le«« 
on Edl Douu, cli. VII. and w Lo U« 
telegraph*. £ 17a 

1 Mr. Ball^ spodAcatioQ oChbeUi 
in th4 T&]c|aH>De Owm. I^ U. A t: 
AtUirtii^y^eDcnil v, K-iiigin Ttilfk 

Co., 6 (^ a DiT, S44: ch<«p<»k» c 
rotomac Tcl^ C& v. Ihdt ft Obk 
Tele& Co.. ea Ud BWL 3 Abl EL (^ 
416; WLiconain T«lopli. Cil ▼. 0«^ 
kwL, 09 WiA 8^1 nocl(«ii V. dtola 
105 Ind. 3:]0. 5 K. E. R^ix ITS: T«t 
T#leph, Co. V, KtxMoy. ^ i>a. Dtst Rf^ 
S04^ @ Am. EL CoA lOT: Golf, a ft S 

Teleg. Ga (TeX, C»r. Ai^p-L 4J S V. 
Rej>. ni; CbMih>ako ft Pbc TUM^ 
Co. r. {1. ^ O. TqL Oo.. « Hd. HO, f 
At). Hep. 810; Rlr-JiinnnJ ▼. Sa M 
TuU-pli. A TolHt Cix, 83 rod. liffx If: 
Ifi>rt!iw«at?Tn T^slepb. ExcU t. Ch^ 
out^n. M. ft SL P. "Ry, Cb Oflaaitf 

estate. Diiko pK«, r. C^Uftl KX 

Tflinpii. Ca, as N. J. u Mu a ab a 



%% Ib^t 155.] aiGltT) OB ADTTTIHg UiXD OWKXBa 



199 



is oocapiftl by tli« pole*, bvsidi'S u right to cator and make r&- 
pftira. Th« cotn|iany cannot ctillirate ii nor maiDtaht & fcnco 
aJon^ it Tbo Umt^-owner need not erect a fence along Uia 
BUip, nnJ is not entitled to compcnsatioa for tlte eipenao of 
one' 

§ \M. TtieHamo — Cenditlon^prcccdent— yallnretonj^rM, 
Tbc courts t^'ilL not C2erc.*fc tho p-jwc-r of condemnation ud* 
lev the a|7p]icant baa made &n effort to p»rc;bajw, and ihc peti- 
tion should aUei:e the mabtlity of tbo parties to agree.' In « 
nocnt CflbM in liiHsiwppi, routing to a tQlc^niph iino, tbe court 
Iwld that ll was eooa^ if it np|>oar4]d from tho record tbat an 
effort had been made by the t^le^^raph company to adjnst the 
matter by conUuct, uwl tbat no uDgwer to tbe offer nuide bad 
been rDUimed within a reasonable i\meJ 

1^ I$j^. The HAmt^^CotidUioutt preeedent — Mnnlelpal an- 
tkvrltf. — UBd4:r a Ktvtuto giving KnMiority to construct & 
tel^raph lin« aft^^ application to Uu; hfgUULtive body or aoy 
tncorpomted city or toirn Uirough wUiob t3id line may pa««, for 
adewgnation of the strc^'H^ in wiiLch tbe poI<-£ nuiy beeructtrd, 
it Ina Inxu held in Xew Jt^rHciy Uiat a tjdi!|i}iom* (or U*]p^nLph) 
company cannot exercise the power of coademiuiUon wiUM>ul 
baring laadc an applicntioQ for a dcaignatioa of tto streets;' 
and in Pena-iylvanla and Xew V'ork, wKere the consent of local 
antbohtiGS b Doccfisory to the construction of a street raUvray 



i« ni 40L 1 Am Ei QvL isa {ie8a>, 

>UJiK Etn, Uoiix,)} lOT: Lfrwk tJiL 

»T^iUTin<^ X. a A T, Ry- Ov T, 
BoRal TM. Oibl« Co, Qj Uku. S4>e, 30 
aD«|bT4:i$eiK 

* Broom* r K Y, A K. J, TVIrph. 
GFL.4UX.J. U«3(.!?Am VaOiAlUO; 
VnnWM V. N. V. A N. J. 1VJ«fb. Ctx, 
01 K J,Um, SAjft EL Ou. «:& 
IbMtf tlMMiliMa were tnaAa in the 
w pTMiMj (^owt, aa4 wbeo tiio tormtt 
nmm Wtor* tho cmtrioitnon, tHia 
coon ftilnnvd Ibo fadfOMUt on an- 
gUwfro«nd,UHlnM; -OuTooaolv- 
ittBOA tL^poiKlobtiataUic ocoo 



Pthor bnucb of tiic Of tAi^ upcEt whicti 
thif mif Tnm*) court piu*p»l, nnil ()* act 
of IW;^!'. L.1lU)huHOc|iiniJ:^Uta 
taw that it ij oolApuUiQuUiiiy tkai 
wfl bIii^uM du Ttt" N. Y. dt K- j: 
Tolflfih. Co. T. BroomP. no N, J. !. 43^ 
TFl« cihMof WiDiar *. TlJ« TMt4^ihoo# 
Co., liow«vvri wft* d«cld«d afUr tUs 
oiilnion of Urn cuuH of trwn, and 
rnmnliUnfd ihftt n «l#iignatAnn of Ih* 
ou««t«trMa«*on11i%l toit^Totherovit 
jurisdiciKFCi vTvr iiti •]'pl^c*viuii lo 
eondmnrv ThA '^>iTi|Aiif htu.\ O^rtr 
applied for a dwifitAntioQ. butac4#il 
oa n iJaijcnatioD wndo for &iioth«r 
cotnpiLay. whkL w oJLpr^idr uinda 
tKm4Ji0SB<itdflL 



within the limits of a municipality, it has been held that tbii 
cOTuect 19 a condittoa precedent to tbo ri^bt to ccnJcmn po 
Tate proj>ci-tjr lin one cuso a turnpike road) for ibo u>es of tn 
cloctric railway.* 

§ 1^, Tbc«uin6'-€onditionsiirocMl&nt— *Con»ciitofpn>l>- 
erty owDcrs. — AVtiero tbo utotuto requires the content of the 
owners of a certain portion of the abutting lind asacoodit^ 
of the right to construct tho line, thfm this coodcnt is a outidi' 
tion preccOont to the rif^ht to condemn the property of otlMi^ 
and the petidon for coademnation must nter that each oooaent 
has been obu^ined,' 

§157. The «anie—Con(lItl4)ns precedent— CoinplIanceirlU 
act of congre***, — A telegraph company seeking to olitain br 
condom action the priviIo^(» of using a bridge across a nari- 
gab1(9 KtnMim must sIlow that it hiu rxmipluNl with th<t prO' 
viiiionHof the act ofeongreas by which atitliority is giren tooM 
the poi^t roa<) and cross the navigablp waters of the Uait«d 
Statics, and proccwlings to corwlciun will 1j« di.-i:iiiA«ed vhen 
it ap))carK tliAt ftuch a company huA failed to file with the post 
iuaAlur-^i^uer;U ItA acceptonoe of iho rcstrioUons and obljga- 
tioce of tbo act.* 

§ 158- Thesame — HightofwayoTcratnrnpike.— Aright 
of way for a tolejrapb over a turnpike may bo taken oa 
payment of componsation, and vrithcut an e^r«» grant ot 
authority to conatniot the line on a turnpike. The right to 
maintain a turnpike is a franchise, and a franchise cannot bo 
condemned without oxprvs« authority;* but it has been held 
that a tole]U:raph line does not materially affect the &anehteo 
cf a turnpikn company, and tbat the construction of a Line oa 
a turnpike needs no OEprcvi grunt, but^ like the cfoeting of one 



I EarrbburB: M. BlectL B^ Ox ▼. 
lUrrUbar^ C AG Turapilr^Ca. IS 
Pa. CO. Ct B«p. SSO, G Am. fX Cm. t 
(18M>: IQ n fiodiOBtet Cloct. Rr< 
Ca. a7 Hon, » 1C K, Y. Supfi SrO: 
a C oa ftppeftX. lU N, Y. £41. Sm 
tJtMt 4J«CM]tA A TT. Ry. Co» T, Ncir 
TOTk C«L A IL a R. R-. « W, T. 
Hupp. »t3« 2i App. DlT, -JtfS :ttW^: 
BiaUMd Aro. A a Ry. 0«. t, HU> 
,4rioOa.lL8Ak.S3a 



*In r* air^lflEa Klnctrto Ry. Co, 
m Hub, 3?I, Ifi S. Y Htint 3ia 

■Chicaiao Jc Atcbi»0a Bn^xe Co. 
T. r«vMul.T«k«. CciL,l4 K«a UK 
9 Aid. EL C^ ^A 1ld»n S« Tol^ 
gn|>hA«n Poet Roadi. c«u XU, i«/^ 

Cck. pro^ V. Am. A Eur. Con. 
Co.. 4tf X. J. U KU, 1 AtB. la Ck 
tl«U 



$U90 



sioins OF ABcmxa ij^d owvbm. 



in 



roilmnd hj aTtodier, U uttliori2«d b; the goncral pover to coo- 
atnict th« line.' 

Thft petition to oondemQt boworor, "should Aotv tb&t tho 
tel^T^pli c^mpuir is limited ia its right to orect polcd to a 
■pe^ed width aloa^ the cstonor lico or Unoa of the pil£c, to 
tha^ it ma; Appc«r Uut it is tot proposi:d to a|)])ro|->ri3te tbd 
fni&ohiao of the tfirapi1:e oonipaoy, and the order should 1>a 
oqually defimtd.^ A petition for^^pennissioTi to plant polM 
along tho mun<in of naid inrupikD in fEUch plAoes along said 
turnpike road aa not to interfere with the public trarel or said } 
road " iras hold to be iDsufScient* The taking of a tnmplko 
for the purpo«ftt of nn olectHo r:iilway might «eHoi]sly aff^rt 
the franchi»ei of tbe turnpike corupany, but it is cotnpctont 
for the 1<^^«bittiro by express bingiiugr^ ti> pr<;vid4^ fnr ttui nm* 
domnatioa of [ir<>pi*rry J^voLi-d to oni^ public ukk (ht the pui^ 
poaea of another, ami turopikps may be condemned for tho uso 
of the electric railway if distinct Autiiority for that purposo 
bogivnc,' 

g ir>9. The name— Bl^ht of way of railroad — The right 
to coDdemD.— The stretching of telegraph lin<« along a raiW 
road does not seriously interfere with the nae of the land Cor 
milrofld purposed, and a federal statute pcLasod in 1S^4' giving 
Uko right to tclcgr&pb companies to mjiko tuo oC tho posit ronda 
ol tho Cnit«d 8tatea has been construed to extend to railroads.* 
Tho nature and oi^JMit of the power thns confc^rrcd is di^cusnd 
in a sepointo cbaptvr/ 1»it r<jfor«no< may h^ cnado bere to 
CMOS relating to the oondemiuLtion of the right of way of a rail- 
road for tbo purpose of a tolegniph lino. Some of those caaea 
wlU be referrM to in tbo section relating to the recjuisltea of 
the petitioQ to condemn/ 

iTWnpiko Co. T, Kaws Co, *3 N- J. 
LISL 

>&ni>bvtf & U Elect R^ Ox r. 
fbiaMttrg C A C I'urtipikc Co., ta 
hLCb.Ct.K«p 3<l.5AicElCu.ll 
la n BwJie^ei Elect Bf. Co, IS) 
% Y- au ai Ji. R. H'^ UL 8ttt 
Oftfaa Off By. Ox v. ugJ« aty, 7 
ru^907, OSPbc, Etcp.aHUjk(n.EL 
Ou S21-334 Tti« i|tw>lluu uC tlio 
IvMisn of tb« chAitAT of til* nll- 



Huy uum^Duj by IucIhm ujuiuuC he 
C0D«1d«r«<J ooLUMtnIlj Tunipilc« 
Oa -w. J«ckifito«m EL Ky. C-x, i Pk. 

MiLT.&StataSl: n. & Rot. Stat, 
jfgSEWa,4S0& 
' VotuacoiA Tck^ Oft t. Wcotcru 

lotas- Cabl* Cfk V. Soiutbttru Ky, Ux, 

>CtLXlLfn/hh 



m 



Kt^Rcneic wtKK* tx ■TKxcn jiE(t> numwATs. 



»i». 



Tho tid of coogKfis givGfi do povror to conicmn,' Wbcc each 
powor is giTeu by tho laws of tbo stat^ft, it may bo oiemnd 
Q&der the tttual conditloofi, and tho only special queetiDBS that 
aiiae are those relating to tho scope of iho stutntA, tbo dttori^ 
tloQ of tho prcfk-rty tak«Q, the oiLiuro of thd tue and the meai^ 
lire of damages 

It hsiM been h^M [a Virginia* that & statnto nuthivrinrtg « 
t«1ogrfiphoompitiiy t4><?OTi]ttruct Su Hne (inUralia) *'atoiigaiil 
|iar&l1el to" any railmadj with power to tate a right <jf wi/ 
upon mailing comptnsation to lli^ owners of lands takrot, g&¥D 
power tij «x>nd<.^iiin a li»c oo Uie right of vray of a railroaid oon^ 
pany; and in lUinoiH* it liaa lieen held that aoder a statatosfr 
thorizing a tolcgraph company to constroct linos "nloagaid 
upon a rAlIro^Ml/' with tho right of coiincnt domain, a kk- 
l^raph company in&y condemD a rig^t of way leagihwiso upon 
tbo right of way of tho railroad company. In Texaa itbfli 
bcca hold that the county court of any ont> of «cveml conoUs 
through which a railroad oxtendfi has power to oondemn a 
right of way for a telegraph alon^ tho ontiro liao, even tboogb 
it ia ctou^hJ hy navigiiUu atpcams* 

A real effort to a^eo npoa oompensatioa ranst be mado bo- 
foTJ' proc<?Qc1[i)^3 for con<tcTnnation cnn be tikon, bat snoli u 
ofTort is iliown by oridonco that tho railroad oorapciny roftuid 
to Toako any a^cemeat because of a prior agraemeat giviiig an 
CXOlu«ivc right to ani>th(.T comjwny.' 

It has br>un lield Uiat a court of t^qulty has not tlio power, on 
tbe ground of public oecradltyt to etTect an eqnttable condcmniu 
tion of an <-ji:ifm<<nt fif a wjiy for a U^li-gniph lino along a r^it 
i*(i4il, aloiL^ vvhicU it wai Liiiilt and :j|M?raU?d um1<T a ixvntmct 
with a former owner of the road, wbosa t^tato had been koM 
under tho foreclosure of a prior mortgage.* 

% IfiO. The HniUG ' UaiuajSeA.— Oa tho qorstton of oomp«n* 
satioo, it h^ been held in Illinois that the land taken is only 



p< It a Co. c^'*^ teo»^ a2&E Kcjx 

409. 

* SE. Lonb ft C a It Co, ▼. PwtaJ 
Telog. Co., m ill m $1 1?, E. B4>F^ 
1890808^ 



A K a a a G(L, 40 a w. Rqi g£s 
*SLLoiii* A an ac^T. FbA^a 

* WuM«ra UiUon TUe«. Gdl t. Ana 
Arbor R a Ocw 00 Fbd. BB|t. STV ta 

aji^isofy 




leij 



BiOBTi <3& Azurrmo UkXD ovycia. 



im 



Ihai wbicb h oocnpUid hy tlit! ]k^U, aJtliCiugli otUi*r pnrtft luny 
be damaged hy the flrecLion of tts poles and tbo stringing of 
viroSjOnO tlint the nilroad comptiny tn&j notsliow whnt mtt 
vras agr^od to be paid by fLnnth«ir ronip^Lny for tbd exclusiTo 
privilege of asing the right of way, bcca-oao such an agrceiDcn^ 
b Inratid as ciratiDg & monopoly^ Aod in Al&bflmii it bas 
beem bdd that the milroad compi&ny iA mtitUd only to norti* 
ilial damagw for tbe taking of a part of its right of wjiy not 
realty osoi for tbo paipoeoB of tho railroad.* Undor tbo statutcv 
of Nortb Caroiinfi a t^lc-^n'.pti company cfinrot cnitrr Into pos* 
toKoa of tbo r^ht of way of a, railroad and construct it^ lino 
mttil the daniAgcfl have bocn a«i;c«si>«l and p&id into court;' aod 
tbe Bomo Is tnu wberon^r coinfitinK-ttion is required to bo^mt 
puuU t«for6 taldarr ii^nd for pablic^ purpose* 

§ 161. CondemuatiDD for el4>rctrl:-'1!:*1it liiir.^ There is no 
donbi tbftt tbo Tuml^iin^ of electric light for koust^ giwi*rally 
li a public nao. It is analogons to tbe s'opply of w&t^r or gsM or 
dl^and to the tole^mph »nd t«0(?phuiKi, nil of which bavo be^n 
ikeld to bi> pubTio uses;* and condemnation o1 private righu in 
the Rtreold or of tbe title to land may be made whenever author- 
ity for tliAt purpose la givL^n. The u&o of the stroets for electrio 
light }mm, hoLvnvf^r, bas gc^nrndly been held not to inipnsn a 
new burden on the land, and private rif^hla are rartily tdfi-xU'iX 
hy it.* The linca arc generally carried through tho slrccti, aud 
tberouro few c^sc9 U> be found en th« condemnation of lands 
for eloctrio-ligfai Lineo.* If provision la made in the statute for 
condefnniDg tbo eosemcntd incidcnUiIEy alFcctcd or for taking 
Ibd land itvulf, prooeedings may bo taken as in otlicr co0C« of 
midomnation; butif there 15 no such authority, then the publio 



i»L Lmli* * a K. & Cx V. Pettai 
1Ue«. Gcx, m m COa 51 N, R B. S83 
(Maw 8«ftttbooli.Xl,»lU;ch.XU, 
I in. 

tiUhQ^ « a R IL OOl T. FOBUt 

m 

•postal T«l*» Ckb1« Ca r. South- 
«a B/. Od, » F«d. IWf^ lOa 

*Bbitdiutlis» Tmctwi Ca r. Bir- 
Msiehun RjF. « Risctrte Ca tAla^ 

la 



•TuylOT V. Portimfwth. K. A Y. St 
Bj. C<x. SI Wn 103; 3C AtL R^fV TM 
(1690). to Am ft Eng. Eco>. ot Law, 
IOTJCMikL). 

* It hoA bocQ hold la OActm^c thftt 
an tifrtrif^iQr*t companjf l» n ma&* 
vtecturfng corporatlcn wftliin Uis 
inesAtn;^ of llio met alTiajt nioh coi^ 
^rftlionK the tikbt of AiuiiieEit d<^ 
tnalo. Ldunljom t. Bdi, Id COLa ^0. 



If^ BLECTKIO W1B£5 GX STBBlrrS ±2^ DlOHWAVa [g$ l^S, 1G3. 



rij^hU alone can be taken, and con^nt muHt be obtained Erom 
t^o ovmers of land irhcoe le^ rights are affected.^ 

% Ifii CondcrHTiation for clwrtrif-powor lines.— LI: 
n^nlj" for the ii:atrtbution of ckctric [vo^ver ma^ treU be 
not to be witbio ttie proper uaca for which the atr^cta were Iu4 
OQt, but the same vrircs FurnUh boUi li^htund poircTtand Uier«i> 
nodoubt bat tliutt^iodiatriljation of power from o«atral souroe* 
will Boon bo a matter of such ;^:incrfii mtcrost as to bo ooEuid* 
cred oaonoof thon<x)08snry U3IM toi^'Iii^b thoitroot^ntajprt^ 
*iTij bd put. In the meantime, and wheoever the uae otf tU 
&tteeU for thb purpose ie re^a-rd^d aa impofiinj; a new b^rdoo, 
the private rights afTeuted aro subjoct to ooodemDUtlon If prc- 
Ttalon la made for it by statute^ otherwiae consent of the land- 
otniers must be Qbtumed> 

§16*3. €im<l (Mil nation fer e1«ctrte railway — Taihi!* one 
railroad for the une of another railroad.— 'The general role 
ia that land alreaily (levottHi to ore^ public lue caBDot be taken 
for another, \m*]rr a girnoral law, whcry» the cffircl would be to 
dffstroy thu franchiflL';' ;iad ^M>wc^r la not ordinarily givea lo 
one railroad company to condemn the right of vf^y of anoUur 
except for the purpoao of oroesing, and such power is nerw 
giTOd by implication. It ia qatt« feasible, honrerer^ for two 
Btr6et railway compamca to moke uao of the Aine track, and 
it ia not untisual to girc cno street r&itway compinr the rigfal 
to make uric of tbt^ traoka of anotber upon certain eoodiltona* 
and provision ia mad€ in dome eUtoe for proceedings to oofi- 
denm euch a right. Undor euch a ctututo in Ohio it hfta been 
hold tlmt fiuoh proceeding may be taken and eonspcnattion 
made, but that the appropriating^ company does not a4)quiM a 
joint ownersbip of the read co a« to eatitlo it to conqiooaataoii 



iTTndvtha Ba^ltah aleotrln ll^tit- 
in^vAof iMSithaii bem h«Ld Umc 
UiQ oosDp««nitioni r«quirod U> bo 
nnde tiador Kctii^n IT b fot daon- 
Aipe* oiuaed hy tlu amatniiTlJca of 
th« woflUk ftDd not tboDO oauiffli by 
Ibe iia» of tfaani. SLdfer t. Loudoa 
BI«ctrio UabtlagCa* Ap^OMi I^BSEll 
1 Cli. «;. 

tn PccnsxInnU II haa bMti bold 

UhAti^ootbo jKaoru*; ai4aKtt>- 



vMtio^ oI«ctriivlfgLt cmapftalca and 
<^iti[Avifei» or \0a» tMtKi9 witfa tb* 
njitii of emfeeat doaialft do« ao4 
provii^ the tooia of aHovfaiif (kd> 
■^va, tho proper prnModlog If k ■p*' 
ouJ ftotioa oa tbe obki ZABkifct v. 
Wajroe Qootei> LJj^ht Oo. • Pa, DM, 

iSorthKvoUm TaL Cz^h. ▼. Cbfi- 
n^o, U. A 8(. R Br- Co. (Mlmh, U«k 



Il»tl 



SIOHTS or JLBUTTJSQ LA^VD OVnTKftB. 



in 



frcnn a third oompuij to whioh the owner grants & like privi.* 

A KUtDt4- in trub (pnM0cl bf>fnro oltotrto nulTmyft vrdra 
kanvn) difclftivx tJiat propter!}' appniftriated Tor |mbHo use may 
be taken id the ftxonrise of eDua»Qltlom^mia bcIuUf of steam 
Aid hone rftilroful^,** but th^t such property %\\n\\ net bo Uia^JK 
nnktt for & moro ntoea^iu-j tue than that to wliich it haa bcea 
AliMdy appropriated, acd proriaion is mado for crossing iiEii 
for l]mit<rd uso of the saiiLo tritcks in commoa vrith tbc owner, 
And it has boon hold that olcctrio railwa^va an^ icrrludcd vrithin 
tfa« moaamg of ib» phrasd ''stoam and bors*? railroads,*' and 
that tboy arc catitlcd lo cxeroi«o t^ right of ominont domain.' 
[q Miaaosh it wax hold that an eloctnc railway company 
may ooodoma the privil^r^ of uetn^ the tracks of a oabi« rail- 
way, and that in ««ttmntEn^ tlio damag«a tho coal of tha eablo 
conduit ahoukl be conndered, flUbout;h it cannot be used by 
th« «to<rtric railway conipany, and the contlructioji or ll mndo 
tho ooat o( tbo cabl« rani miicli greater than Llixt of ac elety 
vrie mil way.' 

jlM.Tbe Kame — CroMlni; rallnind-t — C^inilMniiiilloii and 
r(ig:n]ation.^-*Tlii) rnMiingaf rulriKni?* iKt^cieiitial to the; valui) 
of almost alt fniiichi^H for exi'^ndtn^ eltvtrio wirea along high- 
wnja, and it may be safely s^d that then; is always impUad, if 
not AXprvaa, pow«r to con Jeiiin such right of orxratiiijj, if any aon" 
denmation bo necrasary^ Whetber any right of property is 
taken by tho act of crossing will dcpond Tory nach on tho que*- 
tion vhctiwr th« njto of the highway for tho clectho wire is any- 
thing mora than the ordinary and proper aao of the road to 
vfaicb tfao milroad is bonnd to anbinit If this ho so, pormisBion 
tonao the highway inrolvos the tij^htto croutbcrailroacltaiul 
DO ri^tof propcttyta taken and no legal injury infllctod. It is 
aoTerthalosa tin? that moxv <>t Um( incoarcnienoo and daagur 
ate fuTOlTad in the erouiag of a railroad by any lino of olee- 
trie wire, and eapecially by the electric railway, and there is 
dtm a nec<«sity for the uito of aippliaDcos in eoninion and for 



■a|iJo8i>T.Stal.Bl4MLlfl9>; Bar, 
JUati.14.8^ tiu^ oth 8; lUo4e CoD- 
>i at Rr- Cih *< IbUdb Etectdo 8l 
tr, cb, «o Ohio 9u aia. » N. R. R«itL 
aa 



7 CtaK «07, 0« Pa<v Bajk aee; » An. 
CL Cu. 8ft (I60a 

■nrnnd Atk Rj. Ca r. Ftopii^li 
By. Ca. 13> U<k U« & W, Bui. rt 



10S 



XLEcmto wiBU nr amm AttD ntotrwATB* [g 1< 



coDcurrrncc Ed Uking prccnutioiu igunst duDgcfv; ftod v^bnB 
lUere iire statutes regulAting: the crOAKttij^of railroails at gr^t^ 
and giving power to tbc coorta or to other offlccra with re- 
gard to tlic sttinc, iht^ prov^ions hav« been declared to be 

applicnlilt to cro^tngs made by electric railwAjV and the court 
of equity in ^'anting iajtmctiona A^nst intcrfcxtnco witli 
eros^ngs bus intpo&^d terras by whicb ]>rovtJiioa s mftdo for 
pnymont for the privilege of crojsisg, or as to the ^int 1154 of 
appUancoB or the procautiona to be takon on both sidc«,* 

§ 16£>. Tbo e&me— Regulations lo New Jersey*— In Xev 
Jot^y a fttatute provides that whenever the route of any ffteao 
or electric railroad herQafter to be cooBtmcted ehalt croest at 
points oiitftidc of the limits of cities, thu itnc of jLiiy Stcsun rail- 
road in the state, such crossing shall be made iu such a vay 
aft will inflict the Iv&si injury upon the rights of tbo oompAay 
owning Xhv. line to be crossrd. iind th;iL ll whall be the <Iuty of 
tbo ohaikt-t'lUir, Q[ioa uppiicatloa und on nouce, to define by 
}us decree the mode in which such crossing shall be madOL The 
chancellor, upon an applinttioa made to him in fiuch a cao^ 
}»ih] Ui£lL he had no power to change the route of tbe eleotrio 
r^lway sanctioned by municipal cffdinance, and finding; over- 
head and underneath crossings impructicablo Ixtc^muo of tbo 
grtat expente^ he directed the eatablidhment of tiie ''Gibln 
Signal Syatem" and the construction of a signal lower by the 
electric milwuy compfiny, tbo eignols to bo opcmted and co*- 
trolled by tiic ateata railroad company at the expense of tbo 
Other company. Tbo operation of the system vaa lo cutoff 
tlio cloctric power and di^rail Uie car on the approuoh of & train 
on tlio othor line. The court of errors held that the act giring 
t^io ohancellor power to dolino the mode in which the croeaing 
ehould be made did not warrant him In Imposing upon tbQ8tc«m 
raiiroai the duty of operating the electric railway in any poi^ 
ticular, ^nd thd t^ocroe was revorvcd* Ttie ooart said they 
would not ducide wbeUier the le^lature had power to tmpom 



tpeamylv»ikl% R. R Oc^ v. Dnd- 
docik KiMv H7. Ca. L"^ 1^ St. US: 
Om££« Crotvtti^vtl A K V. K. H. Ctt 
V. Now Yirk, Q.U ± W. B. li C<x> 
IftK LUJouin-SOL 



v.Ncw Toffc^a U * W,RR Oi. 
lON, J.L.Ji>nra,nnL 

' >. Y. « Un^ BmncOi R K Ox r. 
AUflCtio ai|;b]MnJBk cto Kr- Ca,A4 
}t. J. Eg. Sa flW). 



a 



8^3 



BOOSTS O? ABCTTTt50 IA5D OWySBSL 



lOT 



upon Lbe st^am rRflnuid cnnipany the dnl/ of taking tmosaal 
pt«c«uLioTu wit}icut providing for oompufisation bo be miuto 
for the addiUoaal fixpetivr.^ 

Id a Utear case tLo ctiancelbr ' held tbat under tbU statute tbe 
ohanocllor's direction » to bbo '' mod^^ aad rcfioafr " of crosi- 
ingoDuldnotgiTeaathontj for a cLang:cof gr&df^of tlic Atrcet 
09 as to roiiovo tho company from rcsponsibUity for damogce 
to tbo l&nd-owner Tbo crossing mual bo imid^t he anid, ao- 
cordinjET to tbo chaticcUor*A prejcnption, and in no otbor way, 
but authority to chan^ the grado of the etroot mnat be oly 
UiaeA from b}io mtiQiciptdity harj&g power to confer it, und 
if 8Doh aotbority M&not be obtained the raUroad company will 
be regponsibU for coneeqoiential daRi&f*9s to tbe I^Lnd-on'ner. In 
viair of this the chAncoUor held that an und«rgrnd<> orovln^ 
JK tbe ease before him was nr>t reaacnably praoticable, and ho 
gftve d[rectionfl for tbo use of signals And derailing conlriTancos 
oa a cnmlng at gr.id<j, 

g 166. The namfl — Ctuvm In Penn!(jlTanl&. — A staitite bx 
Pennsylvanin ' relating to If^gid proct.'o<Iingii for thr omssmg of 
Ode nulrouil by anothrr itinki-Jt it tlitt duL^ of trourtM of (ic|iiily 
toaacertain anddeHnethe moduof suoh creasing which will ia- 
Biot tho least procticablo injury upon tho ngbts of tfw com- 
pany owning the road intended to be cro<u«<l,and declares thnt 
if^ in the judgment of the courts " it is rco^onably practicable to 
avoid % gndc oroesing, they sh&ll by Uieir process prevent a 
Crowng at grade." The Aupremi^ court has hedd that this atat* 
nte applies to an eloctrio railroad »<?okin;- to cross At ^[radc tho 
ttvcks of a steam miLrood, and is a prop<T exercisi^ of tbe polico 
power; and that in view of tbe inhf^rent danjfer of crossing a 
railroad with an eliM)trio oar, and of the peculiar dangers of 



) In tm oftftier com^ wher« tlxe pol&l 
Of cr^Mbig wu vitliin Ow Uiuitsof 
s dt^. »d4 iLe ttattito did nei ^i^iily* 
ui ^octrio r^iLiTbx oomfACjr naked 
1m an injuccdoii it^oiiivt tl>o \tMlet* 
ta«DCi»wtthtliCilroroaBin^i>f a lUatn 

Mtnlnd Uictn to inj cotr-lltixd of 
lh» wpttmrf ftfl tntdrlnnklnif svLt^b 
iod d^fihiUnfi irjFiloaL CciboL Tnto 
ItaCc r. Watckunj{n.R.Oo.(K. J, 



JLs te lbs poifer ^f tlio oourt oC 
cliHiioL'rr uuiler tbU ntAtuto lo ooo* 
trol tb# ooiwtruotioa and opiM%tkm 
ot tlio oro«iixu& «nd tfif» ootxw to be 

EivoQi B« CoiU»UdttL«d Tractbju Ca 
V. South Onwco A M. Tnctlon Ca, 
» N*. J. Eq. Mft fr» Ati. Rop. 15 (ISMX 

'In re Saddle Ritcr Traction Co^ 
41 Atl. lEd;i lf>T (S. J, &|.- lt*<^ 

*Aot Of Jdd« 19. It^l, S S; 
Biichttf^ Pufdos^ DIgwl, p. im 



in 



ii:L];<TTitic vrjftia %y ffTUom ^xo moirwATS. [% W. 



tlie pfiprticukr crosaiog, an injaoction shoulil he grnotcd Agtiiut 
crcsHing aL grade irl^^re It apjieoreJ ttiat an overhead Tiadoct 
was practicable^, and could he built for 07,000. Tbia decuion 
bas bcca A|iprovcd and followed hj the supreme eoori in later 
caaea. In od« ot theoe ^ it ws3 abowa tbat tbo expense of avoid- 
ing a ffraflo croi^aiii^ vrould amoont to at looM flsO^oiKl, Im; 
tbo conrt said tiiat einci) it appeared tbat at ovorbcad crosRug 
was not |>IivsicrJIy impraotioabk tbcy woro required bv tbe ttal- 
DtG to provont a ^ade croesing, ozcept in case of ^'iiDpoiB^^| 
nvcvULtyr' 'ind that sindo tb« complainant bad alrea^ly ^R 
grade crob^siDjc-s^ oo vocsb &dc«ealty exfatad, 0V4>n :boD^ th<ae 
two oroefiings ^ero not suffioient for the incroasing traroL 

In tbe othi^r eaK£ ^ the court tield that it was not a saiBdant 
reeaon for refusing an injunction againata grade croaslnythat 
a ebango of grade migbt involve the payment of damagoa to 
the u,lmttifig lanfl-owitnn, khcI timt tbo i^^ctrio niilvaybad, 
uiidar Liie HLatiJte, no jiower to tonJ^fno. 

In a rcGout cjmo in the oommon pleas, faotroinerf it waa bdd 
tbat a street raflway ba* pri/aa f<w-U- the right to oros tli» 
tracks of a railroad at grade, arid tba: it la for tbe party ob* 
jcoting to the crossing to furnish tbe court wit^ tbe ^cta tbat 
ahovr it U> be rc^^onably practicable to avoid it; and in 
caao the conrt called alt<^ntion to tbe fact tbat a ateam rail 
company holds its right of way aubjool to the vso of tbo pib- 
lic atre^^ta at the oroasings by street railway cars aa irv«U aa 
other VGhicIee.* 

§ 107. The aamo -- Cii«<« In Ncv Vorii.— The etatat« in 
Ifow York providoa tbat every ruilrood corporation whiOiO 



t Chwrt«r TiiwTtlcn Otv t. Plain-, W, 
*HR.RCn., IMP*. SI, I0.\4l ML 

fiilo R & r, B^ Co. T. Do 1^8 Tmc- 
tloa Co, 149 Pft. 9t L M Acl. Refk n, 

iD^ A B, Ci.JuU Ca r. SoraAton 
A ?. Tmctiou Co.. ISO Ptb 6t M& 3T 
Atl Ecjk T^; Fotijj. R. IL Co. v. 
Wferrcn St Itj. C>> 18^ ?«. 8t 7i 41 
AtL »«fi^ £31t K. T. One ft B. a 
R & Oa T. ^S^anui St Rj. Co., l^ 
fa SU «^ 4! AU JU^ as& 

'Winiuni VnLI^. Ca v. I^lc^aa 
A W. V*l St> Rf. Co.. 1 Dnapk. C<i. 
S«p.l23. fiMQl«o.oiilhUJulpolai. 



FV^r-R B. Ca V. Qft«a«bur& J. A 

P. 5t. Ry, tkh, i?a Fn. AL Via aa An 

Uq|;i. l*^; llorrt* ft £«»«> R R. Ok. 
V. NfWftrk Pmh. Ry, Ca. 51 N. ^ Eq. 
am afllrm^^f ai3 H J. Eq. SIO; W«m 
J^TMT R R C4\ T. Qtinaan, c. ft W, 
%. Co., 53 N. J. Eq. 81, » AU Rep. 
4;a; N. Y- ft 0. 1* Rr, Co. r, S. J. 
Klf^rtrlrRj-Ox^aON, J.U^£ lathto 
cue thf^rc B a diiwaflaoa of tba Ua- 
bUit>- of clUter rEUln»d ootnpuij for 
djLEDAgw In casa t>f a cUlidacL, and 
the datiot M «a^ oa to taklas 
caatkoa 



iiK>im or AvtrrrtHO LkstD ovruit, 



109 



ToaA Khali bo inttfrsected bj a now railroAd sbnll anibo wilh tho 
corporation ovrnEng th« new nllroad in formtiLg Ui« nocaMaiy 
ittMrBection; and tbatf on f&ilare to a^ree, commiMioners ^hM 
be itpfointed with power to ^Qtcrmlnrr whether tho crossing 
«biili be beneath or 4t or above tl:c exi3il:ng gradew^ It has 
been beld that this applies to a croseing: to bo made b; an eleo- 
trio railroad, and that on failure to come to on ogrocmeDt tbo 
oompaoy must apply* uodur tbo act, for the appointment of 
ooromiasioncts.* Tbie decision wa* affirmod > and tho (xmrt of 
apfwUa said that it waa for tbo oloctrio railt^y company to 
«hoir th&t it had ao9uiriKl tha right to ctoo tJi3 other ]iao 
at i^rade ; and. bavEng fail^i to do »o, it was not entitled to an 
jnjttDction. In this case thi> ol^trie rftiltvay compnny was 
using tho traelcit of an old horae-car line^, and only aiked for 
the removal of a chain which pr^vente^l the pHSsnge of tbe 
trolley-pat^^, Th» (IficiKion w lwi*'jl on tlio \cw York atJittilo 
hnpoaiag otrlam oontJitions an the right to cro*i at ^mle. In 
another c-ase under Ehe s^tme Hiatute it wfis hf^ld that no iictioti 
oin bo maintnincd for tho appnintmont of commiMiioneni to 
detcrmm<t the mannfTr of (r(i%&inv: unleHM the company hae ot>- 
Uined the consent of tho IoclI autborities Aod of the roqniaito 
Dumber of property owners to tho cocstnictton of the lino upon 

S 106. Thesame— DecUloitlnUaHSacbnsctttt.-'Thoetatiito 
in UanachuEottA * doc1arc« that *'a etnwt railway ootnpaoy 
wb090 track crosKs the trooka of a steam railroad aball moke 
the crosaini; in aach mji&n{?r as to Jnjnro aa little ag pcsnblo 
audi tnicka« and shall not itssurt frog« therein without tho con- 
■mt of tbe director* of such road/' The driver of a car ia ro- 
quired to stop it before croeaing, and the supremo judicial ootirt 
b giTOQ full equity power* to compel t^e ob»rvance of all lavrs 
gOTornlog ttreet milroada aod ah lawful reguladona of ttw 
muDicipnl aathontidt or railroad commlscioner*. The oourt 
has h4-)>i thai uudcr tbcee sUUilea it has no power to inipoao 
aMditiOQS not ini|:<Med by the legislature or the municipality, 

>L*«*lWLob.B8^Fia >1U H T. 44^ t« X £ Kvp^ *BS 

*Pttt BUiraouJ A r. P. Slact, (UtfA). 

fcj, Ca f^ fUAlM UUni RapU Trui- •Ottnmtu A W, Kjr. Ooi v, K. T. 

«tR^Co,7t Uu%T^HKy,0U|^ CPBLAU,K.U.H.Ca.MAp|&EAv. 

cnnas^ »a.48KY.6iip|i.«4a 

»ruh 8b. dL tia tt i 7. an 4a u. 



20O SLSCTBIO WIBC5 DT 9TBB£T« ASfD BIOXiWATa. [g§ lO^TO: 



nor to rec^uim a street raJIprajr company to put frogv Ift its 
tracks and to provido intcrtoaking signal to protect tho croti- 
ing. Tho court t^iitt : " Tho wholo inHltcr \» ri^gulat«d L>y Uie 
le^iKlAtum. Our duC/ in merely to see that tlin laiv in com> 
plied ffithf aad not to intcrfGrG, ttol^^ f^itber the oODaUtotiOo 
or tho law rcquirt'* as to xlo so.**' 

§ 169. Klectric railway cro^sln? other railroads — Hont 
compon^aticn bo nia^eT— A reread that is laid acrtm a publio 
«troct is subject ttt tbat point U* the oniinary public osos of the 
«troot ai a highway, and theraforo, if tht> U3i> of a stroct by an 
cLootrio railway for cuiryiii*^ pasaongors ia one of tho ordinary 
anU |>[v>j)cr U9c;9 of a public higbvuy, suob a railway may 1» 
laid without compensation for the tiso of tho land. If tbon 
ftrQ statutory rc^^ulatioos or condttionSf tbey must bo ootnpJiod 
with ; but lb railroad crossing a Atroet is subject Cc tho proper 
uaos of a street^ and if the electric railway is such a cso, 
right of property is aH^ctod by making the crosui^ with 
rails and wiros, and this <*3ckLing ltni> may ovon bo rcqoir^ Co 
aubmil without i^otujietiaaimD to tho adjualiiiontor iUnalsaihd 
vv'tTvs to those of tbt^ new company. There are apodal casciflf^ 
peculiar iajury Hrining out ut looal coniliLtoniit, tind iu such 
compcuaailou for iaclx tajuries may be requii-tHl ; but ;is a 
era] rule, where it is s^^ttlod that the electric sti'ect i-uihvay S^ 
like the horse railway,^ a proper use of the street for Ibe pnj^ 
poses of public traroL and not a now burden u|Jon tbo laiH), no 
compensation for crossing cm othor railroad isTtqmred. 

Ji;0. Thesame— CiwesiiiNewJcrsey,— Ina case in New 
JfiTBdy in Ih'iZ the chancellor declined to grant an injunction 
ngninat the crossing of a st(^um railroad by an otoctric nil way 

■ Old Oo\utty R It Co. T. R«cUjuid load Ave. dt a Rj. CU v, tUrmlB^ 
A A.8t Rr.(XmiMiWLiI^37AtL lum VuUji Rv. Ox, M AliL 900, 0& 

Bap. 370 iim), IC H«p. W : diictttfo dt a Tovted 

> Horm niilftifidj^ are & prupe r aa^ ^^ Co. t. Wlii tt3& Q. A & C 8l Bj- 

of tha NtrMtt anil Jmixw« nonuv biu^ Co, 119 led. S>T^ 33 N^ E. lUf^ 401 



Sao obp X. 3 tlV. wmpra. ud 
ciu<L As to tho erooiia^ of 
imltiu»d« br lior*B riiilraifl^ 
MS BMOklfn Coat « J. R. K, Co. r 
BreoWlja C-ly Ey. Co.. W B*rl^ (N-T.) 
4±0; N«ti V-sk X IlnrkuQ ILlLCo. 

*. rortj-S'*'^!»d, rtf, a. n. Oi, » 

Jftlfb. ,N V-i 3W; !lArk<ft SL Ry. Co. 
▼.GvalnJ U.aCi>.,SLCikL»^i Uisib- 



A«1o wtoaiD nitnMdtf croavlag ^ek 
other la tbe streets, too Knittna CSlj. 
81, J. & C. a & IL Ca T. RL Jcmi^ 
ToniuoaJ Ry. Ox. r Ma «S7, 10 & 
W. Bof^SUL Cfttdo *a4 bono rail- 
wdt: OojaLa II'^iw Rj. Col r. QUils 
Trjtstvnj Col iU- a G Gt NehJ^tt. 



smj 



kiooTft ov ABvmafa la^d ov^ceiu. 



901 



Kutboriiecl to be laid in a pu1>llc straut, ^u^ying the gDnenil con* 
•eittus of jadicisiJ opinioD wss that tba electric raihr^y was a 
proper um? «f tlift stnvt, impiislng tio r<^vr biirJcu, nnil th»t at 
^1 eveaU Uie legal n^tit of l,)i<* sixain mtlroaii i-omp:iiiy was 
Kot clear, aad therefore it wa* not L^ntitlud to a pruHmmar/ 
injunoLioa.^ Thi^ dtxision ^oa affirmed bjr the court of trrors.' 
«Xkl ia tbo meantime (^« chancellor held, in aaoLtlf^^ caaa,' that 
an dectric street railway w&a not &xl Additional burdca opoa 
the toiU and that a fltcam railroad cooipany haring iU tracks 
laid across the street wm not entiikd to compoasation for Iho 
ase of tho stroot at that point for an electric railway, the wirva 
being so luspcadoU as not to interrcrc with the oporMioa of 
tbo stoam nolrcad. Id this oas^, also, it was a qa»lioa of tbo 
right to a preliminary injimction. 

Thdio decisions irere followed by yic;e-Cbacecllor £mery ia 
Bume coart ia a ca^ Ma,tinn^ to the cros^Ini^ of an olectria 
tvay, iuTolving tho adjuatmont of tho overhead vrlres and 
ttw joint use of the electric eurraat.* The nGo-ohuDcclIor held 
Uiat the syateio of crosflicg, aUbough a complii^ated u^ was 
still, in its umintial nutun*, only a joint ufie of the public high- 
way at the point of oroming for Urn koIij parjXMe of cross! itg, 
&ad that the contplainaut, having itaelf put up winM in Uio 
street, iras not catitlod to compensitioa for such uae of th^tu 
by the defen.laat as vat aoccssary for tho puiptncs of publto 
ttarel in croMOg the complainant's line. The power of tha 
eotirt to regnlatc tho mode of the joint use was referred to as 
lot being involved in tho issue presented by the pleading 

S 171. Saae — Cases in lUinoiH and NcbruAla*— The su* 
court of Illinois in 1S95 held that tho u£o of streets by 
t ears, whether propoUed by hone po^ver or eleclncity, 
4ees sot oonstitute a new burden upon the lactd, and tbat a 
tteamnUroadooiDpaay is not entitled to an injunction against 
llw eonstraotjoa of an eleetrie railway in the street rerosi its 
line in such a manner as not to injure the railroad tracks.* 



m 



■Morrivft Bm>x IL IL Ca t. :Cow> 
tA PttB R?. Ox. at K. Ju Eq, aT», tt 

»l3KXEq MO, 

■WbA Jvrvj By. Oa t. COmdea, 

0- A w. Bj. Co, as K. X Eq. SI, as 
Au.a«ik4B(is»«> 



* CoelmL Tmctioii Co> t. Sa Onuee 
A U. Tcntiiiuii Oi, M K. X £i|. HSt 

* ClufOfto, A ft Q. R. R Go. T. WMi 

CMoiCo St. Dj. Co.. »e UL aash 40 

K IL Ropi lOOflC tfllniilnj; ft. C^ M llL 
Sia AaloUuin^lktaad dutrtcput 



^«n 



Kijx-rftio viiKR» lit xnuum mmu uioavAYi. 



Bl^ 



The supfeca« court of Xebrailra followed tfaia dediioD in a 
can in I&06,' and held that a steam milroad oomp&ny haviog 
bncks laid across a itrOQt at gnda is not oulttUd to 
tJOQ for tlie 6ro«log ef its Uae within tbe fttreet by aa 
street ratlw&y. The court said (Jio doctrico of the 
OiJiLii milrtuul rv)iiijiTmy>riijijinul mtrxdiiitivii tuM-ot Iho 
crouwd Uy itA intvXii, Xtui htrli] Lht? rJ^bt in comuiuu wKU 
general public, mnd must be pnwoiDed to havo con tent plated 
iho adoption of impron^l niifaQ» of tnuM upoci the stre«U, aod 
&ny bovr inconrcnit-uce talTercd by it od accoont of the cro» 
ing was <fcunr»tfr?» a£«;utf »ftfifrtA 

g ITS. The sftine — Casea li Peoii«jlTanla and 1>«U 
la Pennsylvania it wila held in 1Sd6 that a railroad com 
having truoka aotoes a etroct and having itself paid for cho 
building of n viaduct to carr^'ttic biglmay across Llic li&«,wu 
not entitlod to an injunction a^^nst the use of the viadoot by 
an oloctric railway tLUthorizcd to uso tb« street.' 

In a UU^ CAAo* a dutinctioD was taken botwecii a cn^ssii^ 
oa a bi;;hway and a orossmg eleowhere, and the court held thai 
the EUtut« authorizia;^ Etrcet railways to cros any otber rail- 
way did not oonfertharlgLt of eminent doitutin, and only gava 
the right to cross wh^re there b an established highvay; and 
thii vtmK said tliat i^w sU^Jtm railroad cxunpuny tiotdd be«i' 
titteJ to coraptfD.sation for a croAiing eJwwhore, even tliottghit 
wafi on a viaduct passing over thu line. Ab iujunctjon against 
bailditig fiuch n bridge was grantwK' 

In a case in 189T* Oh&aoellor ^lebolson of Delaware quoted 
the doGi&iou of (7hancollor McGiU of New Jersey abore referred 
lo/ and hctJ that since tbe electric railway was one of tbe 



to A D«w. itnfrovod forai o^f crMslnsi 
«M CUinc» A C T. Uy. <>>. V, lUiu- 
mend-WhltUii^ tftc Ry, Co. IM lud. 

fiTT, 40 K II Hftp^ om, 

iChtcaxu. R & Q, EL R CCL ▼, 9U#1«, 

S«p> aaO. distinmi'Eshiaic OatTMt t, 
fitata. M NnU ei« 5£ If. W. Ee]L «8t. 

■P«niifTitiuu« R ItCa T. <irattiu- 
bUTfr, X ft P. 8L 1^. Col, i:fl Flk St. 
B8t^ as Aa Rofx 133 OMV 

*Sorth«m tVfJtrnl ft. It ra v. Hn^ 
tfsbufg A IL &L Pj. Ox. 17T Fa. 8C 



ftiwt mEivtAj fTopofod to take aO 
pncftiiiiuan the cowtthouabt oece»- 
mrj. ?mii^*vaia E. It Ca T.Sa^ 
u-tun R«pitl>wMPtCOL([%.CACtV 

» pittHU u X iK &) am 

a & M. Rf. Co, ss R j: k^. si. 

• PUlAd«]pM^ W. & a R R QtkV. 
WtkpiPi^lon Clly Bf. C^L, 38 AtL 
tWT iDnL CrL, 1S»7> 



8i^] 



xnanrs ^ ABrrnyo ijjr& crvsrew. 



SOS 



proper nsea of tbo street^ It could not be exclnded from tliAi 
put of tbo street which wjls croraod by a tkam nulvrfty, and 
irw entitied to li^ Its raiU and to siring ib iTire« at a profwr 
faeigbt ftoroas the tvaok. 1^ Penn^lvania c&acs were duUa- 
gniBhod Rs nesting upoD a ftatoic ftuUionziDg the oourt to rcgn* 
Jati^ or pr\^veni levol erocsings. 

g 173. Tlie t^ame — Cft«es ta Connectlcnt and Atftbaota.— 
IxiConn«ic'-iGutit«iudcc£(lod in 1S95> tbattlio Icgidnt^arv has 
tho rlg;litio Authorize an dectricstrcot railway to crofitai «U'»m 
ndlwar at grade in the Biteet, The oourt sai^ it vas not called 
upon to oonsitlor whether th« oloctrlc railway impos»:>(] a new 
bardea on tb(f land. Tbo plaintiff had a mere r^ht of tromrlng^ 
and was not entitled lo compensation for any dartg^r or incoa- 
vonk'nfio arising from an anthorijusil uhu of ttie street fcr tlie 
pnrpoa^ of paLllc travel. 

Tn a later c^se in the i&mo court' a majority of the JDilgea 
wrrri of opininn that an olectric railway is not a new brjnJf^ii^ 
but Judgo llammrttttey, witli whom the t^ik-f jnxUce concurred, 
proleeted eanieatly against this conclusion, and an injnnctioo 
againat the nae oF a street by an cloctric raitvray company wa^ 
grmnted on the ground that ite fninchise was dofectire. 

Afterwards^ in a case involving tho crosfang of steam mil- 
roAd tmcka uaiicr peculiar conditions* Juttgc ilnmmeralcy, rc&d- 
li|g the opinion of tho eOQrt, referred to the forroer coac» aod 
laid: ^Tbo plaintiff (asftumin^ its land to be covered by the 

btio highway) is not entitSed to an iijtinction or eomponfa- 
for the mere oocQpatton of that land by iho trooka of the 
defendant. There most be some peculiar and special damage 
done to the property of the pbuntiH; '* but ho bold that under 
the peculiar conditions of the at&e, and in view of the ehju^ 
acter of tho tlUv of tho railro^ul company,' it was entitled to 
u Injonciion. Two Jndgf« dtssicnif^d. 

Tn ft rei^nt case in Alabarna. in which two railways uaad tho 
itroeie without ob)octioii from the mnnieipality, and one of 
then bad authority bid'ore tho other was bnill to om eloctrio 



£' 



V. BMpycn TnuMioti Oo. IS Cmui. 

nan AaRop^oss. 



ton Tthm^ny Ca. 00 Cnfin. IM^ t$ 
'Vvw Yotk, K U. A a R a Cg. 



lb i^t to «i»^ tb pnrv <rf 
■■pin thn liwfti nrtMintiw nf Ifcn n^piv, tfcii i !■■■ it nf 
tlw local SBtboritk^ tfc» oc«M>Bt «f tlw na qal red Dombtf of 
pfopeclj oimer% nd Ihe bSne to agne wHh Uhfi petilioBac:* 

la tlM cue of the coodamatioa of tfaeri^rtioCmbQUiBff 
vader « itatotc nqoiiis^ ■ pctittoo for the appocav 
of fomiiiiMMWMii to MBca daflucn^ it vai kfild la Hev 
Jcfacj tbat b petitioo coot^ain^ bo infouBfttioo ia to tbo ui 
ud looifctioil of the poln exccpC what was fontkbcd by mom 
•BoU doCi ofl a nop ^ Um Knot, witkoota booIs^ wbs too »- 
difliiiU' TW do^SBon w ftSmed on Appod on this 
(ooopUoe hwltg •zpnaoed oo tbo otbor), snd the eoart 
the pstitioik sfaoold bdicAta the intendod bei^^ht of the 
tfao uaiber and nu of the crow^iw tb^ will boar^ ftodj 
number ofwim tb^/tre to snataixL Tbete pailifi^ftt^l 
cxpan nid, are BWtfanry in & ea^ oF this Idad U> the asoettalft- 
UMTfit af th« priTitoga or right of way whicfa b to bo vecDiod.* 

In T»xu, under iJm Ifevnod HtAtitUw of 1S95, nrticU 4447, 
T«qnirin^ a telegraph compsuiy seeVing to condemn Und for» 
rigbt of way to ntat^ in writing in its application tbo nsa] e» 
tate aouglit to bo condemned, Jl was beld tbat a dcfcriptioo 
tboroof wbicb woold onablo oao aldllod in «ich macten to l> 
cato tbc Lanit sought to be oondcmncd is safikicnL* 



i4 Binnin«liAm Tmotioa Goh (Ala. 

m^rc, and caft— tfttod, OoOftls^Tito- 
Ci^bfl on PMI fi<aaN ck. XU, A0ti. 
fla« al«i Clilotfo * Aiohlaia Dridg* 
Co, r. PftC Mut fVt T^lev COk, St 
Kan. 118, a Acn, EL Cm »:». 

> Ikoosua v< R Y. « ». X Ttiepb. 
Co., 40 K- X I* ftK 

' fCow r»rk A K&tr JertCj TitUt- 
t4iOD«Co. T. nro»:ii«.fiO N^XLVa 
flmatou Wlittrrr. S. Y. A N. J.Ttolm 
KtoM C«, 31 K J. L. ««L<m till* 



potae. Hid Tarapii:* C& v. A- ft 
OoiaeMcdal Kawi Cd. 13 S. J. 1* . 
wltb ragud to OtP [>rflitiva 
dBmnartehtof vrmj^oa^ftlii 

*Hoai<aa A T<Piu C K5. Co^ «. 
pMlal TaL Oibt« Co. aH' C&T, Ap»^ 
4n a W. Bvp. 1:1^ 8m fcla> Oalf. C 
A !i r. Ry. C(L ¥. a W, T«Jf« A 
T^lf^h. CCL nVx. Cir. App>h 4A & W. 
iCa^ m ri8»8X ThEH CU9 ivUla to 
C(d>il««iiiatioa «( iKihl along a taik 
lead, acd dbewaoi tbo roquitiaaumtt 
d the petition and tlw qoortfan d 
tha noUo» requbetl by tha ftatuta 



Si'i) 



SIOBTS 07 ABUm^O LAfCS OWSKU. 



906 



In Mt^onri it has been held that Lho petitioner need not fllo 
a plat of the locatioa of a telegraph line when this ivootd not 
^ve ft vaont intfjligihltt vtAliinirjnt of thi? mnnnrr of Um pro- 
jiosed constnictioQ tlian is given b^ Uie phtiLfon, ami that a 
jndgment in proceedings to condemn tte right of vnj for ft 
tok^npb line Along a nkilrocul te not void for anccrtalntj' be 
caoK the f^titJoo and judgment de-fic-nbe the linn aa located oa 
at a difltanco of not less than twenty-five feet from the outer 
edge of the roilrond truck on tbo ciut side, or at snoh poiota ua 
aiay be agreed uponJ Tbo petition nec'd not locate c&eh polo 
iMir atate hovr many wires are to be strong npon the crosa^&rms^ 
and the peljtion may thotr by ita description tbat the location 
of the telegraph line will not incommode the piihlio nao of tho 
land for a railroad.' In snch a potitif>n a etipulation that if 
erer the railroad company Oisires to chan^ the location of ita 
tnolo^ or lay new ones, the t^^lopraph company will removo 
Iba polos to tht^ new right of way is binding on the petitioner, 
and to affectt the qm*»ti»n of damages.' 

In Alabama it vai hM that a petition for the eondemaa* 
Uon of a right of wsy for n telegraph lino over the right of 
way of a ratlnuid m^l imt di^gtiiiLii th» cxiict ptjcition of tho 
polec, nor which side of the tntuk Ir to be uwm}, nor thtt i]uan* 
li^ and spcdfic description of the hind to be taken, nor that 
fllfaaiog liikCft will not h4:T dxKpbrtrd, unt) that Uio petition was 
nfficient when it stated tbat the poles wonld be placed thirty 
Icot from the outside of the track, and one hundred and soventy- 
Bto feet apart, and at suob pluc<4 as shoTild bo agreed upon.' 
And in tbo federal conrt it baa been held that in sucii a peU* 
tlon it ia not nooessary to state by whattonuro tbo railroad, 
company holda ita lands.' 

»SL Lonb ft C R R C& T. PotUl «MobJlQ ft a ft/. Ca t. Tv/M 
*Uil snRy.0e^8aF«d. B«[x lOOfiasS), 





CHAPTCE IIL 

TZLBG&APHS OK PCR ttOXDS. 

{ 175. OrfUiloB BXtd parpain of the ftrt of am^r&m •! 
JkIj S^ l8Mr OHKeniitt? tHf^rmyks ob post rosiA. — Tha 
td^r^ih wia fcrand durJig the civil war to be of mprvno im- 
portaooe At aa >geiic]r of Uie gorefnmeat; «nd when the tiniqr 
oftho l'mtc4Sha«alMdbeM CTtobltthad by the remit of tho 
wv, the imporUaoe of btadin; the whole oooatrj togethcf \j 
me^m of the telegraph tAd the milroAd wu the uofe ftdty 
sppfeciatcd. The ^rcmraent hid already in tho nmlat of Um 
Vtr proTMlcd for a railroad aad & telegraph to extend froB 
the MiflfliflBJppi to the Paiciflc, lucter the ettthofitjr and oootrol 
of the United Statca In parstutihce of the wiee poUey kf 
whieh tbii grMt work was n&doftaWn, aa4 maki^ nae of the 
pover to Kgnlate eommcroe between the etatea and to m^- 
tain po£t roads^ oonpfreea enacted a lav, in 18^ s>^Dg t«]^ 
graph eoonpaniot the right u> iTXtt-aJ their Unea oter the pobUo 
domain, and over all miUury or po»t roads in the IJoiMl 
Statea. This act was approred Jnly ^4, 186^ ukl la entitled 
^ An act to aid in tho oonstmctioB of telegraph Unea^ and to 
aecnre to the goremment the ow of the same for portal, viti- 
tary and oth«r parposca.*** It declare Lbnt any telognph cov 
pany organised undi^Tthn Uirsofanyof theatnteaof thi^Fniua 
ahaU faftve the right to oonntruot, maintain and operate liooa oi 
tel<^^pb through and over any portion of the public domain 
of the Cnited Steteat and otvt and along any of the nulitary 
or post roads of the United St&tea whkh have been or may 
hen^art^ be declared nch by bw, bat that aoch linos of lele- 
f-rapb shall be 00 oOTUtrtict«d and maintained as not to inter- 
fcro with onlinary trarol; and it is provided that before any 
telegraph company shall exercise any of the powera or priTi- 
legsa coDferred by the act, the oompaay eball file their writt«a 
aeeeptaneo with the poetmafter-general of tba reetnetiona and 
obligations required by law. 

Ul U & 6tat, 131, tr. a Bar. 8t«L, tt Dtaa W& 




\% 1T6t 1T7J -nuJcaEApfifl on rorr bouw. 



^07 



$ 176. DeclBLoQ of tbe sapr«m« eoart siiittaljilii^ anil coq* 

^trulog Ihu art. — Tbo act <-ani(f IwfoiN! tho fiopremo court of 

^be tJaited SlatM la IST 7, aud WAi broadly »{UtJiiut?d, uod vrua 

coDstninl ft9 to give it the fcUeet effect for the purpOM of 

ioUuaing Uir trvv»t mU-Jixuinw b<?lffwn tW irtnU'^ Hud pre- 

rttDliDg auy intvrfiTrvni:^ wJLh the Lele;jraph bjr xUiLn guvi-rn< 

Bta or by coTporatioos or indiTidaalfl. 

Tbe cue was PvttMOata Tdt^rajA Ca. a Fr^^m XTnufti TA^ 

%pK C<f.i on appeal from the dodsioa of Judge Woods^ ia tho 

nilod States circuit court for the district of Tlorlda.* 

Aa act of tho tcgialaturc of Florida purported to give tJio 

implaiDaat the oxcltiaive right to orect talegraph Imes m oer- 

is countic* of tho atatc, and Jiidgo Woods held that, ao for 

tba act purported to giv« to odj company tho ciclnsivc priT- 

lego of liuing a poet road, it w^a In condiot with tlio aol of 

miul th^roCon void. Thi« dcoi^ion was sastalnod by 

pi«ia« oonrt* 

[?. What tho term ^'pottt toaJk" Inclnd^fi.— The aotfa 
Aimm] CO th^ public doitiiiiTiiind tomiiit^tryHnd postroa^b 
ing to the United Stal^/ but ext«nd« to all poat roada, 
ind appti<^« to public highiraya opened undar the laws of the 
lovivnd ■lali'M and UtrHloni^s upon which lb« nuiiU an^ carried.' 
By a aaUequent atatute (1S72, Rer. St;iL IT. S^ % .1964), all 
mlnaa4hi and all lettor-c&rncr roatoa iti any city or town viire 
expiestly declared to W |)o»t rojidA, and by tb« act of March 1, 
IdU <23 [J. S. Stat d), all public ro&da and highways wertr t^ 
dared to be p09t routoa, and since tho dcciaion of tho supreme 
DQUffi in the oaao of tho Penaacola Ti^lc^ipb Company there 
W boen no qocfltion that tho act of July ^4. ldC<-, appljett 
y to all pnblic Ligiiwayi of orery kind over which the 



B. 1. 1 Am. Bl Cm. asa 

iweiefoQiyitowQotapyly 
SttUTiAiph.ft'ral^Ca, 
Rqnia 

MVac. Cow VVf Uf. K. Q «ft 
tnC«Ll^k 



UdIOq T»]Cj& Ca,M XT. a ), 1 Anv 

TMeit Ox r. Eirhmuid. U a Q U 
R EX Tft.. 78 F«d. re^ ^O^O Am. BL 

P^p. II fiao^ IT4 U. & Tai; Pcaial 
T«lc«- Ckble Ox V. JMtiskonL Tf BU. 
m. S AtDn GL Cafr 77 ( iSUj ; 6t LouSi 

T. w, a T«»««. Co. w <;. a 1% i 



■A08 



Et£0TB10 mBE8 IM eXREBTS AFP nMOTATA. [J 1T6, 



caails are carriedj or rrhlcb are declared by coD^rces to bo poit 
roods. 

§ 178. The scope and effect of fbe act as declared by tbe 
supreme court — Equal priTile^ca sceunMl u> all telegraph 
eDmpanles.— Tbo purpose of the act oa decluied hy tho t Qpreroc 
oDurt iQ that case, and j^nerally reco^bed ever since^ mts to 
facilitate comtnunication by telegraph throug^iout tho ccmntTT, 
and to prevent re>trictian upon this kind of interstate eon- 
merco by tbe states or mdividualfi. Cbief JuEtJce 'VTaite, de- 
livering tJio opinion of ttie court in that cuse^ taid; 

^ The ftLatiito of Jidy 24, 1S6C, In effect, amoonia to a probi- 
bition of all gtnt^ rrtonofiolios in thia purticidsir. It Bnbstaa- 
tially dedarcB, in hhe iuLerest of cooiniGn^ and ihci convunwat 
tran&miHvsion of intelligiuice from jilace to pboe by the goTera- 
mont of tbe United States and its eitizcna, that the er«ctioQ of 
telegraph Hues shall, ^y far as staLo interft-reuL.^ 19 concerned, 
be free to all wLo will submit to the conditions im[>oacd by 
oon^rc^f and that corporutions orgnnizc<i under the laws of Ol>^ 
state for construoting and operating telegraph linua shall not 
bo oxclndcd by anoUior Trom proaccutiog their bosincss within 
ita jurisdiction, if tboy aeeept the terms propo^ted by tho aa- 
tional gOTemtnent for tins n^ittonai privilo;^. 

"To this extent, eert4i:nly^ ibo statute is a k^^itimate rfga- 
lation of commercial Interconree amon^ the siateft, and i$ ap- 
propriate Ir-gJ^SntJon to carry into cxecndon ihe powew of 
congress over ihi? jio^Ul sorrice. It gives no foreign corpora' 
tioQ tho right to enter njK>n private pro[H<rty wilbont the coa- 
sent of Uie owner, am] i.^rwt th© nitcemnry strtictnree for tU 
business; but it do;-s provide thnb, irlu^nrriY llui conM^nt of thu 
owner is obtained, no fttute legislation shall prevent tbe ooco- 
pation of poat ro;ulj for telegraph purposes by such corpora* 
tions as aro willing to avail themselves of Its priviltrges." 

Tlic not, thorofore> proridcs that all post roads shall bo kept 
open for tlio use of all telegraph cornpunic* Ibat ^all accept 
the ti^rms of the act, and pr^htbita interference with this imr- 
itc^ by state tc^lation, or by tbe action of indiriduaJs. A 
state lo^sliitord cannot giro to any one tolegmph company an 
eoelusive right to naa a poet road lor a telegraph lino,' 

*l^tMvnU T«dA& Cq ▼, Wnsitra TTnkin Tt^ O^ ▼- R A CL Tttfac- ^ 
Uoton Tiik^ Cc^, M U. & M Abl fi. R Ca. 19 FeiL Be|k <N0 nW4v =1 
ELCaa,83QLSWoodtaatf8i'W«4 r^ Be^ 108; W^L DiUni 




$1^0 



TBIXOBAPaS 05 P09T BOUtt 



aoe 



g 179. RjJtroAd aod turnpike companlefi ranncf glre ex- 
clttHhe rlt^bts to it:«o their rickt* of wty Tor tck-craplt pur* 
pOHM^-* As tJiis i« Ut]« of tho KtAto ^ith ir^spcct to M post 
roftdj^ so also it is true of the corporsttlons or indiviJtia.la own- 
in; tbo right of wsy of a turnpike or a raiJrood. >'eithor a 
railroad nor a turnpike company con giv« a tdogmpb com- 
pany an exclnsiYe Tight lo nas iu roa<l vrhicU eball be of any 
anil ftga:aftt a comparty whicli bus aocopt4Ml tho proviaiofi£ of 
(ho act of conj^^x^ In Weut^m Union Td^yropk Q^.\k Amor- 
ieoH Unum TeU^raph Co.} it was held that a raiboad com- 
pajijcanaot grant to a tclc^mph compnny tl]« solo right to 
cooatnct a tme over its right of wiy, ito as to exclude othor 
companiea which bare complicii with the act of congress and 
which iln not int4Tf<<ni ivitit thr ujat of iU linr of railroad; and 
U vas held that the railroad company having giren iu aum-nt 
to tho Dov lino of tclegmpb, the company own ing the old Una 
ms not entitled to nn injunction,evT?Q thuugli it hwl an agrce- 
QMDt with the railroad company for the exclusiTe nae. 

la Fitftant Onion Tdeyraph Vo, r> Jii^rlin^tOA <t StnttA 
Wmt^m SaUway Co.? Uis conrt said it h not competent for a 
railroad company to grant a telegraph company the excltuiTo 
right to establish ita linos of tcle^mph niong its right of way, 
ueh ocntracta boiag to restraint of trade and contrury to pub- 
lio policy, and the court roferr^^l to tho statute and citiMJ the 
deobion of the mprcmo court and other cnHOe. 

So also in WiU^m Unitytv Ttk^raph Co.v. B. d> 0. T^UfrapK 



C» V. Am. Union Tel«9 Co.. S BJiA 
It I Abl £L Ou. W (tS7g>i W. U. 
Mt«t Got T. BailiR£toc ft 6. Rr. Ox, 
11 Jul Bf-pL t; VTiBt Union T.?1p^ 
Oy r Am. Ucim Tolo^ Co., S& Ua. 
ISIk<9Aiii,B«Tu:tL 

M»W thBp>—geoftK«*otofeofr 
irws of Jul^ t^ nm ti t^ «f ooorai^ 
^po^hlp to ft aUf to gimt ^a o»- 
Milt« dcht lo ^uy ocMiconipftuj Co 
navtrttrtAlln^of uilBgnpbbvtirwQ 
uj t*o poJcU oooDvelad bf poia 

Mine dqciiion ill CWIifvt&b. ni&io 
b lata, toOHliUna-H <in a^euntb tt 
pdtAm polM7> tl>o T*lidi47 of a wr 
IffMii fnmt <if «a oxohMtrc priTilafB 
It 



cf bufldJni; uid opdnttng a tlC4 of 
t«lo(er:tph fmm Son FNicdvoo ta 
MfUTirvillo. bj wny of 8*0 J«^ 
SwoktoQ and t!kv-nninn^ CItj, for 
Ortccnyiunc Jl vrm tJio gratit luadv 
to Allen & Burnhuu on Way 3, 1812. 
CUlfomla 3l T«£«|{. Ga. v. A 1 1« T«J f^ 

iO &JM Ta Tth Clranii 1871^ Hu<- 
Ion. J, 1 Aia BL Om. 98a 

* J I r^iL Rvi^ t a UtrCnirjr, ISO. 1 
An. KL Ou. 403; To tlitf hudo of- 
f«* Uiit?n Trust Ca of N. Y, v. 
AluhiH>a.T<&E. Kj. Cix.a New M«<i- 
kfxv H9T, « PMi A«p TOl; U.& U> 
wit Oowt IX lown IJW> 



SIO 



HLBCnttO Wt»3 or ffrftE:BTB AXD HIGUWATS. 



Bl^ 



£b.,' the court said that a railroad is, Qoder the atatate, a post 
road, and therefore the act of coogw^as of Julj 24, 1SI5S, gfring 
to all tolftgraplL componka alike th<^ r^ht to corutmct and 
operate linos &[on^ all post rooda of the United Bt^tca, ia para- 
mount OTor a&j agrcdDcnt niivl^ by a railroad company ao- 
oDrtQg a telegraph oompany the exeluaiTO i»a of the line for iu 
wires. 

i ISO. Contract*) far «xeInAlT« rli;1it Tor telcftrapb l£o» 
rold on ^rottndfi af public pellcy.— Tbero are other eaaica in 
which the snmo rule is muintained in which che dooisJon m 
hnaed alfto n]>on Uie principlo tliat sach exclusive contwtt 
tend to stifle oompetition and are contmiy u> pnhllc poll*;, 
trithoiit n^^itrd u> ihcf fcufi/ml i^Lntute. 

It vfnA Mu [it>l(l iu n criitt) ID Geor^ioi in whioh Uie oontraict 
bad bdcm madd before the panage of the act of July M, 18A6, 
bnt the court n^fcrrod to Miction 2750 of the cod« of Georgi'if 
relating to monopotic^.^ 

So alao in OUla-fa Ctuf* it waa held by the New York oonrt 
of appoAJ» thutt a t'>li>^iph bc\r\g a publico tu?-, a mijroad ooo- 
pany oould not TAtxke an oxcltujve contract with a telegntpb 
company so as to prevent another company from obtaining a 
right of way over the railroad in »uoh n manner ae not to in- 
terfere witb travel; and a similar deoision waamade in Alabama 
in 1975.* 

In Oeorjfia it waa anggeated that a eoalltct for ozelnsive 
use was boyond the power of the railroad oonpany, boonnio it 
h04l i!oridtMiinud tliR land only for railroad porpoees, ULd theie 
did not inch&de exrlnaive rights fcr telegraph purposot agninat 
the pnblid infiTrot* 



4 



' 19 PdJ, Ka[x eoa 1 Am. EL Cm. 
All: 17. A. drcalt Coiin a rx K«ir 
Vorb. WitllAra. J. ri6M>. 

[a T»l«crapb Oa t- T«l«tfnifi1i Ccv. 
10 CliL VTovk. BuJt COI, it wmm ht-M 
th»l aa S4trMm«Dt bMweni a raiU 
road e<3mpcLRj aaJ d t«lfw;ni|di ciom- 

foe tho EirtrvttnitHlon of iU Jtna ^om 
bM o^noeni tl-nj dot^ cf laiJioad 
ooai«nlea to ^bwfc oqtahtj; but 
a ooD^nMi ta dnltvrr m;iffrtUI fthf- 
Vbanj ulr>n^ Iha Itvc for orw Coca* 

inj aad eot to deiiTot Ua odm^^ 



tfKwpi lil iflatloaic ia oontmiT to tt* 
cTtif.^ of summon oamonvattii widai 
aKuin«l publio polioT- 

> Wosteni I7aiQnTalig.OoL T, aa«> 
fotm Vnim "Mt^Co^m iH,Wkl 
am. £L Cu. MM {1^80^ 

"TOKT.ML 

R CcL r. SquUl & AtL iMe^ OatM 

AU.91L 

• Saut^ W«atifni & R Cd r. Awtk 
nm A AiUntic THair Ox. le lie. 
LB Am. B«p. 6SS lU7% 



I^M 



nucftuiu op; roer so am. 



9U 



So also tn a cue im tfae Unit^^ States circuit court for tbe 
ircfllcni district of Ubsouri,^ ia which tho contract ^ras made 
before tbo poasage of the act of July ^^ 1866, the co^irt held 
ibat an cxc]iia;To coDtroct wn« invalid in that it took avray the 
ftatc's right of eminent domain. Tlie milrorkd company in 
^ring an exclusive Hjiflit seek to add an nnlimit'^d fninebi«o to 
one tJut ia iUelf limiird, and this they aro potrerlesa to do. 
Tbo eontmet vas also hi>Td to bo t///m virf>^. Whether it waa 
affected by the act cf l$(>f>. pia^sod afterwards, vr%» not docfdcd. 
Tn another c»m in the same circuit,' Jiid(^ McCrary, while 
granting an injonL^tlon against an eji>ctmc>nt Iwforo a ault 
broQgbt tod9cUra^he contntct void, said: '*I have little doubt 
that Uw clhiJsit hfTi.i ri»r«TTnJ Vt U vmil." It wa^ the caae of a 
raJIrooil nofiij»aav agrt>i«in;i; with a t^h'f^rapli ri)Mi|iiui}' fur thn 
cooatrnctton of & lino, and to give it the exdiisire uae of il for 
eomraercml and gi^'ncral buMiiie?«, the trlcgrnpli company to 
tnnaict tiie telc^apb busincM of the railroad conipaDj. Vr. 
Jmtice Woods* in a case in the seventh circtiit, in l$dV re- 
fecTod to the doctnno as "now well cftublished that an excln- 
B;Te phvile^ to do tobfifTapUinc upon or aIon;i:dny railroad 
compaay c«anot be given to any person or corpomLion.^' It 
was bold otherwise, however, tn an cttrller can in ILlino^* 

3 181. 9Codlfleation« and e^e^ptlons.— There is aUmitfhoW' 
eveft to bu pla<r<] oi t\u^ ^'^^n tnil lanfziia,^ of this proposition, 
whflther it be an expp^sion of general policy or the inlerpre- 
talloD of a etattita There can b^ no r^asoanble doubt tbat 
•ocfa exoln^ive contract a« ia m\em*itry lo thi.' proper opcrution 
al tfae lines and of the raflraad is permissible, and that the pro- 

Val U«lon Ot^. S ro4. Bcp 417, 

Jm^ & W. ft. & Ooh 1 HoCnfy. 
SM.«Fe(LEt«fv4.ia 

>WcM«ni CwoftT«h9Co.T. Aft 
aTU««.Cik,S8 P«4.Ilap^iai Am. 
tlCk&TSL a»ft]>o aftaTai^ 
€^ T. W«a«rti Ualo« tulflff. Ca, V4 
fmL W^ aiei 1 Am, EL Cm G77. A 
dmOht J<c ii 40B wa« awU« m ihn 
UnUihl SUUab eircutt «nttn In Itenu 
wiUi niEsH to talviMpb ooati«nl«fl 

poniioD tbuuU ooaunct wiUia Uod- 



owuer fur ilie euuli>DTD UM of bU 

R jt aT«fe« ov,« Pod. Rep. isai 

Aai. EL OuL eot <1S»4X anUa, J.: 
l^Aiu Eier. Slat. art. ASi 

■^Voitom Uaioo TDt««. Ox v. CU- 
Cfi^c^ Ptrv R. R Ccv. M 1U. aw (iBtT)- 
Soe ftbo [Atrobft t. \7flii|»m Unlm 

T«log. ft Cttbla Ool T. Korfoai A Wfrt. 
H. li. Ou. ea v.. 9»j V«t«ni Uufon 
TnlPg, Ca V yftriAUK A Oona. K R. 
C(X«WUh*{>Sl.SI; U&tonlUo. It K. 



S13 




SLEOTfilC V1KU ISr ffTUSn AXD lllOttWATt. (S 1^ 



hibitlon iH only against cixclijsiro pririlcgcs for tbo parpotc^it 
shntting out ri^ Lincfl.^ 

It ban boon held, also, that ia a contract b^tTreen & railKid 
company anil a ti^Ic^raph compAoj, a rcctrictioa bintlmg Ibt 
railroad company col to coaslniot another telegraph Unc aiccj^ 
its right of way ia not void as a^^^ainst public policy^ bdca«>e,ii 
tlia needs of tbe public flbould doma&d another lino, it could bt 
€onEtruct<;<) along another railroad or along pnbtk hij^hwava, 
or oven on land condemned for iho purpose.' 

g 1$'2. PrnctlciLl dlfflonltlen — Queatloa of tfac Intorfercsn 
of one lino nith the other.— There may be practical dUt 
culties In allowing several tdegmph companies t^j nee thenoBi 
rai1n>Ad tnr their linr-Jt, for tlic rea^n that tbe nso by ooe^or 
at all ev#^nts by more than one*, may interfere with tho fnll »J 
efBcient use of tbo right of nay by unothtfr. A telegraph liBi 
can often be cconortiicaDy operated only in conntrGtioD aiU 
the use of it by tbe railroad company itc«lf,nnd thia use h 
tainly not what is contemplated by the slatuto. And agiis, 
them may be faciliti«^s at the railroad statlooa for tlie nse 
bill one line, and theae can hardly be williin the i*cnpe of 
statata Itmayercn bo that Gcveral distinct lines of wirKcod 
not 1)0 op^^rnt<n] witlu^ut interfering with one anothor along tb 
narrow atrip of land available for tbenif and the C4i»es do not 
go fio far aa to hold tbat any company hiu a right to contfinci 
a line iw a^ to interfere with the proper working of an 
llae. The aamo principle woald no doaht apply to thb as 



4 



I Soa 9 182. infra, anil am% raited. 

>Woit« Umctt Tclcg. Ctx V, All £ 
PflO. TelPc- Co,, 7 Dial 867. 

la a & O. Tvlets. Ca v. Mcrtr&n'a 
La. « Tex T0j«g. Ox, 07 Ia. Aniv 
83il, thcTO wcro |:r>?oodiD]^ to coO' 
ilr^ma Uw rj>clit of T^y of a railroad 
tor A t^lpgnplt, nnd It wu hnld thAt 
nn o^tiog U^JojCEnLpb Una <«>ald i^oly 
i»ttfrTiiiio kiii K7«k to (*XiiLuJo Ujo 
n»v romiKuij on thn tVin^ry that 
It hM hd Aioliuiva rlgtiC of way 
lUkdAr A ootttrvct witli tlio railroad 
©ompnoy. WliHtTiftr sud^ iLt'i^ntnwt 
VOuliI t>» valkL to ^iT« an «xrIuKivo 

rlgbt WAA not J'>?id«d,b*cauwaaex- 
<jluBiT« dftUt wai» not olaiowilraiid it 



w«s found tliat no dimag» oooU 
aulL 

la llarietta ft CukCfcitittU Ry. 
T. WfsLUnlaa 7N=^r£. Co., BSUhbJ 
!».«ObloW. L Bull tS«.it 
Uutltho grant ia quostioci 
oxcludva but tb»t Uw riLlltcadi 
pany might t^ulncaln a line Um 
own UM, or aUow a t«l«aniph 
pany lo dm H f ot v«iiend 
AithoiLjjb It hud gram^l AnotLw: 
graph oompai^ Ui« ngbt io plac*^ 
wiraacatti pol««.aud osiablbka» 
IkmH ajjeI do buJncm with potna itf 
tn» tin« of tlM fOML r«a«rTtDc tta> 
ri»:ht to <Id local tmtlnii & C. 
DulL Tl, nrvnoL 



S 1S3.] 



TSLE^EAPilS OS PCffT KOADe* 



218 



boan applied to Um uss of the right of vrmy iUcIf, nAincty, that 
thfi statute floes nob giTo Uu> right to injure projxrrtj it-jthonC 
compooaation. TLe i^at^ion of iuterfi^reiice between did'crmt 
tdograph lines docs not socru to have been much iliscusscd bj 
the courU,' mml ire can onl/ »fiply the prEDcJpli^ oa vluch tb« 
liBM aro allowed to bo erected on the rigbt ot way of tbo roil* 
road com panics. 

g 183. Tbo rlfffata conferred arr pitMIc and not private 
rl^ktd — The Uttfrcan only ho taken by consent.— Tho of- 
foot ot Ui« statute, according to the dooimons of tho courts, is 
lo authorise tole^ph oompanies to use public highwayB of 
mvtTj kinil over which the mails are carried or which aro do- 
elnroJ bj law to be poMt roo')):; and so far as tbt%> roads nro 
poblic highways for the tranaporucion of tlie matls, they are 
subj<ici to be mod for t«le^raph pcirposea, snd for all companies 
alike, wh«iher chartenMl by ii nVnU^ or th<- TTnlti*!] Statics, sub> 
ject only to the proviso Umt the line of telegraph shall be so 
coostmctcil and ranintflLinod as not to intcrfL^ro with ordioaiy 
tiarel.* But tlio Htatute iIixm not jiETiCt private; riglits, nor ^ve 
the power to take or injure private property without com pen- 
Mtion. So Ear afi there is & public nght of pa5»agc> the way is 
open to the use of the telegraph coTnimiiies, but so for as thiero 
U ptirato proporiy, this must be aoquirod by consent or by oon- 
denmattoD. 

The act of congress dooa not provide for oondcmnatioD. It 
hsa DO reference whatever to pnvato rights^ cxoopt so far as to 
proride that exclnsi70 privileges ninsl not lie granted, but that 
U a ri^vht of wa3' is ^ven it shall not conf^^r an exolueivo right 



<1d Wntern Union TbIvi^ Oa t, 
«mi-nmn Cakm Tcl^f^ €6.0 Bin TS 
OSn^ tb« couit> ill Upox 49W& tbo 
luletbftiH rJjfitofWByoDUldnotbo 
|{ltvi lo otiD oonpuiy «o m to ax- 
dndo otb«nk Hnbii«l th^ othonto 
iMdi ■■ hftl meoapbtd Uw provtdotti 
«l %tn act oi iBSd; and whoM Unca, 
vIma ooDstr»t«d &itl put in opom- 
tloo. woM PotdMt^rt iW p awiMi i o n 
«r oiBir-rkLlj otntruc-l Uio Ofvmtiua 
of tb« linftt nf ItAt oooayanf^ 

In VTnc UblcA TrilB- Ow. A. « 
P.Tblfl^ 0», T Btei SST, |irao«ediiias 



la ft 3U(« court bj n televrap^ oata* 
pan; to condemn tha Hghi of «Sj of 
an^tber tokgrnjih corofttfi^r ot«r * 
fgillroatL irbiiir Uio milmifi vr&« in 
tlio IiiltiiIa of A n?M?iTprp werv luJd lo 
b« tnopvntir* and void. 

'caRer. suuiisea. Aoioin* 

Ufr«r«Dn« wiUi elccUl«>liclil winii 
tn city itrwtv, •«• Cru«vtll oii Rloo 
irkilj, [K IM; Wvt CoMO T«t«s- 

oo. T. um Ancoic«. V. & a c & a 

CAl^li^ F«aiU]t. I7S.SAI&.ELOU 

aoBd, 78 P*d. ftup. d^ ITI U. a »L 



su 



BLscruo wnEE« nv ^nvm ako itionwATs. [J 1$L 



to the lue of the public highiray, whether it be a rottd, a teft- 
pik« or ft railway. 

In th«} cnae of tli« PenaacoU Telegraph Co., aboT« 
to,^ tfi« chief jnatice c! tho supreme court wd : The act ■* 
no foreign oorpor;ition the right to ent^r opoc pnTat« propert; 
withoTit the consent of the owner, and erect the neircsMij 
structures for its bnsinrss; but it docs prorido tbAt wbeiicTcf 
the consent of the ow&er U obtained, no state legidation daH 
prcTOQt tbt occupiLtaoa of poet rooda for toley^ph porpoace hj 
etich corporations as aro wiUing to avail thctosclvca of Jta prtri- 

§184. Thesame — The art Of conjcressglTCs no power U 
eondetiiD.']n ASi^tniittd^ Pa^i^ T<ififritph Co, v. CAi&M^S- 
I. <ij P. i?. R. Co.,' in the Ualt^ SUtei eireuit coort, Drw 
mond, J., eajd: ^The ri^ts of a railroad company orerilf 
roadway &re dlfTer^nt from thofi^ of the public oror a bif^hwajr. 
Orer the latter any one has a right to travel, cabject oaiy ta 
tolls, but the railroiul company bus exclui^ve pooBoaaon o^ib 
own cjirs, etc, 

'^ThG eonsLnictlon of the t^tegruph line involves the actoal 
lAking of tho property of the company, xnd congress hai le 
powt^r to authorixe this to bu duncf witlioiit making nninpoma 
tion.^' And with Uiia Mr, Justice Harhui agreed in a Later 
in the snme circuiL* 

Soalao inacaso in Tennessee,* rn wliichiiNrwTork tele 
company applied for leave to condemn a right of wiiy along ft 
railroad in Tennessee, tt was hcEd thfittho grant of tb« privilt^ 
to cf>ndemn rests irliolly with the sL:tti?; that tho laws of Ten- 
neasee confer no privileges on any corporation except such u 
areorganizodinthntstAte; thnt the United States statnteacoafer 
110 power on forei^ cor|K>ra.tion5; and thai section 5203 of tbe 
^teviscd tJtatutcs gives only the fedcrnii permission to teU*gn(h 
companies to uise ntilrojule, and thut Uiuy mu^l lirst ac^^uirv a 
ri^'ht of way by purchase. 



or ML 



ipenoAools Tdo^ Co. t. lVe?L 

Union Ttdoic- Co.. lift U- S L 

*Bi»forfjjfcbri'lp^riinbiML'titiiI*inncii 
for tliQ lUD of* tato>;nLpb tbi^ cCiD' 
panv niu«t lllo wllU llio fxmtfnadtcr^ 

loDi of tb4 aci i>t c«iigr««iL Cbicn^ 
AtciiUion BilJgo Co. V. Pao. MuL 



TbI(^Co>, 3ft Eui. lis. 2 An. ELCha 
4W<«t Ucioo Tdo^ C& V. Am 

UDioa id«s. GcL. B4n. n osmh 

Am. I'l Oil Sttl 

ac UntTlDtifttl Wopk. Bu)L Jl Cl U 
J. S^i eS MytTi Fvd. D«&. g 8L 



Il«.] 



TSLBO&Arss o3r ro^rr nou)«. 



nft 



JiulgQ 7altac», in a caso in the fnitcd Stnto circuit court 
lor lb« Mtatbvm district of N*iw Tork,^ Tt*hrrifig lo P^nsoivi^ 
TA^rapk Cf, t?. Wetftrm Vriit^n Tf^f^^rapk 6c).,*said: **It was 
not held Iq that cb£o that a tclcgrapli fN^mpany could &cc|air« 
A ri^t o[ way OTW a railrotul vrilliotit ih* conwot of the 
oirncr, or tfven tliM th« acl g«v€ to tdc^pb compaDic« tho 
power to acquire such rights of way by compulsory proooed- 
ings opon duo comp^nsatios^ And tlie contrary waa plainly in- 
timated ; but the act wae coosidorcd and expoundoil ae int^^rut^d 
ud effectual to deny to uny one tclcgriLpb ooiDpany the ri^ht 
to acquin? :kny tinch eaftcmc-nt in the lands of a railroad for 
tolef^l^ facilities as would exclude otber compAni<4 from 
obUuntDg lilfo prirtlq^s, un<l aa a doolarution by congrcfit of a 
policy in the inU^restd of the public and of the goreramcoit^ 
which was rKisoaablo atul lavrfnU" A siniilAr view of tho 
itatat* was ^xpntiMtH] by \}\a «nprr-iii4> <ioiirt of the Tnited 
State* in a later case, anil Mr Justiie Aiillt^r referred to tbo 
■latalo a« a permissive statute, which did not bavn tliA effocfc 
of <Mi^[npting A t*^b*grAph oimipany fnmi t--i\3lk«i by the slaM" 

In a ca«e in Lomaiaaa,' where the ttatnte of iho state mado 
provuion for condemnation and tho payment of damages,* tbo 
coort held tJ^t the ri^ht acquired under thia act. vtB well aa 
voder the act of ccngress; was not Uio fco, but only an oneo- 
monU and that this ca.-toment was merely tho right to mainiain 
the line in such a manner as not to interfere with the ordinary 
tnTel upon tho po«t road, whether highway or r^ilroid. ThofO 
waa no intention to abridge the Hghta of the railroad com- 
pany, aad the occupation by the t4?!e^aph waa eabject to tho 
fightto uao the land for railroad purpofK-s; thodamagot, thero- 
tm% were to be aasesscd merely on tJie ba^ of hk and occu- 
patioo. 



>WmL ITbIob T»]eff, Oex T. B. A Ct 
TU^ Co, la FmL R«|L OOI^ 1 Aal 

nctf.as)<i«»> 

*W«v£«« Daton T^ic^c Co, r. Ma^ 
fcl i i iM P tU 136 U. & S30 (I8»r> 

8h mito a W. B. IL On T. Soulb- 
n ft Aa IWect Cu.fiOi, C&13 
Am. g«fh »»<ian); W«*lcni Vvi.y^ 
W«f. Oa Y. Bkh. ID IUd. ah. 97 
A& Ua^ US U^mri; NcnUvMtm 



Ttf ep3l TtnK Co. % Ckicaae* K A Sl 

UOVK Wwtoik Union Tol^K- ^ "r* 
Ana Arbor Rj. On. SO FoJ. tt«|k ST^; 
ItirboMntl T. fiauUwrn Bull TaifplL 

Cb-. tT4 0.artk<imi 

4 FD9UI QUJ« T«L Ou of tA *. !«. 
WartfTU a tU Co., 40 Uk Aaa. 1370^ 
Ti S. Itop^ til 



sia 



ELKctfiio «i£ES m wntKm ±xd HronwATS- ((1S3h 



§ IS^. b A ttlf^rftph line a new bontflti op<m the lul 
imkcn for artllroa4t — Wbea Iftiul ii condomDod for thopv- 
po»o of 4 mlroftd tnck, it b ordiaahly only tho ngfat <^ wnf 
for railroad porpoeos that is tftkon : and tho quoatioalussnaeo 
whether the auDo Uad may bo oscd w^ith tho conscDt of U» 
failrood compui/ for the porpoaed of a lino of telegraph b- 
tended for j^eoMral Inaiaon:. 

Bailroa<l8 u^ ia a oertaia BenM public blgfavayip and tlio nv 
for wbich they appropriate landa ia a higfavay use.' Wh^tbtf 
a t^^graph is an addiLiomU bordea m&y dcpcnJ, therofore, ob 
tbo <|uc«tioQ whether ^nch a ns^ is wiihin th« htghwaj naa Ccr 
irhich the land was taVeo. A tel^^gmpb line Sas been hold t^ 
somo courts to be a proper ose of ud ordinary street or bifi- 
way * and in other oouris it haa h<«n held to be a qavt tiso ud 
an additional burden,' Although a railmud is m pabllo hS^ 
way It is ni>t open to tlt« public for gienc^ral ujgi*, btit only for 
tiM in a CF^rtain way. The land is condemntAl by a oertsin 
corporation for the purpose of transporUttion by meanaof tfr 
gines and can on a railroad trjick. Tbd osd of Uie land bf 
unotber csirponitioa, or even by thfl same c«>qx)raU(Hi for so- 
other and different purpose, may well be hold to be an add^ 
tionjil lue for which further corapensation should bo paid. 

Accordingly it has been heldthai a telegraph company lutng 
the right of way of a railroad compinyfor thopnrposoofgCB- 
cral telegraph business mt^t make coinpt^osatioa for tlio oasof 
the land to tho owner of the soil/ but that so far as a tol^rspli 
is appartenunt to tho nillro:td, and necessary or oooTenieiitld 
tho uso of the railroad, the construction of it is consistent with 



lAa to tbo Qtloct ordotlfcintioiiOT 
coAdemnOitloQof knd tar rnitroad or 
<iaDal purposoflt and Ibc riftht of ftd< 
jAMin^y Id ndjriiiilns ownen, »ee 
BariMtt V. JohcsoA, li N. J. Eq. (i 
MoCnrt.) 4^1, 3o« aAv> Picrco t. 
Dn>w. IM MiWi 7Si TiiJln Biifldtng 

a&d other 00*0:1 in rvgord to tho tolo- 
fiD|ih Aiiil liigliwBja cited iiL vliip- 

tarVia 
*S<wob. VllI,^flI-0«. 



<A.«P.T«tog,CaT.a,aL*P.K 
R C&, « Bin m; WoM. DaJoa 14* 
Co. T. Am. Udioo T«lv& Cbw9 etea 
I Am. fa OiA. 888; Am. T«l«9 < 

TebptL Co. V. pMTOtt, Tt ud. m V 

AtL Rep. filO. a Aim. EL Cu J0>^ 
rub nam. A. T A T. Ov t. Smitk L 
Am. R a A Cocp. Hop. TS iUMH. 

A» to oo&dvjniiAitoa of it^htflrf 
priviit«]uiiJ-«7U'Ui?rsvnNairOjkA& 
Mobile A T«3L R ft. Co. T. Srat^ 
& AtLuitio TeJc^. CcL, S3 AU 9* 
Ua7:'> AJeocambdtMJLafitSi 



TlCT.KElKAt-UN 01« IHMT ffOADft. 



SIT 



tbo p«iq)OEc« for which tlio land is takes, and that no further 
eumpciuation nood b« inad«.' 

It has b«oii h€ti] m Geor^^ia* that an act authomtng a t«l^ 
graph cofnpstay to oroct a Lino upon th^ ri;-ht of way of a raiU 
road cotnpny without comporiitntion is urtcon^titut tonal, and 
tbore aro many oa^sia vrbrchit 13 b«ldthata lino of U^togmph 
kan luMitionnl bunlf^Q n|>oi ilw land oond«maed«for tbeHght 
of trav or ft raitrofld, and that cx>m|)i^riKation must be m&do to 
tbe owner of tba soil, even tlioiigh the telegraph company Juu 
oompliifil with tho aot of cangrc»^.' 

There is a good deal of dtffcrenco of opinion on the subject, 
bnt whore it is so held, thea tbe fact that the raili-rj^ul U a pocii 
Tood docs not rcli07c the telegraph company of the duty ot 
making coniiwnaatioD. Tho same rule applies to orxlinary high- 
wnys, and if in fact tho erection of a telegraph line along a 
highway is a new burden upon tbe soil, compensation must bo 
mado to the ovrnor, oven thoaj^h tho hr^bway i& a poat road 
aad tbo company has complioJ with tbo act of con^rc^a.* 

% 1%. Dflfs the statute Imply that telei^raph Is a h^li- 
vay nse and not a new tinrd^n ou the l&nd \ — It hna^ indeed, 
b«oa fuggesl'^ that tbe principle on which the act of congresv 



' Wi*L Op ffm T*l»s. Co. t, Rffth, t fl 
ba. SIT. 27 AdL n«|L 1S» (l«r78j; 
eiate. Duke pi\i%, t. C«iiLral N. J> 
l^leph. C&, A3 N. J. U J. 341, SI&. prr 

la a ca*e In ludtmw in whi^h tho 

It Um l*ad ia f» iimpk. Cbo oourt 
Md tlui* tbe ooiupoo; bo'l tbo tight 
Itoitf^ <ir b7 oootniot wElh anolber 
CBBpanj. CAflrihTC thA |io1n)i anil vtitfm 
wmctm^rj to ta^itit^-lu 4 liD» ot l«l» 
pftplw Tbo cout mU tlmt tico* 
««d«r <lb> c^lian«r Ute luiil wm b»lct 

tpoa K «riaftiniUt«roroo«n*> Vr^ 
Ibn- T. Wofi. Uttion TaU^ Cch, 60 
lad eoi (IftOL 

As C9 tha rtKht ttt a Ailratd oom- 
puij hanuft a Line <if t«loicrKpU for 
Hi ova wo to pernUb a t«dq|mfdi 
^nnpanp- to u» it for gpaamX btmU 
MM, svo lUneita ft CiQCk R R Col v> 



West Union TW*& Ca, 3* OhioSl 
S4. 

«ficuthwvi«ni B. IL C^ T. Soutb- 
«m A Atl. Tvle^. Co., 40 Ga. ti^ IS 

" Am.T©loK 4 ToIppU Co. T.PwLn^ 
71 Ma, a:U, Id All. Kaejh aitt; «u^ nim 
A- T. & "n Oa ^ Smith, l Am. R tt 
Crwp. Bo|k 78 flM); W«it. Union 
Teln& Co. T. Ricb. IV KiUL AIT; IWEf 
T, StftUk of Ohicw 51 Oiilo SL 34a, a 
Am. EL Vv. tS& 

*Tiifci oFTmn iM^tlttt^ rnUior 
thiin nfllTiitillT«1y iroia th* dwl^ 
loru, Itt tluht wh«a an tddltkooal SSTP- 
imd# U ncoitDiavd U>0 rtotula to aot 
•UowaJ, DOT «Tio elMtnwL lo be a 
JiaaliHontloif tor not maklnff cnrnpNu 
•ttioiL SMPbalalT»U«.€^iblsCb«. 
Dohi mom f» Ud. «01L (» Am, BL Cba 

:r7; Si. Louk V. W. U Trloit Cb, I4S 

u. aiu^iAuL lacaalua SmrIw 



SIS KLKCTKICWtKSB JV ftrXBETt AFD moVWATL [§3 iST^ ISl 

W1L5 based precludes tbo idcft tk&t UiQ teltgmph h % ttev bo^ 
den npoiL tbc land cf a highway. The fiot assmfiee that ihc 
telegraph U one of tlic proixr u«(*6 of the highway, and only 
Aaothor mode of ttsin^ the publjo Hji^htj thcrrodZL It dealt oatj 
with public rlghta, and aBfames that no private riphta are af- 
iecXni hy tho usw^ of tlji? Ui^hwuy tor tlio t4lf^rapb, aail it wag 
held In tb« District of Columbia that the act gave the right to 
erect lines in ihti stro^ta of W»chingtoD,aQd that thero waa no 
iuli!iU»nii1 bunltrn upon the land for which ooan|wnxaticio QC4d 
be nmda' 

On tilt? other hnnd^ the caao decided by Jad^e Dnimmcnd 
and r*-[)nrted in BBisMc-ll' wa** iwed a« an argumi'Dton lh«?»tJi'-r 
sido of tho question by the diflfientlag judgea in /Wc0 0. i?/rv' 
in MasKuihiiscita. 

8 1(^7. Mtatutory anthorlty given to telegraph companirn 
with respect to the use of railroad land» In to bo conatmcd 
BtHctlj.— Jt was held by tho court of cichcq(if.T in England, 
in 1&5V that a telegraph hne was not antborized by the act 
of II and 15 Yict., ch. 135, to cto^s under a railway so aa to in- 
tcrfero tvilh or damage it Bonn^ U^rouc;h the balhut ivnd«r 
the raila waa hold to bo an interference, and the oonrt said ihAt 
the poix'tr to croM wh* Btrictly 1itn:U*d by the terras of the act. 

It was hetd by tbe suprome court of New Torlc, in 1580,' that 
tha provUion of the telegraph act of 18S3 (Laws, ch. 4tl, % S), 
autbopi^inglelcgpLipb <^rjmj>anie9c t^rn^c^t fixture* cpon "any of 
the public roath'^of tke stat«,didnot£piily totheriglitof way 
of a railroad company. 

§; ihH, T^lec^raphd on po^ roadfl are subject to nmnlclpKl 
control. — The act of congress baa not the wfTect of '|«iUing 
tclegmpb companica beyond municipal control with 3re«peotto 
the nfte of the strecta. When the legislature of New York 
gSTO onthority to cornvDissioners to caoae (elegraph winu hi 
largo cities to be placed undcrgroaad, Judge IVallaoo allowed 
a temporary injixnctdon to stand, bo far aa the wins atmng 



1 Bewete T. Wevt TTntoa IVb^, Ctl, 
4 Vaekor (Dl OX U4 (1S«CX ) Acs. EL 
Qiant 

*Atl ± Pna IVla^ Ca t. Chlcftgcv 
KLAP, i^lLCb>«BBUa)aa 

■Pierce r. Drew, i3f Mml T& 



<3etith Eutfrn Rr. Ca. v. I^mo- 
pOfto ft AncHcao Bleetrlc Malkut 
Tdei&Oa,*Eicb. W. 

* New Ynrt Ciir it Pfnnh*m % R 
Ca V. Ctfaiml Uiilon T*b^ C^ 
Hun, »L, I Aa. £l Uko, 814. 



TlLBOaiPB* 09 PO«r ftOUIg. 



-2ie 



«long tb« <}loTfttcd railroa<lA wen concenKd, on Uie grotJ&d 
tbti it was doubtful wbcther the &tat« stalut^ coold deprive 
tbA eomplainttiit of tbo aso of a post rood;^ but it iya« ftftep- 
beld by the Kcw York court of appcab tb&t tbo aoU of 
ID regard to tct^^i^pb companies and post ro^s did 
not c1«pdrivft tbft stAt* of its control of its bighwaj*, smd iti 
right to regolato tbem under the poUce power, and ibat tbe 
Acts prortdiiig for tbo too of post roads sro perfectly sntisKcd 
by the permbsioD given by tbe state teguda-tion to put Uia wires 
In labwDi^* 

Id a later cne« the i^iprcmo conrt of tho ITnitcd SUtcs midi 
^It ift a mian)Di.<rrptKm Ut klij^miht* tli^t tlm ant of 1^fl6 carriieR 
-with it tbe unrestricted rigbt to appr[>priat€ tho pubUc prop- 
«Tiy of a stat«. It tt, like any other franchise, to be excrci«^ 
in nibordinat;on to public and privftte ngbts; ** and it was btdd 
tbat a toIc^gTBpb company which had accepted the provisioM 
of tbo act waa not exempt from tho obligation to pay a Qxcd 
mm in tbo naturo of a rental to tbo city of St. Loulb^' 

% 189. Tclcj^aph! on ^ ost roads aro aulj^ct Xq rtate taxa* 
tleLi— Tbo act of coQgrt-^'i doee not exempt tolof^^ph oompa- 
niee constract^ under it from state tazution. This qu^tioa 
aroaa In a case in th^ Tniti il Sui*-* i^prvmo conn* «nd Mr- 
Joitiee Miller, referring lo the act of Jnly 24, 1^6% sjiid: 

*'Tbifi, bowerer. is mcpcly a i>CTTniss:To statute, and tber* ii 
no i>xpr»aii(>ii in it whtoh implin tlmt thw ]Mrniii»km tot-xtvnd 
its lines alonj^' roada not built or owoed by Lhe fotk^nLl govem* 
montmrrii^s with it any rxf^mption fmm the ordir;try burdens 
of taxation. "Wliile tbft htat^ could not intrrferft by any iqw^ 
ciflo statute to prcropt a corporatioa from placing its lines 
along tlicM post roails, or stop tbo nso of tbem after they vrero 
|laoed there, noTorthelcss tbo company receiving tbe bonc£t of 



Toiit, as v^ TE«fi. frsa I ia8«> 

*JUiwvlcn& lUirid Teles' C*>* r. 
Bmm 1«0 N- T. 041. 36 N. R E«t^ 
Bl% a A IV. EL €k& 143: RiiMiniOD4 t. 
GoQthvra fVll Te^«i^ A Tele«.CciL 

Bloanuni<l V. Sa Bf It Ti-lvpk. 0>. 174 

lb* Mlf>flC4 Bad tba <nM« i:lKd In 



U a M. 4 A(&. CL Cu. ISO. 8«« alae 
]\nltt] TvL CaLite Co. t. Dftltimetft 7$ 
MtL MI2, 3 AUL EL C^i. ST; l^tU 

U- & 409 (tW); UlchU&a TaL Oo^ «^ 
CbarloUc Ua Fed Rep. 1 1 llSQSk 



£30 



Bt-KCtttlO WIOKS TX flTXSSn AND StOBWATS. [S 1^ 



tbu Iftwt of the »tatd for tlie protection of iU property aad 
r^hU b liable to be taxed upon ite real or |Mr$oiia1 propdrt/, 
hs Any other person would be." 

Th Rntirrmitn -u. TTiw/rm f7n>;»» Tf^ynafA fl>.,' thft bill A 
leged titat the cwapaay bad accepted the promiom of tbe poftt- 
roa<1fl &€t, bat did not aver th&t aiij part of the Uoo wu boill 
nlong a poat road, an J the suprdmd court held that 4 tax apoi 
ite receipts which were partly dcnrcd from interstate oon- 
mcrco Euid pArlly fr^^m ^ommoroe withm tbo stat« was sot 
wholly invalid, but 0DI7 m proportion to the eztont that bmIi 
iwwpU were derived from Intorstato commotio. 

Iq tdfjy/pr, MfthV.^^ decided al Iho ffaini> term, the d'>f<?fidaili 
pleaded that the tele^aph compatiy o£ which he ^as manaf^or 
had aocepcod the provi«ton« of tht> act concernlDg po«t road% 
and WB8 operating a line of tel^gr^ph along thd post road^HH 
Alabama and in otht^r states and was engaged in intersMP 
coiiiiii4>ny^, and Si waa tield iliat do «Late hflA a right to levy % 
tax upon interstate oommerce in any form, whether by way of 
duti«n on transpnrtsition or on the rocdpt^ dcriri.Ml from that 
tr anil [M^ ration, or on the i:>ocupat4oa or biiainina of carryiiif; It 
«Hi, and that a mnnicipal ordinance imposing a license fee ea 
telegraph companies enga^<^ in nuch commerce and a fiao for 
the violation of it was nnconatitutionaL* Tbeeo casea were t^ 
ferrod to in W<st/mk Union Td^. V*>. v- At<Aoma^ and it wv 
held tlirit no tax oun bo impofted by a slate upon tolegraphio 
messages sent from one state into another by a compaoy which 
has accepted the provisions of t^e po6t-r<Kids act or upon ny 
cotpta derived therefrom ; but in PoHal Td^fgrapk OahU (h. «l 
(Sii^Uston^^ it wa« held that a murioipal lioensa foe upon boBi- 
neeidoao oxclunively within the iiatowas ooi invalid, althod^ 
the eofupany bad £.ecepl^ the provisions of the posl-roads act; 
and in lat^rcaus th'.^ dix'triiMj ^nauneed hy Mr Jag;ice Millar 
in th& caAe against MuHAaehoaetts, above ref^rad to^* vaa al^ 
firnted,and itis well settled that state tnxation U|?on iuterttate 
tclv£ra|)li lines using post roadfl, based upon ti^e proportion of 



im u. a 4ti. i Am. EL €a& aa 

•W» t:, a 4«i. i Anu El C»* 7» 
U*«i nffcrrifiil lo W. V.lcXc^^ Co. v. 
T«xA«»Kl>U 8 «I3: W'.U.Tolof, Ca 
f. P«D JicUm, 1^ 0. a MT, sad lUfta/ 
<iU^r CMCA 



■ m D. a 47% i Am, EL Gte t 

> W. n. Tido^ Ox V. UamndbmamK 
uau.&«aa 



1SLE0CUPBS OS PC«T ROADS, 



2Sl 



Ui« length of tbo line within tho £tat4) to tbo kngth of tho Use 
throughout tho vholo coQotr^, is not invalitl undw the contti* 
tntion.^ 

% 190. Mlw«l]a»eftiisnittttei^— InTT^rfOTirniwTWffpir^ 
0>. t>. ffV^fri-r* *fc Atiantic li. R. 0>>,* it wag held that & <ron- 
tfw*t b«tw««a a nilroad company and a telegraph fiompouiy, 
by nhlcb the latter was to put up a wire for tlio t^xclasivo nso 
of the n^lroiul coinpany, coimrrtiiig it truh the vaHous sta* 
tknu aqlI furnishing all Uiq nece&^iary iDstmaientA for ihe ex- 
ctQsiv« USD of the r^ilroa^l company, was not a s&lo of thDwire, 
and that m IrKw^n of thn milrn^id took tfao property subject to 
the term» of ilie contnurt &iii accju'red only fiUch intcrost iu 
the wire as the lessor had. 

In W&Um f/num TcU^aph Co. v. BaUtm^rt A Ohio R. R. 
(h,^ it WBd held that n lioeoae by a milrcad company to majn- 
tain A telegraph lino along its rorul so long as tbo Iiccn«eo ex- 
itlc<l, cipirot with the espiratic-n of Urn ti^k^rapb patccte told 
by the lioonsoe, notwithstanding the ro-incorporaUon of th« 
oovDpany. 

In &b£AiM«to^ S. R. (7o, V. &>\ith^n <fi AUctUxc T^^raph 
C&.^ it WAS bald that an act of a suto kgislaturv permitting a 
ttlflgntpU company to eroet and maintain ita line upon the 
Hgbt of way of railroad conipaoJea and declaring that the lo- 
Jnrie* to Uio latter itiu£t 1>o appnii^u'd by arlvitratort, wrta unuon- 
aiitutional because ii made arbitration compulsory and becauao 
it Doolained no proTieiou for I'tifoTcing tlm award^ even if tha 
particK Hltimld a^n.<CT to nrhKrate. 

In Onlario tt }Vai^rn, ^y, Co, ». WeMem Unu^A TtUffrapK 
Q>-^ It ma bold that a tckgniph line put np nnd operated by 
a telegmpb company ulong Uio lino of a miroiul on poke bo* 
longing to tbc milroad company ia port of the real eetate, and 
wan oorercd by a mortgiL^ given by tbo railroad oom|jnny on 
Ua railroad and plant. 

of rtBt# taxation •&• aln TDrel^»^ 
ation of tho y*^at%. Tf>1u|>ho*io Ca. Ok 
N. J. L91; C^aiiioiivmllb v. Sntitii^ 
R^nm C(x, as Sjr. % 3 Am EL Caa 

TU.aSm^OL. lOtto^ML 
«MOtt. u t Ata.EJ,ctost(ire). 

»JU Uim (K. y.K SB (UbG^ 



141 U, & 4018 Ant EL Cm. SO ,lSO\y. 
ftttfal Ttfcft. CaU» Ca v. Aihiuix 1&» 
aaoss^a Am BL CAiL o&i cieai): 
W. a lWiff«. Gol v. Tajcrirt, HI lad 
SU5 AcL £LCft&ClO mU'/t: 3«nje 
^flamivlCI tX& U e Am. El en* 
«U (1»QJ[ A4a V Eapr^ Ca T. Ohio^ 

inu<aiMaM> on tho rabjooi 



OHArTER XTIL 



IXTERfERESCR OF DIFFERENT KTXD80F ELECTHIC CtJKRF,ST3 — 
GOXFLICTINU Ua^ OF CLE^CI'HIO WIRKS Q( TU£ STREETSL 

} 191. Tli«iiMof elie Ci'kikfaoiieilUturljedhj^rlccirlclIelit 
mil til<>ctrl€ranwtiy turreiiU. — Tbe ne^ruaesof elrctncwina 
haro kd to controTcrdics boiwcea the nevr and iho old. The 
tolf^bone h&YJD^ obiaintxl possossion of tb« ntrcct^ nAturtxUy 
naootedtlie intnuioa ofth^nvtvcoua'ra, and with good reaaoiit 
boofroso U woa fcomd that tbc moro powcrfol cam^nts of tbo 
deotric light and tho elcotrio railiv&y eiuiftcd ocriooii diaturb- 
UMe io tbo dolicato varintiona of the current rcquirod to tnuiB* 
mit tho eoan^I of tho human roico. 

The wiroM did duE touch one ELUOthor; th^ro wu no interfep- 
race with any tangible property; but there wafi» DeveKheleas, 
a soriouH dinturbance o( tho curront d«cd for tbe telephone. 
ElectrtciLy operates at a dJitonce, and the cmrenta are carried, 
BOl only along ihowJr^E^ but also through tbo oarth; and when 
unw trin??! Wi?rrf ^trutig a^loug thA KtnHrU |iamllH wiUi thr- U!li»- 
pboiie wiraa, and tbe sti^ong currents refjTiired for Iigbt anil 
■untiTa pover v/qxts aenl through tbcm and cumt^ b^k ngaitt 
Uirou^ tiiti l^JLrLh, thrs tnlrphoim currdnt wa.H a^ected so ibat 
bUESJng aour.da were heard instead of the huiiLan voice; tho 
call-bellA were rang and false alamut vrr^ro glrcut ao that the 
WJTt''^ of tho tclophooa companies vrna greatly disturbed and 
thatr sub6criljer9 were eerionsly annoyed. 

StTt- aootu o|>|>o«itien, ther^ore, wa* made by the tolephono 
ooB&pABiGe to tbe D6e of tbe streets, first for olQCtricdight n^iree* 
and afUrrtrarda for the eleethe ntilway, and thc«<o haa been 
ttuob litigation and tome conflict of deoisioDS. 

i IVt. CaiuPfi Aui ntanni^r of tbe <]l9liir?>aTtfe« espTafaed* 
WithcHit going iato a diiou^ion of electrical phenomena, we 
mn itate in a tev irords the facts out of which the oonfllet 
idaes. The t^lepbone ai^ it hn« Imnn onliii^ly (^firiHtruetnd 
Mako« tiM^ nf Ui« mrlli for Ibit n^um current, and the el^ctno 
railway^ lu using what is kaown as the single trolley sy^Uru, 



^1 



ULBcnaic wiBBa es tfrvsna and mouwjtrs. [$ 193L 



«l80 makea use of the earth even Ibotigh tbe irires are gronaded 
in tbe nula. 

The cnrthwQsasrflforthoretuni cairoatbT Professor Ilcnij 
when h& worked the iirat olccbric telegraph line oq tLo coLk^ 
oampoa at Frincoton in 183i^/ and tho carUi has bcca in cora- 
taoD iu(^ eror sincd for tho pitrpodo of complottng tbo circuit it 
all appUcations of the electrlo curr^Dt It U possjble, of conrae, 
to UBD a motaUic circuit, b;it it 10 ebcapcr to n£<t tbo earth, ftnd 
Ch6 earth ia ustod in common by all. Continaoud cmrents pi» 
ing tLroap-h the earth hsLvo little effect npoa one another, bal 
a pulsitting or flrsc^finltTiuoiis current disturbs another carr^at 
The telephone requiring a delicate pulEating current !» afTectod 
oven hy t\m eiirrcnt* of othc^r t«lL*[ihoacSr nnd mnch more bjr 
Uie »Lnjiig antl varjiog currenU pn.N)uc!e<I by Hw i1yniitni)«gvii' 
erating electricity for light and power. The effect varies trlth 
tho nntureof tho sml^and the manner in whieh tho8DVe^UGi^ 
cults a.ro grounded \ hiit wli«n the tnlephone usM tbe earth for 
ltd eircait, it la almost inevitably disturbed by tbe nao of the 
earth for dynumic currents in the same direction and [ocn^ity. 

§ 10:£. The same HUhJoct— Induction andlealia^e. — liVbca 
tivo Bystcms nse the earth for a retnm current, tbcra is also 
intorforenco by induction between p^rallol wirc« running near 
to;^ther, a current in one ^^iro indncin;; n similar cnrrcnl in 
tho opi>Qsite direction in tbe other, so that even a ecnrerention 
over Ofie wire c^n bo beard by one mtn^ n telt^phone on Um 
,other,iLnd tbe palsations of a dynamic current make & buzxing 
tfound ^'hich droivnn thn «oiind of the voioa 

Stili another cause of di3ti]rbQ,nce Is ieatoge, by wblcb oao 
carn?nt grnun<b.*d nwi.r nnirther png^r'S ovrr to it and IncrrenflCS 
its (nn\K. Tbift UvitU phiee \v\mn tHith i^jrn-.nlJiHiTti^ljt Mmsnmfl 
eonrae on their retarn; end fiinoe telephone wires wertf qfUm 
grounded by mc^n» of wut<T piptfK nnd ^tf. pipus, disturbances 
frnqLientl^' occurred by reason of Ieakd|;e from the eleclric-ligbt 
currents. 

Siooo the telephone ennmt Is weaker and tfae use of it de- 
pends upon the accuracy of its palsations^alt Itiese duturtnnoct 
ore very iojuriouc to the telephone system, and the value of it 

rviaoOen CoU4«%Juao ISflSS^by p.\% 



194*196.] tmzxwKBxxtx or sLEcrmc crzsEiai, 



Sd5 



vrofild be groatiy impairod if il woro to bo eabjcct to such dis- 
torbanoGB. 

% lOi. SlMlrolfSts.— It is not only the telopbona tJiatis 
Isjorod by tha wcupo of Uw oLoctrio ourrcst. Tbord U still 
ftfiother caiueor«omp4alDt in the cueo of the str^U for line* 
of #lectm wiro^ It Iiaa been iotmd that when tbo groiiikd la 
nxctl for tbc mlam of thi? p(iWi-Tfii1 <Himii] U of thn clwrtrio nii)- 
way aiu) the elecLrk: li^bt, a |>ortion of the crurr«nt seekfl and 
foUows any loetaUic stilmtances, anch as gaa ami ^vnbor pipos or 
ItMftteel fmmrnftf b-jJKIings; And when? tin: cum-ntkuTCV tbo 
sturface of tho metal m any damp place umli>r^rouQ{|, chemical 
ttotioa takes place, which causes a slow conwoa of tho metal 
and prodocod senoas injury. 

g lOS, Homo of tbc dtOlcnUJcs mny bo aroldcd by tbc uso 
•rtbe motnUic elrctilt — OlJjcctlontf to tUte.— Tbcao disturb- 
aaccB are duo to the grounding: of the circuity and moat, if not 
all, of thcco difiicnltica can bo avoiJcd by tho oso of a motaillio 
dirctilt for tho rttnm current The motollio circuit is usod In 
all the sysiema of electric liffhtin^, but in some of tb^rm there 
is a tbinJ or rcutral wire which U grounded and tomoUmea 
carriet a current, and even without this tho metallic circuit is 
aottlwaya evenly b»1anc^), and lE^ukiigc* and inili^rtion somo 
Uim* occur. Thi^ ^li'ctrir mil way lslv Ui<: nnlit ^Mniruled ^*by 
copper wire, but they are not insulatei], and the current ia al- 
ways a grouDdod current unless » sci'ond trolley wiro hv uwA 
for the return. Th^double troll«y syiitoin, however, 18 expcnnira 
to biuld and complicated in operation. The tolcphono can qso 
aiDetalJio circuit, but to bavo a double wire for etory tnstru- 
BM&t would be very expensive; and bv what ia called tlie Mc- 
Clucr device, a common rttum viiro may bo naod by which 
■uhaUDtlaJly tho tamo purpoM is aocomphHhed. 

§ 196. THephon<T t^mpaiitet Insisted that tliey wer« enti- 
tled to prole<tjoii.—lhu tvUphono compa[iii;« hiivinj^tet Gp 
ibeir wirea Id the streets with the consent of the atithoni£e% 
uul haTiog spent much moni^y in building up n proJitnblo 
btsinoM of graai pubLlo utility, insisted that ihey were cnti* 
tied to protection ag^nst the use of the streets by other and 
vore powi*rfiit rtimrntft whif'b d[mi;igi<d ihi^ir lmKm?«i jind m>* 
paifvd th»t I'iilui? of their propeity. They a;nd that, having 
etfabUabed ihtru- bosinese and biA up their wires long bofoni 



tii« elcctrio liglit and chxtric niiln-a/ comp&Dicfl wore organ* 
bdd, th*>y Were oot obligtxl to aJopt new and ^xpcMiTo d^ 
Tiocs for neotratma^ tho cff^t of the new carrtntA, an<l that 
on tbo otbcT lunitttbo othL^rcompnu-os ebotild tot bopcrtnittod 
to OAo tli6 MtKoU unless they xvqiM adopt nrtnra wiret and 
uso all other dovicea oecessary to pKvoot tbeir current from 
(listurbin;^ Umt oT th« tdophoiH}. 

|IW, the flrstcODteatwaa With theelcftrlcOlghtwIrw,— 
TheohKtric-Iightwir<« wcro th« firsttodutiirbtbAtoli^olul^ 
and the first Hlnig^jle toitV pliiee bt«tw&en llie teleplmoe ami 
tho Ql<jctrr;;-b'ght companies. BWls Tor injuticUon were AM \n 
nmny courE^, and tdah^ t^npors^ry injcifictioiu wcrn^ gniHlMl, 
but very fow cases have beien rtport**-], aod not manj" haw 
come to final hearing. There was no serious difficnlty in to 
atringjng the electric-il^ht wire« aa to kM^f> ihf^m at somo A'tM- 
tODCc From telephone wires, and inAaUcin:? th^^m so th&t U]« 
indaction was not felt at tti^t distance, and much of tht^ dt& 
culty from leakage could be avoidt^d by the ei^r^iao of doe 
core. A practical settlomect vrtkA tlieroforo ina<lo in many 
coaoB, after a sharp ts^hi, before a final decision hod brnm 
reached by thd couru. 

§I5ls, EIPTtrlr-UijhtwIrftH— D4*et«l0!H— Xebra*ka-— Thort 
is a case in Nebraska ^ tn which the court interfered so far w 
to proU*ct l^'Iephono wirog alrwMly let up En n «trmrl, by com- 
peltlng the electrfe-light wtroH to be kept at s certain djabuwe 
from thom, btit relief xrai rcfns^ as to thoso slreebs which had 
ftlrmdy horni occnpion) by the «lcctric-light wtrta. The bQI at 
le^edUiatineandeaeenMightwirtiacoQld not be operated pftraltel 
with t«1c]>bone win?^ xt a less distance than three fe^rt, nor aro* 
light wires at a l^Hi diatimoe than ten feet^ without tnlctrrorinf 
with the uAe of tJic telephone wires and prorontiag the traottc- 
tion of tbo plaintilT^ btiftlnoitH, ami that if arc-li^ wires croowd 
U4ephot3e wirca at n leas distance than ten feet, nnloaa tliey 
wore accorely boxed, there i;Ta8daDg<er of oocbdent*. l^hodv- 
oreo of the dUtrici eotirt enjoined the oleoLric-Ugbt cctnpany 
from nfiin^ for are-light purpose any wira rannin^ parallel 
and on the eaino side of the Ktroet with the p]::initff*i t«lephttw 
wir^ and from ntlnj for inoandeAeeaMight purpose any wlrs 

I Nebmska TOt^iilL C<^ r. Vurk QdH ft EUctrio LifUi Ox IT ICflk 181 U 
N. VT, Ha^ 12S lacfUomWr IT. lSiS9^ 



Btoci 



IS 199, 300.] lyTSSFKBKircs of Kuconuu ocKai:>mi. SS7 

whldi ran parolli^ vrith tlie plaifititT* t<'1q)b<mo i?Ik on tbo 
Bune 8id« of tbe ^tr^et, and lo^ tban ei^ht fc«t from tbe tele- 
ptionc wiiv, or in any cvso for & cli«tanoe oi moro than tbn* 
hoiidred 1e&t\ and it was provided tbat in all caies a strong 
guard vrir« slioold be BtiGpemled acmcfi tbe liaeq ever/ oii« huD> 
drvd fivt, tnt<lvrnjr hutiri.wn \}w trrtirp^umii und cl^tric-ligbc 
triroft, AO ax to pri%vr*at tlie upper irircA frum fulling u]iOfi Uiu 
lower. This mjunclion, howover, xtaa ronHoo.! to thoH itre«l4 
tohidi hul Ifvc^n 1irtt<»ocupic(l by the t«lopboQe wiroa, and was 
itfasod with respect U> lEtroeta in Trbi<:h ihe t4rb^phl;^o win^fl 
bttd not been pub np antil after tbe otectnc'ligM compinj hM 
oomraenccd their work in purananoo of a plan which ba«l bccti 
sabnittted to the ofltc«r» of tbe telq^hone or^mpany and pro- 
ootmced aatislactoy. The distriot court also graDtcd an la- 
Juiction in tbe latter coac D^inst tbo ia[iintjMi4Ln[:o of tbo 
bone viroa. The supromo court M^taiaed thta decision, 
pt with reepcet to tbe injtinctioa agoiiifit tbo tolopbooe 
irfrei. On thto point the court «aid there vnm no evidenoo that 
tbe talepbond c^irr^nt had the sli^U'st appreoUblo effect on tho 
«l»otrio-ligbt c^irr^nt, nor that there wjw any dangor from tli« 
former cumnt, and that, besldet^ tliero wai no prayer in tlu) 
aivwer for an injunction agaiut tbe plaintifffl. 

S IW, Th« same — Ohio,— In a owe in Ohio' it wa« hell 
Unlan AWtrifsltghioonipuDy putting npwir^ no nfarer thmi 
three or four feet from &ii existing panlld tetegrnph wire 
woald not be enjoin«d before finni bearing, the bulk of the t<«- 
thuoBy ahowfa^g that nc sensible dimiaLition of cnrrunt by in- 
dfefltion would bo caused at that distance, and that the lino-mcci 
would incur no risk except in nitpairing and taking down tbo 
wlhMr wbeo, on notice, the eleetric current conld be atopped, 
Tlie danger from falJing wires and from atonna, the courtaaid, 
wu too nncMain to be eonnidctiod, and itwua added tbaC if an 
taJonctioA ^ore awarded it would be vitb these limitationa 
and with loavo to move to modify it after experiment, 

S 300. Tbe same -* Ontario.--' In BtU Td^>kan4 C^. «. 3M^ 
piiU £U^ric Light C'>-f an application waa made by the telo* 
phone eompny for an injunction against tbo oleciric-tigbt 

< VMt UaSoft Tvlw. Col t. CUm- i tfl OoWlo RofL §71 (imjb f An. 
Idw Kloct LigU CO. H Ctu. TVoeL £L Ch. adX 

lutasi. 



fiSS KLKOTKtc wnia at strketb axd hjobwitb. [fg SO1,30t 

compoELj. Tt ftppoATOd tbat tho fonoGr ba<I ptit np iU irirps ta 
Um^ fttroeU in 1SS4 and tli^t tbe latt^Hr «Lnuig iu vlrc-s tliere in 
ISSG, osiag tbc eame side of the Etreeta, and piitciag ita wim 
only two fe«t belov llie Edeplioao irirc« «iul so n^iir them tkil 
Uiero wa£ ditnger of intorferenoe of ibe cBrnsot* by iido> 
tttpn and also of contnrt by reason of breaking or sagging wire*. 
Ttiu ctitirt livid UiaL :l]LIiou^Ii Hm l<'^U-|i!i<mo ccrnipstny wu m 
]>oss(^«a!oa uf tbe ground under lawful authority, It had soci* 
clitHVo ri^ht to tlic dkc of tbnt sido of tbo stract on wbicb it 
hiul [iIjuhhI it« wir«t, but Uiat lifting GrxL 0!i thci gnxini] it hW 
tbe rigbt to bo protected a^oinBt injurious iaterfRn:no« inl& 
ito pro|wrtj or bnaiRCsw. It was found that there ytoa dan^ 
in the poeidon of the wirt^a, and it waa ordered that tfaa 
tricli^htcomponT, being the wrong-door, aboold 
virta to the other lude of the Htr«ct. 

%tOh The same — Alabama.— Tbe supreme coiirt of 
bamar in a contact between two ckctrie-light compantoft^ 
'*It is oerlainly true tJiat the company ivhieh vrith aatbontj 
firfit oeonpios a reasonably sufficient space for ita works aioDf 
a street border, thereby aciiuircs the right not to be m 
in its poftsetiBion. It eannot, however, claim mere epftcc 
reasonably sufEoicnt for tbe safe and sucoeasfal oporaltoo of ftt 
works. *^ It was hold Uiat the dclcndanl, vrhich was a 
stnng mres in the same streets, had not anfUoiently ans 
the spocific allegations of interferenee, actual and tbreatendi 
vrlih the eomplamant's previou«1j e£t:tb1Ished riglits.' 

g 202. The same — Vermont — Tesas, — In a later cttssls 
Vermont* it was hold that althongb tbe company 5rst mooct- 
pation does not obtain an exclusive franehiKe to maiataia iti 
lino in the Ktrrot, yet th^ rights of a enbseqtient lloonsee att 
sEibordinate nad must be exeriMMrd in sut^h a niATiner as not to 
jnterrc*!^ with tho property and busineaa of the other comptiy' 
CoUi coinjhnnies were en^^;^d in tho businffis of eleclrio Ugb^ 
in;>, and the defendant company pl.v^nf^ lla vrirrs «o near thtm 
of tbo complainant that there was danger of contact. Tht 
court said the wires shoulJ not be nearer each othvr that 
tfvelyo inches, and that tbe cross-arms should bo at loaat Ivo 






SKxitlsna El«otrie Light Ca v, 
llvhle Ctir ^«ciUia U^% Cb,<S 
Vtk S7T, 4 JlOL £L Ckia SM tiattl 



J 



${ SD&> S01.J 18TBIDEttC»CE OP BLE^TtStO 0XrB&£SrT9. 



fi2d 



foet Apart, 90 that the yvlu^ wben loaded mtb aao? ukl ico 
«r wheo 8iraj«d bj the wind sho«iI<i no; oomc in contact; and 
till) court oixlcrod & ponnanmt iojunction restrainin; thd de* 
fcndant from nainUming its wir&» ao aa to i&tcrfcro with 
tlioao of tJio oomplajmint, and ditoctcd hd ncoountmg fof tho 
dunoges ftlroftdy mffcrod. lo a ocw> in Toxos^ it vafi held t^t 
a t«lepbono companr liarin^ a fraochise Auperior in point of 
time to an ol^tric-Ught company tras entttJed to an injuocdon 
r«itnuning tlio laii«r company from stringing wltm ao near 
tlioad of tbe oomplainaot &§ to impair the elSciency or its t«lo- 
pboao aervice- 

|203. Tbe Kami* — Unltod SUtes clrenlt conrtj CsHfbr- 
nla,— To the siiine ett&ct w:i2 the deoi^iioa of the Uiiiu!d Sliitcfl 
circuit court for the touthcrn district of California in ISlWia 
favor of M b^tfgriipli company, Tim injury threutent^ m this 
€399 was induction of the trurrent It vraa siiggo8t^id by coun- 
m1 that electric lighting w»s noc**ssnry to the prirniiry use of 
Um %Uvcii» for [luhlic travel, and that hy thti poat roads act it 
wai ©xpreaaly prOTided tba-t the privileges coafcrrcxl Tjpon a 
tel<^rapb company should not interfere with *' onlinury traTol." 
Hlo court sttt<l tUia vaa a question to bo considered oorefully 
vrheo prcacnt^d for dooision, but that it did not oriso in tbia 
coaOr bocatuc tho electric tight company wm onga^<<Mt in tr&na- 
mitiiog eWtricity not only for ligbting piirpo6C6, but also for 
propelling machinery, and Uiat os against thifi latter oao tho 
tot of coogrou oonfera a lupcrior right when fortified by prior 
ocoopanoy. 

% 90*. The Rimp — Indiana,— fn a local cotirt in Tndfana* 
It irnt held that ai betwoen two eloctrio-light companies, each 
having permiflBion to use tho sUvctA and ench furoishing light 
tar ba«in<W4 nnd df^itKntm puqHiM-s, Uit? onn which hnd uli^a 
accitmiTt ivith the city to li^^ht its ntTVeta auil puMio p1ao(<3 had 
VOb ca[)enor right^ although it vrw later in |K>int of timo in th^ 



■ Pvto ElerMa L%h4 ft Uj. Co. f. 
flonUi W«at«rD TcJos- ATolft|fl^ Cuh 
TVn* Civil CoiiTl Of Apr**^ A[«11 

lf«w OHcana Oulii^bt Cg^ t. Hart, 40 



Aagolfi* eiootric T«lp«D Co, TV F^ 
Ehi, IT(L Ani, el Cb. S«9l 

*Tt»rT» HfiBU KL r. A P, Go, w. 

of viKv omad, Fou tfl, tau^e au, 



S30 nxcTRio WISES nx smsm asd baoswati. [%% d(AS-S07. 

cocapaiioB of the eitrccts, and ttAX th« oiher company was n^ 
ootiUod to aa icjiuictioa against tbe ftUfigod imcrfortnoo oJ 

§ S05. The Bftvie — aUBSOurL— In W^sUm Unict^ T^bfMfA 
Ok v. Ov^rn^^ di Scuddxf SUctrU Zi^ 0^.^* tfaer* ww a du- 
cnetLon of tho t«Uxnotiy of c^pertft ai to the dARg«r» of con- 
tact and IndiKtioD, and as to th« queetlon whether the etedno 
vine should Ik' pliicr^l tibove or Wow the Ujlephono^iFQS>ABd 
1l wju di<icu1<Hl ihiii an injunction fi^onld be ii)ad« perpetnal 
which ivcftrAiDed the filectric-ligbt company from striD^uigaoy 
vWoA fibovc thcisn of th'n Uilrphnnr cnmiuuiy ncJirer than ptgbt 
f^tf atid tt^In.st mniEitajniii^ anj ^irt^K aXmxo Uiofte of tho UU» 
phone i:ompaiiy irithout placing tlieivuiKler 4 vriro net work 
oi' other suiubk guard to prcrcot tbc electric wires from sa^ 
ging or faJUag upon tho telophoae wirci or cooila^ DCttier 
tbereto than eight feet The court said that oqo ctcctrio 



puny coold not by pricr occii[>ottion obtain an eJCcltisiTo ri g>^ 
to tbo use of tho atrootn, but tlml tho righte of prior iioc&flj^l 
must not be iovodod by tho action of Utor oaof. 

Tho foot th^t tho telephone company might jcuard igtivt 
the dan;;^r by tho osa of ino^ponsivo i:kvicc£ was doelared pot 
to bfj n riufTicic-nt rt^osOQ for dcnyiag bd JDjunctioo. 

gSOO. More»erlt»Uficcintroverfty with electrleraltwny COM* 
panio!!,— In tho c^soof tbo oI«ctnc miltvay itwas moroneoai- 
fAry that tho buLtte xhcutd bo fought out, fodr two reasou: 
tlntt^ hecau&e tha wim& cannot bo inaulat«d, and aaisoniJIy, bi*- 
euuso tlicy must be Surclehed along a certnin line direetty OTer 
the niilniiid LnLck. Th« t*li!drtccurrent,aiur<Kftver, wiiaAppIial 
to the uses of thiC ttrcct railway which bad long oc^rupEed Ui« 
tftrcet^and hod ii.c^iurc7d n rrght there before tho telephone was 
inventod, and the electrio railway, being uaed for tbo pnrpovct 
of public travcL had a stronger claim of right to uao the stroets 
iiian the electric liglit \tires or tht^ lek-pltono \\ad(^ 

g307. KlectrJc railway — DwIaloss—ContrAl Unlan Tdle- 
plioDft Co. T. Spra^uo Eketrie Rallvay A Jlotor Co — One 
of tho flrtt caacs was t^t of Central Unton TeiryrajtA Ch. r. 
Spra^^ £U<irio JittiUo^ iit M^^&r CV. ^nd eAtf Ahron Sir^ 
JtS/- Go*t In tho court of common pl«aa of Summit ooon^, 



>«OJie. Apfi 230,3 AnCLCka<36nBM> 



J 



Ohfo^ b«anl In Juiurf , 1 S$dJ It was a petition for inJnnicHcm 
agulDst o|)«rat^Dg an ekctrio railWRT by the single trolley wilh- 
ont B return wire, in sitch a maiiDcr as. to interfere wUL Ute 
wurking tif thif UitrjilKiQJi KyMUmt. Ttw caae was pntM'nlM cm 
affldaTito, and the court, after sajring that this was 4E lUisatJ^ 
factoiy mode of proor. fonad tbn^ the opcrutioD of tbc rnilvray 
did, in fact, subfltarlially int<;i'fciv with the use of the plaint- 
iff^ telephoiufl; thai irhile the railroad coiQpmj under tbo 
ordinances had a prior right to tho uso of tfao strocla, y<;l thd 
oity coancil bud no ri^'hl to gniat to eithor party any priTilegva 
to the exclusion of the other. Tho oourt said that tbcy w«rr« 
not vtisBod from tbo proof in this Gilto that a nMuro iroUoy 
wire, as sQgg<«tO(l, would relieve the difilonlty, and ehojld hcci- 
tate before ordering it to be dcno lost it ehonld bo a uael«ai 
OVpenditure of money, and al^o tlmt tlioy wirro not aUolately 
oattaJD that a rtlnm wire wotild relieve the telephoneSf althoagh 
it eeemed from Mr. McCluor's aOtdavit that his deviot voiUd 
aooomplbh the nssulL In «tu^h vatf^ thv^y taid the expense of 
adopting this device woulil be the measure of ilAma^cs or tho 
complains DtSf nnd these could be recovers! in an iuitiuti at law. 
Thn pmvf'r fur iajtmrlion wiix fJitiiird. 

MS. Fast Tenufssee Telephone Tompany t. Chattflnoos* 
Electric Street Ualliruy Co. and Another Case.— In KaH 
Tmn^asee TU^Atffu C&. v. The €AaUarn>o^ii JCUctrie Ji*ul\ccy 
(3>., in the chancery oonrt of Hamilton county, Tennessee, aa 
opinion was filed Jnoo Bl^ 1S&$.' A preliminary injunciion 
hano^ been gmated rcfttrttiniog tJie nilroad company from. 
XtBitxs the single trolley ftyatent, the case came bcfcvo (bo court 
on bill, answer and aHidavita iipon a motion to dEssOlVO the io- 
jonotioD. Tbo dcfcnianta admitted that they did not proiKiae 
lo vae the double trolley Bv^tom, but eaid they bftd adopted a 
prfrcaution which had never bcf^n adopted hefon to increote 
the condncdvity of tbo rails and prerent leakage. 

Wm, tienry De Hfitt, special cbAncellor, said that since ho 
was not fdly mtitned titat injury would re!Autt to the oom- 
pjninants by the operation of the defendants' system, and ocpo- 
caiMy since the defendants hiul ath>pu<id iin luhtitMJnal pRfcai>* 
tion whkh hafl ncirer hi^n uddpurd iMifore, he was content to 
ddeolve the injuikctton for the present opon conditkin that tho 




defen^aats giro bond In $10,000 to aecire any d^magieg that 
might be ati judged to Uie complunantfl. 

Thrrv ira» aI»o a df*cir<ion In f&%'or of tbe telephone companj 
in the ca»d of 7^ WuAit^t and Subnr^/on lioUma^ Ca., ia Uift 
district coart of Sodgivii^ coanty, Eaelw, June ^i ISSO. 

§ t:m, Bockj- MoDiitaln Hell TeJepbone Co* v. Salt Lake 
Cltf RUlWAf To.— In Th^ Ii<Kh/ MaufUaifk B41 7\i^phone C&. 
^. TAe Saii Zaka CUy IlaUte^y G>n Id tbo dintrict court for tbe 
third jcdiciul district of UUJi. July 93, 1^89/ aa iojancUoa 
against a atreot mil way f^onipany was dooled by Zane, J., on 
tbe ground that it did not appottr clearly from tbe anSdarits 
tbat tho olocthcitj m-^d by tbe milway iM>mpttiiy irotild injure 
tbe telephone compaiiy if tbe wiree of both were properly in- 
eulat'KJ BD as to prevent leakaj^, and tbat it eould not be deto^ 
mined on tbe affidavEU ivbetber It nns pracUeable for one or 
both to insulate them. Tbe same case ca*ne before tho eame 
judge in tlio Docctmbcr trrm, 1S$^, on flnal hearing,* and be 
denied the lnJun«?tiOR on iii& ground tljat tbe teleptiono eom* 
pany could protoot itself by the use of thd MeCluer system of 
TKlum win-j* Uiv Urn Udc|ibori5 oimiiil, which, iilthoLigh VCTy 
©xpenftivi^, appi'^red to funiiHli ;% laon* pcrfiwl aorrtce. 1I« wud 
that tho court iroold not e»joiD the uso of the earth by tte dfr 
fendant for a return current bo long m the pluiatiil continiicd 
to use it, especially aa it did not appear to be eetaUubed thai 
it was practicable for the defendant to gire it tip^ 

§ StU. M jK«on*iln Telephone Ce. v. Eau llnire Street Uail- 
iraj Co. and Spra^ne Eloetrlc Kallway £ Solor Ce.— ^Hie 

Of, and S^ra^ita EUMric Itaiimt^ cS Moit>F Co-^ in tho eiiwl 
court of £au Claire eonnty, Wieoonain,* eame before the court 
on motion for a prelimia:try injiinc::on against the use of tbe 
ekctnc curren; for propelling cars in tbe strectc until the de- 
fendants should luvo provi<Ied against injury to persons UDd 
]>rup<<rLy, and espeobiUy aguinnt injury to tbe telephone eerviee 
and d^rger to sirbscribers and employees. The aStdavKa and 
exhibit* in thncauitn nro viilnnblea^conl^ninga fuUstatemiAt 
of lilt! t^t'^iA OH Ijolh H:dac of tlm raAf% with a full account of 
the U*t$phoi>c and electrilc riilwsy, and ol tbe duvioea used en 
both ttkdra to prevent interference, 

*a Am. EL Otta aUL "S Am. ES. Ou. )3flL .. *a Am EL C^ SflX 



1 



$3M-) 



nm&FBBsjrcB or nacTRro cciebe^cts. 



293 



Tho opinion of the court was delivered bj Bunily, J^ on 
Jantmrj 99, 1890l Be bold tbut tho tolt^booe company took 
tbeir right to use tlio etreots subject to tbo right of publto 
tnTcl, iacludin^ ncvr attd improred modes of travel, nud that 
U tho railroad cDmp«ny tuibg the street for this purpose tcx^k 
reuonabk prooaution aj^instdociig injury, iha tcUpltono com- 
pany could notcomplain; tbat th« d^ft^adanta in nsia^ tb€ siD- 
f;to troUcy vcro Qftini; a system in coiimoo usa; that tUu 
ovidcoce waa that th« double trolley was not practicable, and 
that to irquiro tha us9 of it wonid ba to require the operatk>a 
of tlic line; as an eb>ctric: rotut to h<> ubanili»noit ; that tltv t<le* 
pbon0 company, on the other hand, could operate their line ai 
it w:ijt, or v\m adopt a mrUllio circuit nt an ^Kpensa not ^ery 
largTf, »nd Umt tbr.r«r<>m an injunction j^ioiitd n^jt U.t grunti^. 
In ansvrer to tlie claim that the dufendanU were violatlnj; & 
■laloto (Laws Wifl, IftftO, rh,.17!i, § IIS) rwjniring oloclrio com- 
panies to prOYJde.HuitableintulAtEOii nndn-Um wirt^Ui^ judgo 
aud that tbo pUiutida woro in a like poftltion, differins only in 
tbo ftmount of clcctndty allowed to eacapo, anil thatth;.'y ircro 
not oititl^ to an injanctioa oa tbia ground. 
$!IIL City aad Suburban Telegraph A&^iociatEon T. Cia- 

ECl Inclined Plane Ky. Co.— In tho ooio of tho CStymd 
icn TfUgraph AMcrnation v. CindnmUi Indisifd Pian9 
)^f in the fluponor court of Ci&oinnati, an injunction wna 
grantod agaioHt th^ ruihvay company on Foliniary 1^, li!90, 
ind thia decision was aftirraed by tbo general term of the eu* 
perior court in tbo folIowiTig Decomlwr (opmton by W, H, 
Taft, J.; Hani, J., diesentiag). The decision was put upon the 
gfound thnt tlic> tolrpbonc compauy bud acquired a right to uso 
tlin Rtrn^LH, and hiul inv<7:biil imimty on tbn fa-itb of Llio i*njny* 
nieotof the pr«aentmodo of operatm^ their franchise, ituUUmt 
(he dcfrndauts bjid no right U> dUlurb tbcui unless they couUl 
Aow tl^ai there ivaa no otlicr ivay in which l1i(*y could enjoy 
Ifaeir fmnchiao to run an electric railway. * If hy uaing tho 
doublu trolkj, do matter bow expontiro it might be, tbo ta- 
juy could be aroided, ^e defendant bad no right to aak the 
ptamttD's to employ a new dcrieo. An injunction was ordered 
aalctf within a:x inontiia tho noccasory cban^^s Hloald bo niado. 
On appeal to the Buprome oourt of Ohio thia dacnoa pai 

lOWoek. &4iL (Obio), ia& 



IT* [{-1 



mtOmtmmtwm 



pnpne for vkkfc dfeeto UB Ui ML, Md tkttft tkfl bift- 

lo Ute ligbto of tlw pnUc to vmOa itnelf C« the 
4tflntd; UMtttopttMiefcaTettofi|^to*iaiHhfl— hM<f 
BAIT sod niproTed ■oJg of timrcl, csd iriMS fffiphJut an 
gmaUA for tixis ptrpeae they mbIcv a nght psAimMuil to tiii 
f fiQCfaiv ol the tdephottfi eoopaa jt aad il the opontira oi^ 
«tmri rulw^b7dKCrieitr^»»^ the ««irim« oT tha t^^ 
|ibooe, tho tdephooc oompaAjr mait nadjoit thdr nethock to 
iMetthaaenreooditHn. I&Teptfdtotteiiao(theeuthf«r 
A rvtan dfoaitf tba covt add this had batn dooa for foi^ 
jcan befcn the tdepboAe vai iDT«nted, asd althoa^ tb 
lato phoae eonpaaj had eontnctad ila whole system at gmt 
«^«Ma whh a gfooaded cifcoltnoder Uvftal autLont^r, liac- 
qdred no Teated ri|^t which waa bejrond ihe cooLn^ ot tfao 
ligUatar^ aad a gnat to another oompenir af a righi to en 
eiectridtj for aaothcr p nr poae mast be oaostrQod as a deiuai 
of aD(?xdiuiiTefraDchbe,if aotaaarepealof tbefonoergraat 
Taldqg thia view of the reUtioDS of the p&rtke to each other, 
the court did aot diic<UB the sabjcct of iDcideiiUl is jnij to an- 
other in the on of one^a own propertv or fraacbiee. 
% :fl?. haU TeaaceKO Telephone '(;o. r, KnoxTille St. Br- 

vo^ Co^t in the chancery coori of Koox county, Tenncetoe/ 
what may be called an eloqacmt opinion wse T«ad by Chaocel- 
lor QibeoD on April SI, 1890l Tbe *mt wai brought by the 
telephone company to enjoin tbe railroad oonpany from ueia; 
Iho earth aa a retura circait and from intcrferiuf* vrith tha 
electrical condition of the air to the injury of tbe belephone 
company. The bill alleged that tbe telef^one company had 
obliiinfid the pnrilcge of erw^Un^ poloe in tlw ati^ets for a 
lelephone liue anil liail a veat^ HgbL to use a «tHp of earth 
along the line of the poles m a return circuit, exclusiro of 
evory eubeequeut user <icetractdve tbpreof or inconsistent tfaer^ 
with. 



awt n N. E. Ro^k 8Wl 13 L & A. sifc 



iaAiik£lCltt.«ML 



i8.3 



QmcspiLBENCE or BLiKTrnic uvuBCins^ 



MS 



i« ebanoellor tlriaied tLat the right to oreoi poles gave «e 
luiro right to th« cortLi or air for vlixrlncal puriKnca, and 
the pliiintiffa in e9oct clauuod a perj^etuitl monopoly of 
«ftrtb OIL trUicb the city wits built for all the naca of ui 
ciJcctncat ciic&it« and that tlte f..L;t Ui&l tbey ukA & ddioate 
curroat wo» no rc^iBOQ fcr denying to the people of KnoxviUd 
Xba benefits of all the Uitfoovcrics OkZid inrcntions that might b« 
•mAdo in tlK> mo of electricity in all time to come. The itrocts 
«ro boUl in trust for the people for the purpo&os of luafling- 
iloAf tbem and propelling rebides over them, ** antl the city 
lus BO rigbt to atlovr the streets to be lued for any |>iir|>oee in- 
eoaitvtoiit vritU thooe ri<;bu of truvel und iransporuiion. Tele- 
phooo poles hare no connection vriUi tnt^'ol «nil tninsporta- 
tiDQ, tuul bare no just right on oar etreeti; and arv) al beet 
meiK trnAnU nl wilL^ The courts most see to it that the 
tiglita of Uw people an3 not aurrt^nderijd lo any |jerioa or oov^ 
poratlon wbsterer. 

S SIX lIudHon Hirer Tolephone Co. t. WatenlEet Turn* 
tllLO A Ballroad Co.— Early tn IB^O the *A.tiit qneeLioa camo 
More the snptftmic court of New York, in Altany ooanty» Ji 
ffud$OH Itivcr Tdcp/*<oju Co, w W^rdi^ TurttpH^ <£ Sailtvad 
Ot,t^ on applitxition for preliminary injunction, and Mayham, J^ 
grantod an iajnnctiDn ^W<^«« lite to tbc t^lrpLoDC company, 
vitliout prejudging the .mriU of the cos:;, and on tbc j>lainti£rs 
executing a bond for C10,00a On appeal to the ^ncral term 
the iBJvnetion was continutHl for tliirty dayf^ and until the 
defoftdant ibould g:ive bond to pay the ejEpena<« tlie plaintiff 
toiffbt be pat to in putting in a metallic cireuit Laaitonf J., 
add the gnint to the railroad company made in 1S(^ to um 
II any power except steam embraeed electricity, and that each 
^B^pany, tbervfon?, h^d it« n.v|>f«rUve righbt and prlvilcffoa 
^Hntg the tame ilreeti sni highways, one for telephonic par- 
ami tlte otiier for tlie purptjcicfl of rallHay prDpulsion; 
rr party might cjroluile ilie oUjer from liie mt^ of the ff|>aoe 
Lted to both, altliongh it might be compot^nt for the t^ourC 
Ijost the occupancy to as to afford uatuoL acccmiDoda- 
Learned, P. J., ooncnrred. 
'An appeal from the order of the general term vras taken lo 

^HvdMdB Wr«r T«Vyih. Ga r. Wj^ 67. :39 N. Y. Bt K«^ C^. «M. a ». y. 




I 

I 



236 fiLKcTKic WIXX8 ofl rrmnru Aifi> niomrj^rs. [£^i 

-Uie court of «ppeuUj and oo Jaoe 3, tS90, this ootirt ili^dinvd 
io eiiterUim Uiis n.p[Hia], 011 tlie grouitil UiAt Uie gT^ntisgof aa 
injuncXioti p^nd^^U £i{^ resU in thesoTiml disrrction of thoooori 
of original junsdicliot^anJ tbattoilissolri: LbcinjunctioaUn 
^would ineTitaUy defeat the pI&intifTs remedy withoQt & tiiiiL* 
Tbo court said, hovrcvor: "Wc biivo cxiLmiard with corotb* 
quosttonn involved id thi» coife, and tto fire compelled ton; 
tbat w<3 entt!rtAui grave doubta whether, tipoa tfao ^ota aUlcd 
in tbo complaint and alfid&7iU, an/ oauM) of action cxisC* is 
fnvor of the pJfiiattff, and ivhctlicr the plaintifi' has any remedf 
for tbo itijuiy of which it complains, except through a rotrf- 
Jiulmeat of jt0 mctboils to mo<'t the novr oonditioa created bf 
tho oae of olootricily by the defertdadt andor tbo system it la§ 
adopted." A deai^ion on tho merits iroi rcfiorvod until after 
tho final hearing. 

The roport of the r«iforeo, Mr Isanc LawsoD^ waa m&d^ ct 
August 6, 1890, and his decision wafi f n favor of tho d^rfi^EklsiBL 
He found as matters of fact that tho plaindff could oliriat* 
tho lUfllculty to some oxti'nt, hut not wholly, hy ftdoptingtbt 
McCluersystom; that it could ohviACo the difBcultyoDtireljr^ 
making eaeh of ite oircuits a metallic one; that the defendaiA 
could obviulc all tfje dariT'ign by aclopting the duublo troUejror 
tho atonu^ b;tttiiry, unrl that this would coil loss than it would 
vcAt the plaintLlT to adopt the complete metallic circuit; and 
yet he hehi ad a matter of law that the plaintilT hm\ failed i9 
esUbiisU a cause of action a^iiinat tho defendant, 

g 214. The sanie eentinnnl.— An nppcnl %vas tnkeo toth* 
general terra from the judgment entered on the rtrport of th* 
referee, and in September, 1351, tho judgment waa reTonod 
and a new trial wasorderai.' Ha^h'im, J., whodid not eitet 
the former hearin,^* read the opinion of tho courL Ho said it 
had alrciidy been decided in thia coao' that neither party bad 
a right to the cxolusive ust! of tho atrcet, booaiuko both faada 
grant ot power to employ the same inTisibb agency ia tho sunt 
BtrcoUani cnch must therefore prott^ct iteelf againat tho injvri^ 
oua effect of the use of it by the other; butf hesaid, vhile thii 

«WatarrlfatTumpil» ft R aCo. »«1 Hod, 14U»N. T St Bqitt 

fliipp. in. n\ N. T. St. ftjjv 034, m 

I 



? S15-] 



EHTSJirEBCltCE OF ELECTAIO CUBSSBm. 



23' 



most be IBo Jxw as to the street> >t b,T do mc^Ds ToUowk Ibat 
tbo suae ni]& applies to private property, or that Uio wlroad, 
even if it had ft rigfit to porvndc tbo £lrcK vrith its currvat, 
could adopt a povr^^r wLicIi could not be cr>i. lined to ibis, but 
would spread out upon tho property of the abutliog owoers 
oEtd oaa» disiurbnnco in the stations of the tclcpbcno company 
A&d its sobttcriben. The ref-?reo expresaly found, he coid, that 
tbo etfttioDs were located on private property, and that the 
telephone sorvico wps didurheJ by "conduction orloa3:a^" 
of tbe railroad cumat only vhen it flowed upon private prop- 
erty of tlw company or its mbscribera. He ?ipp1ied to this tbo 
prineiplo that ono who for hi* own beactit briog* upon hia own 
pf«misesanything which, if it escape9,willdcdamagefU bound, 
4t his pvdlf Lr> nrnfino it to ]ii>; c^wn promiBt^,' Jle referred 
jdao to tbe {irinciplt! Umt, vvhtrtt li gmnt U iiiAihi to coniluct a 
iiiuiiMtt, and there &re tvro ways of conducting it^ ona mjuri* 
Om to tliin! persons, aueI cne whlc^ is not, a court of equity 
wilVeojoin the use of the former. He aaid thfit, from tbe trial 
of the action and the report of the referee, it now appeared 
thttt tbe defcndaDt oonld obviAt^j the difSculty complained of 
with very much lc33 expense than the same could ho done by 
of the pliiintiirs system; for tht^se rcikions, and be- 
tbe plaintiff bad not an adtBqaate remeily at law, tbo 
jii4^eat of tho roferoo dismissing the bill for injunction wna 
fvnracd and a new trial wut onlerod. landon, J., eoaenrrod. 
Itftrned, F. J., oonctirTed^ hni baaed his decision on what be 
OODSidejwl the efTvct of the det'^rrninrttion of Che court of ap> 
poUfl In declining to dissolve tbe injunction. 

g 315. The i^amo ca«u la the ruiirt of npp«al». — This oon- 
dnsion wiut ri*v(TneiHl by iUt* court uf d|rpt-jili in 1^90. Tho 
decialon of this oourt waa ha^ed opon tho fact that the right 
telephone comjijkny lo make um of the street* was ox* 
Hy subject to the comlition that it should not interfere 
with Xbe fall, free use of the street for public travel.' Tho 
coart said: '^Tbo plaintitl ia oottiungtho fttnreti for one of 
tbe parposea to wl^cb ibey have boon dedicated oa Lij;Iiwa>'s, 
while the defendant is occupying thom in such a manner at to 
expedite pubiio travel and promote tbe public nae to which 

iriHdbar v. lljlu»iU L a 1 Ex. ^IK K T. mt 4 Aiu. El Caa 9TI 



the 



m 



xLATTsic WUZ9 c; ffTBxm Ajfo momrATs- [$ S14. 



tbej- wirmorigiiiaUjdOTotctl.*' The plaintiff " is Dot d«|icind 
of anv pTDperty r^ht, Init is simpl;^ compelled fo ji«ld Um sb^ 
wrvience wfaich it ia bound to residcr under the charter 
g^rt it oxistcDcc." On this ground the court dtspcvod 
dain of the telephone oompaay to protectioih against the ik- 
ru^cmcQt of the electric currents br idciliis of indnctkm fro» 
tbe ttnect railway vp-iivs. Aaotherqutttion, thecounMJd,aToie 
oat of tbe cMvn that the telephone wires i-ronnded on prirsie 
property vrero affected hy the disc^tr]g« of the sketHc currrv: 
which escaped from tbe defeit Jantii rails. HHtb respect to this 
ii was insisted that both parties bad a rii^t to m»k% ue of tht 
earth and of the natural propifrties of eloctricitj^ bot the oocit 
said th& defendant did more than tbti In accnraiilating eitr- 
tnoity in largo qugnlities ftnJ perm^tlin^ it in i*au<.:ps nnd do 
injury, ami Uiat if tmrt rf>1fc-rl«, ciiUif-r f<ir pleaxam or proit, 
the subtle and iin[>PR«ptit>1e eLeotric fluid, tl»rfl would Been 
Co bo DO grrat hnrv^ship in imposing vpon Mm tbe same datjr 
as is exaot^^ of the ovm^r of nccunimulat^d water, thai he 
shonld proTtde aa artificial oondait, if noccaaaiy, to i^eTeat 
injur/ lo others.' This quesUon, hovrevrr, was not decide^ 
because the whole franchise of the Idephone company waste' 
gurdcd as subject to the uso of the streets hj the electric nil- 
way for pnbiic travcl 

% S16, Cumberland Telephone I'e. ?. Infted Eleetrfe Hall- 
way Co.— The quDstioQ came b-.tfore Judge Krown to the cir- 
cuit court of the United States in Citm^fH^Md Td^^^^^on^ €^ t. 
VrtiUd EUctrio Railway Co} The bill was flkd to enjoin the 
use of electricity by the street rail ur.tTii of NashTUIe under auf 
system which makes use of ^ earth for its return etrctiit; th« 
bill daicribed the injuries dono to tho compTaJnanta* qmtevi 
and allifgivl that thry vroiilil \m avo^itc^r! by tho usn of ths 
metallic circuit; the defendants denie^l that the comptahiuitt 
were ent^itleii] to \he monopoly of th^ f^irbb for tbe n^tum cor* 
rout, nnil insisted that \^.\^ stlould make use either of a ooo>- 
pli'l« uiet^tlic circuit or of the McOlner device* 

JudgtT Urown fnow one of the justicce of tbe SQpr«mo court 
of the tToitod Statea) said it was not denied thai there was 



IsirfB vM ifipliod i» tli« «une «uUi«ot 
Ifj tJio "^n'i**^ cs4irt of otaanoofj ui 



> 4S F«4. Bofh tTt» Q li^ EL Cka -lOa 



s 



% 818.1 



nmCSTKEK^fiCE 09 KLE^TTRU: CHRREj^S. 



2^ 



serioiu iDjaTj to the ttitephooes, but that It must be borne tn 
mind that tbo tcteiMro of cloctricily u still in its experimentul 
sta^; lb«t& tlevioo whloU h lo^ny tbe be«t, Ha'upod euJ 
iDOflt prat^Jcable mky in iiDotli^r year be Etipei^ded by Bom^ 
thing inriimpiinibly b^'lUfr ftth-^i tor t.li^ piirjv>»i.^; unil tliut it 
n quite poiuibte that tha lagnX i>hVt^^iioM% »f thi^ [i»rue«t inay 
change with tho progress of tnvecitioii, and whieheT«r part^', 
by tfa^ adoption of a nvvr drnoj, coalJ obviate tho difflciiUy^ 
might ba obliged to do so, leaving the que»lion of cxpenao and 
damagcfl to b« s^tiliid by tho courts; aad wo must tboreforo 
eonaider the oose with pof^^rcnoc to the pn>scnt stAt« of tho art, 
and with ttie poflsibiUty that in acothor year circunutaac^ 
may k> chaogo as to rcrcreo completely the obligationd oF tbo 
panieo. Artcr doMribinsf tho vanoua ilGTicr« which might bo 
used by t^ railway and th« teleplione to obriat^ the difllcolty, 
ha rvsted hit doci»iofl on tho answer to tbo question wh«tbor 
when one lawfnlly osing his own properly IncidcnUliy Injun:* 
aoolherT *'tbo Hgbt of tbo lattar to an injunction does not do* 
pend upon aoru'tbing more tbnn i\m\ t:\ri Uiut h<i hr.n «iifTcre<l 
an injury, tbongb bis rigbt to aa nndiiturbed qsq of his own 
may tinlwlatc Uwt of tbo other. ** Ho referred to many En^ 
liih anii American rasr>ii, ami uld : " Tbn Kulmtitni^ or all thn 
eaaea we hare ouet with ia oiir ^xaroinatioa of this quHAtliui — 
and wnhavooitndbiita small f ruction of tttcm — iji, tUatwh^re 
a peraon in making a lawful rnta of hia own property, or of & 
pabUo franchia^, in stich manner as to occasion injury to an* 
other, the question cf bis liability wtU depend upon tbo fnct 
whether he has made use of the moans which, in tho progreM 
C^ s^«nce and improT^mcnt, have been sbown by csipcnonco 
to bo ib« bl^st; but be is not boand to cxpchmoat w;tb rv^cnt 
tnrcatioiia not ^^CQcrally known, or to adopt f>x|KTnaL7e dcvicea, 
whvD it lies in tbo power of tho porsoa injurod to make naa 
Umaelf of an effoctivn and inoxponeivo m<rthod of provoo- 
tkm. . . . Unles we are to hold that the telephone com* 
pany has a monopoly of the earth, and of all the earth, withia 
iheclcyof NaAhrllle, for Its feeble cnn*ent, not only aa against 
tho defendants, bnt us against all forms of eJ^trieal enei^ 
whirh, in the pmpn^K* of sricnce and invmlion> may licn^aftET 
n^nire iu ititu. we do nut sre bon- thw liSll atti lie niaintami-il.'' 
The decUiuo waa tlial if it were shown that tha double irol* 



240 



zixanno wirsb at bimmjlv% axo oioowxti. [$317. 



loy yronUl obvjato tlie iitjary to Uie compIaitiaat« witboit «t 
posing the defeniJaiiU or tb« public to aay large expexue, il 
would bd the <)itty of tho dcrondootA to adopt it; bat as Uh 
proofs aljowid t^itt a mor« eflt.'CtiULl and lesa cxpcnairo remedr 
waaopcDtotbQOomplftinnntar tlio tclepkono oompaoy oo^t(* 
ndopt it> anJ vaa not cutiUc<l to uicJcmiitjr Trom tho nuinj 
oompnnj. 

S 317. An En;rTi»h fa^te— .The doctrine of Flot^kor T.Bf* 
landii InTokeil.— TbUdi>aiejon wa< oritioifled ia an EogltdicMt 
on tho eame subjoct* Keliewicb, J., eaJd: **Tlte qoostioii bu 
been cnrcfully considered in Amcn>ca, and I bave stacHed wit& 
docp Interest Iho case of CumhM^nd TfUphon^ and TtUfNfk 

of the court tn tliut cav^ thou^^h in do vrm binding nponnN^ 
has commandod my earnest attention and nspect^ and but for 
one circuin3t;in(vi I woiiid nnt hesiLabo to aHow my ottb eofr 
rlimifin to It giilili^] hy Uii^ iHiwcrfLil a.rgumonto thore B&t fOTtk 
That ono oircumatanca la the want of fuU adopUon of lh« prio- 
cTplo of FtMcher ff. Rtjliinds. Am&rirait l&vr apparently bolds 
tho own^r of Iftnd uKod for n, nnri-nntunil or ojctniorvli nary per 
poBG responsible for tlie consequences of such ustsr to hrs n^ghl 
boronly wb<in they result from Lis negli^nce^ anJ if bo on 
satisfy thecourb thitt ho has not been gtiilbyof npgli<^enc«^ tfe 
resulting damagi^ to his neighbor is not actionable Itsocns 
to mo that if tlio principle of FleUJitr^, Itt/Utndn Tiod beta 
fully tkd<)ptod in America, tho conclusion of tbo court in tbo 
custt jiMt cited would have been diiTcircnt . * . Aft«ri^ 
flectin^;* much on tbo novelty of the case on the ai;gniBC9l 
addn^iucd to mc, and on the peculiarity of the clcctrto carrtal 
tA distin^nisbcd from every other power, 1 fuil to ^jc why tbt 
doctrina afiould not bo applied to it X cannot 8Co my way lo 
hold ttint a man who Iiu» cn^ntod, or, if thnt bo inaccarat^ to 
called into 8po<;ial oxistence, an oloctrio curroint for bta own po^ 
po5C3, ond who (lisohar^ca it into tho earth beyond bis ooniicft 
13 not uB responsible for damu^s which Uiut cmrrcnt doei Ift 
bis noi^hbor as ho would bavd been if he bad dieoborgodft 
itrraim of water." 

Ue h^ld that it waa not a sulTlciefit answer to tho 
tho telephone compimy for the defendants, tbo eleotria 




§ fll8,] 



ETTSErERENCB OT ELECTBIO CITSftENTS. 



9U 



company, to say that tbe plain tiCTs might 90 change their aystom 
as to avcid (be dEingor, but, on the othor hundf Tio came to the 
t'ondiLtion Umt ihe ileferKlauts, the railwiiy cotTifKiny, werejnft- 
liAed hj le^islativB nulhorky in tho use of electric power, and 
tbat, since it appisarci) frnm the eyulf^nce tb>bt their s^stnem wjts 
tht} one in onlinapy use, it inuat be taken to \\e s^notioned by 
the l^giaUtivo grant, and they were not responsible in damages 
for the con9i?t[U(ii!c-fts.' 

g2]8. C'onciu^ioiis with respect to electric railway CQr- 
reitt. — It appears from this review of the ciascs that the con^ 
test botwcen the electric niilway nni the telephone compftnita 
oter l!ie use of the streets has not ytt been dcfliiitely settled by 
tbe oourta, and it seems likely that tbc settlemeDt will be macio 
through the ingenuity of inventors ratlier tban by the oiloru 
of the lawyers and jndgea, The telephone compaoice have 
alroody ftdi>pt^d very *i^nerally the '*long distance" fly&tcm, 
in which tlio metallic ciriniit is employed for tho purpose of 
accnring tho best clectPical rcsulta and aroidiog all dani^ of 
disturbance. Ilia quite oerlain tbitt pnbliij convenience will 
demand that the »Lreet3 shall be used for aU Uw electric ear- 
ronta that may be required, and that some way will bo found 
by which this may bo done. In tho mean timo it is tlie duty 
of tho courts to protect existing property from unnecessary in- 
jury without needlessly obstructing the application of euch a 
TaluAble force as elcctriciity to new usee for the pablic benefiL 
It iA certainly true, as the courts generally have hulJ, that no 
o&Q mode of pnblic serviee has the right to a monopoly of the 
earth or the air in the line of the streets in the use of electricity, 
•ml the ]*ower of injunction will only he eiercised so ns lo 
AToid present injury lo eiisting property until practical men 
hiivfi fijijnd a way for all to work together in harmony. 
Wliether the jxiwor will l*e ex<.Teifleil ev^^n to this extent in 
pot yet sctUed, anil it may be that ihd et>url* will decide that 



> lo Alabama it in held, that a tct&^ 
phone compiuf, hcinz ^ftX in vuuu- 
f»ticiu (jfiL iitaaU U nnt nTiLilJ^d to 

ftn injunctioa hguJiv^t tU*\ une of the 
Btfect by hq eloouiu r-iilway com- 



a iimnn^ir an to nhart^Irouit thoac of 
tniniclMkiQ TrTKTtion Ccw v. Boll Teli^ph. 



poQ^ uudnr tnMbilHtive authority; yet alvk Prmtisiylvncia Tcflitph. Sapply Co. 

ttw TftUway roi-i^-Liiy would cot be v. WJU«t>arTo&& W.&r.Cfr,n Pb. 

p«riaittoi to pat up lb liu&a iu auuh Cu, CU 8u(^ 417> 
1» 



S42 sixciuc wiKia ur ^rszim j-xd Hi^&VATa £§§319, Sit. 



erory ono asing tlua force in the ptiblic streets moat 
i&geouity to protect hioisclf froco tlio elFocc of tho U80 of tba 
aamo foroe for lawM ends and by lavfuL meanly only imistiffg 
that each mii«tii8a the best upptianooflpmotkttlljaTaiUblfti 
4Toid nogUgODoe and wantoa injurj. 

g SI9. Pr^antiens a^&Enst duB^er from coatact. — Oo^ 
erer this mAy be, :b^ro is ao doubt that tbe eloctric raalv«y 
company maj be requiivd by ordiBince to take all roiuCDAUe 
prec&uliona a^inst the dxn<^r3 moideat to tha accideoUl 
cooULCt of Uic:r own aniiiaaliU;d virv^ witb tbosu of the Uh- 
phone compenies. The railmty wires carry strong cuma! 
And are neoeasarily UDiDMlnted, and it his been held that in, 
ordinance ^e!qIllHng tho ruilway coiD|nny to maiotaia guaid, 
wiras st the place of croddlng telephone wires »o ns to preveui 
oontiM^t in uiso of iht^ bmaking of |>olva or tlie faUlog of wlrs 
is valid and niaj he cixhircni by tnamhsm^u} 

Exactly what precauLtoo&mu:U be taken caunotfiu Uicpnswat 
stato of tho art» be deolarvd as a mattcrr of lair, bat la an aelte 
agunat the electric railway company or the telegraph or kit 
phone company for an injury from an electric ahtK^h, it matt h 
left to the jnry to detcwmioo whether ondcr all the circxuB- 
BtanoGS the defendant was ne^li^ntand wlirtUi^r it« negltgeace 
was tho proximate caodo of tlio injury.' Kren ttiougli it is cb 
doty of tho telephone company to keep its wiios from falliaf 
upon ttie uninsiil&ted wire of the eleciric railway company, jtt 
tho latter company, as well as the former, will be liable ia 
damajfce if it knows that a telephone wiie is onvoand and ^ 
cautions are not taken to prevent it froni falling upon AId 
trolley wire. In such a caso tho court said: ^^ While it waslto 
duty of one company not to ns^ unsound and anprotoctod vriA 
it was equally the duty of the other not to operate its tod 
under auchdofoctivo maubinory/" 

i^W- Electrolysis,— Akin to the interferencfo of one eleotdi 
current wicb another ia the injury done to metal ptpoe and ctl^ 
metallic structures underground. This Injury b oooMd bj^j 



N. w. Hop. ii:o. ua u R A. rs*. s<io 

•bo olv XVi DaDgduiu Currents 



* Block T. irav«akee 9t %<m 
SO WijhSTi.aAia. B.Ctena 

<Sb«tton T. UaiC«d EL Ry. Ox 
Tonn. 4^. a AoL EL Cte 177- S 
al*> <ilu Xm S 1*8. and ek XT. 



$ $90.} DrncsTBUDios or KLEcrftto ouiucrra. 9ld 

chwnicftl aotton set up bj the cnrreat of ^9ctrtcitj u it loaves 
tho surfaoo of tli«t tnoUl £n moiMt luirth. It ia Dm s^me action 
as ia niiwle oae of tor tbe purposes of chemical aimlyHU in tbv 
prooew calkvl clwirolysis. Tho legal pasitba i^ not ijtiJU) ihtf 
mno tt> whrii t^to liWtrit; iHirrrrnU intfl^rfc'ri^ vf'ilU on^ auotbar 
and tbe right to u^& the earth in th^ street is cEaimed for both. 
Tn KQch a case it mn/ troll bo tb&t one who xi»t::i tbr cartb for 
the tjWtnc current fur his own \mT[^M& will not be permitted 
to compI&iQ of a siimlar uae of it by others, onloaa, indoodr the 
in jurr may by rcoaouablo carc be nvoidod ;' but those vrbo bsvo 
pipf4 rightfully and nocodttrily Uiid in tho Htreets and thode 
who have metal structures in theirovTDgToaDdzDajrc&aoiiably 
complain of injunca CAiise^l by *M(>otno currents w:t m atotioa 
by othotv, evoo t^toagl; tUti^ ourr'^ota may ha neceftiary for the 
Uvful purpodds of the electric railway or electric lighting; 2nd 
there cito bo no doubt that if the ti^ of tho oarth u not modon- 
ably n»euijy, or if tbe injury be due to the escape of the 
current throagb negligence or jcf«ctive appUnncr^s, tlio injurod 
party is entitlud to compeniutirkn. Kven though the d<Xitrtne 
of FUuh^ V. Rylands^ be Dot applied, the pursou who, even 
thongh vn'th l^stativo authnrtty, puU tho elcctrio current in 
opnrnlion will U^ raH^uiml tu a«F} tlie utmoHt care to prev^it it 
from go^ng where it will injure tbe property of oth^ft, and ii 
«ould eeem rvcw^nnblo to Iiotd tljnt he ia rcoponnihlc for such 
injury aa an actual tre«paai, even though the injary were found 
to be a nooessary incident to the use of thi? corrcnt. 

There ia a cose rcfcniDg indirectly to olijctr<>ly:sJ:t in wbioli ft 
appaaiedihatagaspipe traa corroded either by the salts in tbe 
wlb or etootixdytical action, and the gas company was held 
bablo for damage done by the caoapo o! goA through tho earth 
into a greenhouae. Tbe defendant beinj^ en^-a^ in the dia- 
tnbutton of so dangerous a snbstanoe as got was required to 
eiercifto the ntmott core In the oonstrnedon and inapcotion of 
lu pipas, and it was held that the jury wua jiutifled in finding 
itgadty of DcgllgcDce;* 

>8Q*eJSie.8lT.«pr& •Sfebfttchl r. But RfvevGwOo, 

*UB.i Kk. an. / 47 N. V. sup^ itt tias^. 




CTTAPTER XTY. 



UlfACniOElZEO OBSTRUCTION OP THE BIQUWAY-LlABlLirT 

Foa EiJuuiEa 

g 221. IntrodiHtflry^ — Tho amhority to tec tip poles and 
ivir^G in the fitr««t is g^n^rally nade expresslj subject to tbo 
condition thnt they shall be so lo^ratnl nnd oOTOtnu-toil aa not 
unnecessarily to interfBre^itb public travel, and this conditm 
would 11(1 donht b<3 implied whrthpr it wen* exprrssipd ornoL 
The Aatlicirity ^ven is Always sabjeet to tlie condition U^t ^e 
liijee shall be fir«pt?rly conatnict«i, and ahftll not be dangeroas 
by rf^nsnn of dvfoctiTo pAc9, Bugging ivirm^ or HDgoardod cm* 
rents of electricity > 

In diflcosfiirif: theaubjcctof the aiithonty by which polcsand 
wires are put np in the strcKrts, wo considered ;n chapter IT 
1k>it far this cbttmction of the hichiray, mch as it 19, iras JQ^ 
fitted by tbc grant of pcrmTSsron to nsd tbe street for that pnr- 
poao- From the cnsca iHTferred to in that diftpt&r,^ it nppoared 
that pole« and wires in the street ao eonatmcted aa to be dan- 
gerous, or so plne^d a^ 10 interfere with travel, an» regarded il 
unatthorized obfttroctions aad treated aa nQtRmecv, iiiil«a tiM 
con^trnctioQ and location have been specifically aotJiorised; 
and that gen^nl authority to construct tbo line Ea not auflciaat 
to le^lize a coDstruL-iioa or a lovation which prt^ves to be dai> 
geroiia We may now refer to cnses on tbe lijihilily to persons 
uamg UifttirghwHy fur injuni^ uriaing frum itnauthiirixiul ob< 
HtriitHion or impropHr locaiion or oon«ttruction of Uib pole^ 
and from negtigcoce in tbe Tnamtennnce or opertition of 
wirfta. 

%2^. Location oftbe poles — Linhlllfy to paawnsera 
car«, — Since tbe erection of a pole in the highway in such a 
place aa to create a dangerom obfltraction ia not legnlizod by 
ft genoral grant of antbority to setup a line of poles, it follows 
that & person setting op a polo in sucli a plaoo ts liable to ono 
irbo is injured hj roaaon of tho dangerous looatiou of the ])oio 



%^2^} 



UAhiLTTY TOIL LNJCltlCf. 



Btf 



while ht If Uvfullj' uuag tbc bigbvrttj in tbe osorcUo vf doa 

In a cuo ftlreiuty referred to ' in (ho suf remd court of ITew 
lenajf Dixom J., Urt it to ihts jury to dccid;; wbctbcr an eleo- 
trie nulvmy polo J9ct up ld tlio middLo of the strooC waa id fact 
dangerous to UuvQlori, ovob (bough ponnisnoa Jbad bccD giren 
to placo the poles vrbea% thoy were in a, line botwt>ca Uio Inwl^t, 
ftwl bo Aaid that if tho polo wa^ lo fjct bo placed aB to bo dan- 
gijTOflft to a poraon ontering a citr about to jxus tho polo, and 
this person^ eKcvcUing due caro, was ijijurod, the railroad com- 
jKLry would bo lUblo ia damages. 

In a reoont caie in Kbodit hland* tho court held Ibatan 
el«>otric railway com^ny ehoald forvseo tbe pc^asible daageA 
to whir.h [Uk>wf-tigi;nf ridmg on tho foot-boards of iu opuo gmiv 
may be UKpoaed \iy a nligbt uioreiui^nt of tlua hotly, when Uae 
polc0 are placed bo iks to stand only ten or tiralv^ inchts from 
tbc fujt-bourd« t and Umi a |>asiicagor ia under no d uty lo lt»toa 
for Traramga ag^o&t danger by reason of polea being ao near 
tho car. 

|8S3. Location of polee — Liability to travelerfi on the 
Stmet, — la a case in the United btatea dbtrict coart in Texaa 
it appeared that tho plointilf was dnving; a gentle hor^c, which 
booamo frightv^nod mid ran uway, and tho plaintiil u^JLa tUroa-n 
Agninat a tolegmph polo> Tho jury were told that if the 
drivcff nsiag all tbo Diitans in his povror to stop the iiotvo, while 
sliU ia die wagon, raa upon a perniancnt objoot ol a dangor- 
005 cbancter in a publio street, the company which put op 
the obnmction was liable for tho injur}'. Whorv tho \yA*s wua 
located, appears only frota the reuiinrk that it was *^on Church 
itrei-C iHMir Trc^mdtii near ihi'. comer" Judge ^hin in L-harg- 
iog tbe Jury nidi ^* If it wan a dangHn)UH olwLrtictiuu Lg ti]i> 
of tiiQ strecv by the puhtic, the city coald not lawfully 
it it ao aa to disbar an injurrx) p<rrp(on from rocovudng any 
datnagea he might snatain in conartiaisnco of ita exeolica.*' 
'^Tho groat of a permit or direction,'^ iu said, **to locate a 



> K(iw«bU V. N«w4r^ Pm«. Bj. C<^ 

n >'. J. Imw jotuiL ODj ok V, get 

' EUlMt T, N'«vporf HL Rf- Ctt. 1< 

ft L w, « AtL Kof^ raa s» U & A. 
$n. s Aak o, (W t^ ai Au rti^p. 

m It lu» been twU tint umauict- 



(lal conunUion Ii nol IWiU to a |a» 
neuipir on ^u tdoclrc^car fui in^urioi 

of th« line io pUoLi^ie tli* |>oka too 



9id 



XLSCmC WIEZS IS WZZZXlt A3D maitwAT*. 



K2S*. 



polv or poit [d a ilroet extemirvlj ovod as a genonl thoroogb- 
fare both for pleajiiire drives anil for buuocaa vtiliiclftt, In 
onler to be a tbUiI grant or to be rightfoli/ tbere, must i^ot 
cmlj ]xi la aoconlanots iritli »IaUi1i<» imd onlinancR*, but raiut 
abo be made iabjeci to tbe detennisattoD of a jury whether 
the polo or poet, so located, is in fact daoi^roos to the pahli^ 
ta tbe use of the «trc«t, includiiig all ooDtlAgeacitia lacideat 
to ihe lavful oae of the aama*"' 

la a later case ia Sfainc* it appeared that a >tTv«t nilwajr 
ooBOpan; was authorized to maintain u Jtinglo or double line of 
po]c«i tho location of tbcm to bo approved by tbe mayor and 
cn^nocra, aad that omj of tho polca vroa placed aboat ci^t4ta 
laehofl ontsido of the oarbsioa^ Tbe plaintiH vaa Uki^nf 
against this polo by tho ahyin^ of hia hom on the appnfl^l 
of an electric car. There wat a it^Ciice providing Lhat com- 
■pHmvs maintaioiog pc<sU and wires for transmitting eloctrio 
light or power dtould \k re«ponsit>lo for iajiiriM dono to psr 
sons or property. The court bold It was proper to chargio tbe 
jury thai tUv e-otnpauy was bound, "in placiog the polo, to 
hnvn IiJLd run?U]Oij>^1jl na to l)i» itiwdii of Uhs pubtic and the 
danger to tbe public, and that they were so bound in placing 
th<'ir posts as not unnecessarily or uDroaa^Ksably to eadao^r 
any per^n traveling tn tfmt vicinity/* It was also bold that 
the judge WhIs right In refusing to charge that, if tiio polo was 
located m accordance with the provisions of tho charter, tbcn 
tho pole was not legally an obstmotion and tho ptointiff could 
not recover. 

% ?21, The !iame — Anotber rlew^— Tliose decisions were, of 
conr&e, bas^ upon the assumption that the polo was in faoi in 
u <iangeroas position. 

Tbo mere fact that the pole stands where it may be struct 
by a runaway hone is not enough to create a liability. In a 
case in WiseocuilD,* whor« it app^arctl tlmt the poli^ although 
on tbo highway, was wiihin four or Ave feel of the fence, and 
iw Dear to it as could bo witloat having tho cnns-aiiDS project 
orer prirate prcijicirt^, tliat there were throe traveled trtu-ks, 

Tctcpk 



Ok. sa r^ Bffix sso lUffrt. 

■Clnvvluid p. B«cj^ St Sj. Co, 
8i Mf. m (im> SO AU FU|X ICOC^ 
A Auk a. Uci an ScaaboClBra. 



Uod «f Ctt J ol Btmgvirt e? U« 29fc 
aa AtL Ruix ^fift 

■ Itobertar.Wcst Cdiovi 'W«b. Qeu 
77 Wi« :st^ 30 AnL SL BofL Iti^ IB 

Rw.Kop. see (1000). 



i&O 



LUBiurr roK utjcuu. 



flir 



and that the plaintiff was driving along Uie one nearest tfao 
pote, wLca his liono ran avrjijr and ibmiv him agsinst it>, it waa 
bold on demorrer that Un^ro was no oaufte of action. Tins court 
said it was pLoin thai ;he polos did not and could no: bare 
iiicomuio>;lcd the bi^b^ray; "Uie iiot^cs ran awajr and might 
baro ma into the fonoc if the pole had not been there; tbore 
VM nothing ia the entire uridth of the sircct to provcnc the 
team from paasmg over it in safety.*' 

So alio, in the United Statoa circuit conrt for the nertbcm 
diiUiet ot Ohio,' it waa held that a tcl4:^mpb company having 
itatntory aachority to set up polos, cxercl^njf reasoaa^e earo 
iO aa not to inoominode putilie travel, waa not required 8o to 
locate Ita polo« as to provide against all po«eible injunos that 
vu^t be hicurred under extraordinary circuin&taocea, and the 
jury were totd to asc«rtam the location of the pol^ an<l And 
whetiirr it did so inoonTi^nicfneu thopLthlio as to inake the loco* 
tion cartileas or negligent. Tbe ptaintilT was required to naa 
due dili^ttce, and the dtircndant vraa hold not to bo liable for 
the negligence of thi; plAmliCTH driver. 

Tba Muna principle waa alilrmed by the $aprcme court of 
New Yorih in a coao in which a tclcgnph pole wa* thrown 
down by means of a collision with a wagon drawn by a mn- 
away hone.^ The plaintiff was dri\"iDg along the road si>ortly 
aftorvrard, and his wagon was caught by the wira which wero 
tiuown aoroM the highway. The court hM thnt if the polo 
waa placed at a suSkicnt dietanco from the traveled portion of 
the highway to bo sifc from vehicles |:«aA«ing along under any 
erditiury circumstances, the defendant waa not bound eo to 
Make or maaa^ its tine as to guard agiinAt severe colliaionSy 
the occurrcnoe of which oould not h^ve been reasonably ex- 
pected.* 

I^^S, The Hamo— Senrce and extent of the liability.— 
8i»n«i of ilietit'. rollngf, it will be oharfrved, were merely those 
of a judge chaiglng a jtinr, and tho cosea cannot be regarded 
aiMtablishing by aatboritv adednite aol aatUfactory rale of 
law. It hi no doubt tfuu ibat a person etjaiiig up a polo in tbo 

■Sbeffleia T.Coatim1T7£ioaTU«K' Wvtoffapololjfaigiii tbASOwtftod 

Go, ae Fod. nt^ lU (laat^ tbe quutUoo or oooUibutocy DosU» 

iAll«e V. AtLnLtionnilFaettkcOOL, gunoa wt Pni«*1 IMar. DUda Oft r, 

tina^aariSB^i Zopiii,93T«iuLieo;V4».w Ht^m^ 

«JU to tkbillLjkriM^iCeiMhi 4Am. QLOm I0I,mI#O«>^ 



Si5 



«L&7niio ffizits lu 0T£K£TB A2SD nioiiirAy& 



[|S35. 



street witbooi <!aa regard for the &&fet/ of the pahUc ia lh« 
ordinary lue of & «trcct itkfty bo liable for injunca dircctlj 
oaudod b; tlid prcoonco of tUc pole, crvn Utougb he m^y bavo 
had (wrmissioQ or oven authoritj to erect the pole for a ocrtaim 
proper ptirposc* Tbc liability nrisca oot of neglect of tiw pre- 
caaUooA required by the ooELditioiu of public imvcl, and cjtbta 
boc&osQ tbo grant is made either expreftsly or by imphcaiioa 
Aubj(»ct to Ute requirunioaU of publie axltily in tbo nse of tlie 
streets.* It may eren be^ as was said by Judgv Dixon in tlie 
JJew Joraey cuse/ that nUhou^'h tiie poles are located under 
tiio dirt'ctioA of tbo uiualoipu) conncU vritb tbenutborityof th* 
legislatLire, tbe grant is a mere permisafoa of wlifcli the 
iivod not nvojl btutH^'lfT rtrd nliich lie Uikcn gubjcct to the dl 
to rcigarJ the aiifc^ty of tr;iv^c1tir^, Tlieduty n^ernxS to id tbat 
oaae, iiowt'ver, m^oa tlie duty of a atnset nuivriiy L-uinp:uiy lo 
toko core of its own passtiagcTH, aod it may well bo Uial tU 
rights of tbc goQcruJ public iArts limitod by Uie net of tbo li^ 
UUUure in aulborlzing the obalrucdon of tbe street. It is eer- 
t&tn that as against tbe corporate action of the town the toc*- 
tion of Lhe ^olcs by tLe permift&ion of tbe munKripai aothorltica 
und«r logialatire flanction ia n GODilpI<^te juaufication-' With 
respect to tbe righto of individuals Cbere may still remain u 
appu^U to the oonrt$. Thia appeati, bcwvtrr, oaauot bo nudo 
on the general question wbotbcr tbo polo is in fact dangerous 
The real qucGtton is wbt^tbor it is or it not lawful. If itia law- 
fully placed ^vhorj it is ami as it is, It is not a noi^an^ and can- 
not be a cause of action.' The question will rather be wbeCber 
the authority is not flitbject to the cotidfUon th:^t duo regaH 
shall be hod for tbe public safety, and if so, tben the qaectlou 
of the dangerouA cbaru^tis' of the c1ist.met.ion eb»uM not bu 
left to tlu^jiiry Ui dfftctrnnniA, ujiim tliriir uwn opinlcxi of tho 

LB.1 ILL.R llSdMTi: nonl«tt> 
tovn A South Amtny Tnmplk* t!* 
r. Oamcbii & Amtoy B. IL J& r Co* 
IT N. J. L. (3 nuT.) UMi tirlUth CUI 

7S4; iMUtton T, C:n>'BriLdr. 2 HuilA 
Cnm. TOV; Cterdftni Sc Pittoborsb 
B. a Col V. Spm< SS IV 3l SBIPM: 

Usn. 49S: NatictJil K«a Tut«p^ 
Co r. B&k«r. [LWJ S Cti. ISO. 



* aa«l^it ± Cakta Ckh v. T«*.rT of 
8t 11^7 Adbou'iL U V B^ [> t {yJS&iii 
BtfOvQ V, i}r*fA% Eutorn K7, Co, I. 
IL 10 Ki^ OM ll«71>; Lawtvnoa *. 
OrtAt Wwdom Ry. C<i^ le <^ a OU 

«Cb>pMc V. K oa sa i>^ m n^ 

«iid OMM tlieiv oit*4 
•Morwj DvoU Trv«te« t. Qibbfc 



22rt0 



LUBIUTT roK 1XJCRJK8. 



S4d 



pmpnoCy of roaking obBtructione of that k-ncT, but most ba do- 
cIJe<l In vievr of Uio fuel Uiitl the legiSlAturQ has autboriud the 
plttolug of « liQtiof pokft foraccrlaia puLUc |>ur|>oii? tiloiig and 
in Un^fltnirL' 

S 226. Tlio WIIII6— Tbo !<»gMaiiirp iiioj itnMlIf)- ;Jio rlglil* 
of Ihi) public In the ntront — Rlcvlric rjillnay |iole!< — Cou' 
clliHlon> — Whether ftnob&tructioQ latlajigi^rdusdeiJea-lsagooii 
dejkl t>i tlifl iDUOficr m wtiich ib^ hi<^'liwdy U i»scd by the [>ui> 
lie* and tJiifl deponJs on the «itoiit of tlm rtj^it of the puljllo 
to mtlco UM of it Itmufit be reaiembored UiaC the legidlamrirr 
rcprcttLnliiig Uic [»ublic hiis Uiq power to ebang^ tbo mode of 
Q8Q, or reicsuo tbd putrUc n;;lit by TAcaLtii^ iln> highway alto* 
girtbor.' The publie mtut iidapt Uiemsclvca to tho no\r a&es of 
tbe strocfi and czcreifto duo caro U> avoid iiuLi)on£(.^J obstmo- 
tioDs, and if injury bappoaa from nogloot of &\xch procautioua 
no oata it linljla 

It lit certainly not traa tliat oco wbo pnU np a teloj^raph 
polo uader authority wittiin tbo line of tbo curbstone ig liable 
form ciAiufifm with » runaway horw), even thougli the drivvr 
be oot to blame. A t«;tegrapb poto in this poflition is no more 
iBngerom tbaii a trt^e or a lamp post — ihey ar<* all b(>yoiid 
tlitt njiaeo aJlottral fur drivljig^ nnd drivont iniutt avuid tbom at 
Uimr |*tfril- 

Pules along tho middle of tbc Gtruct for tho electric rsilvray 
fteeni to pn^ttcut a diiTenrnt qucnlion. Tbey fitnnd in that [art 
of tbcatr^flin which people are accustocacd to drive, and tboy 
are daagtroua to thoao who mo it as tbey ^rould if no poJoi 
wcro thoro. The kf^ialatnre, however, baa poorer to divide tbo 
Urcct and make two tfuvelod wajrd. If a sLroct it ivid^ a park 
nay bu laid out atont- Uiv middle of it witti a fcnco on cither 
nde. In Loodoa and som^ other eitii?^ tho lamp posu are 
pUeod ttloog tbo middle of tho crowdod atio<Ttj( for :ho purpose 
ef driving the trafllc into two Bopatnte streams; and so, when 
a doable line of Bti«ut-car tracks hna bun laid along Uie mid- 
cllr- ttt a brood >lreot kiv\ a liiw of poloa has been LavfuUy axu 
ihonxed to be set up at intervals between Uiom, tbo irafflo 
Dost adapt itHlf to i\Km, Tboy mark Uw liuiibt of tbo Lrav- 
eled way ja«t as mtuih kh tlm eurlMi4>aea and fenoes do, and 



^Bm mock ▼. UUvuikee fit By. 



>Ck £J,S% and ceM ihm cited. 



uo 



BunTTKic: wuu» nr a T H Kgra anb aiGBWira. 



tS MT- 



pflrtons pitist take oai^ to uToid them* Individuals bave oftty 
such T\g)iU us Uio publio fa&ve, and Ibe public rigliU arc ynMz 
die control of the )«gi8Utiu«, Tbe HgLt of travel In tbe ttnot 
tTierc^fom is tbiil whieb tbe logi^UUin^ olloiv^ We &ro spea^^ 
iugnovvof tlic rights of irn]m<!ii«1i#»ir'r(rUi»gtbn public ngbu 
of travel. Tbo qaeslioa of tbe nghta of l£ndH>wRe» tl^iiemfi 
on other conEitScrAtions^ for thdr nghte of ppopciiy ar* jifo- 
toctrd hy the ooDAtitution ; but tbe iDcrc ri^hiof pobltc travel 
may be limited by tho legialataro to any part of tbfi itrc«t il 
may sec proper, or be released altogether, aiid therefore tbe 
qumtion of liabLlity for the injury to a tJMveler by reaaottef 
ao obfitmotion must depend on the question whether the ao- 
ouUed obstruottcn is aitthon;ced or nct^ and sot on tbe decitioa 
of a court and jury ae to whether it ia in tbeir opinioA 
geroua. 
§227. liability for Injuries— Wires bani^lBg too low.— 



% 



Persona authori^^J to strin*; iin^s of wire 



along 



and acrctt 



public Toxuis are bound to uip? due diligence to place afi<l keep 
thoin where they wl!l not obatract tbe ordinary luwt of the 
highway or cause injtirieji Ui persons traveling upon iL TU 
pernitssioQ to setup telegraph and eltHTtnc-tigtit wires a g«D- 
erally made eipresaly subject to the condition that ibey i^udl 
not interfere with tho free use of the higbiray for pablic travel 
and transportation, and even vltbouL expren vonls such a 
condition ^ronld no doubt be implied; and it is always unde^ 
stood thiit statutory powers of this kind are snbjoct to Uk« 
condition tbut they Bball bo eicrrciaed in a careful and proper 
nmnncr.^ 

If, therefore, wires are so put up aa to obatraet tbe ordinAiy 
^e of the fitreet, or if tb«y are si^ered to bang down co as i« 
entftnf;]e a travdur and cause injury to one axarcifiln^ dae 
care in the use of the street, the siatntory authority wlU afford 
no juUification in an action for damag^K. Tbe liability may 
rest on tbe mere breach of tbe duty not to ob«lr\ict the 
Btrcet; in such cose afBnuative proof of neglignnt^e is not r^ 
qiiimdj idlhough the rwmjmny might justify by sliowing Jt* 
aulbority and tbe exere-M of proper care, and that tbu saggic^g 
of tbe wire waa due to accident or to causes not reasonably to 

) IScMT Docln Tt>Al*M T. Of bH L a J IL 1. B^aai ocber ew» dtod la 




%m 



UAuuTT ros isjnm. 



Kl 



boexpectal' Ithai been snggisted tluLttlifilialiilUy may also 
bo plaocd QpoD ih« grounJ that in mdiotfiinin^ vrtres over tho 
atroelA Uie ilcfcndant has plftcod tbcic, for his ovrn bonellti 
■omothing which, if not mreJ for^ mny Ijecoimj dAngeroas to 
penons lawfnUy valng the street, and ihd defendaAt id tben- 
fore VDtlcr oUigntioQ to beep it in \U proper jilnco.' Itnt tbo 
doctrmo of FUichtr ^ li^/iand^ haa not been aeoc|>tc<l in Uiis 
eouctrj as applicable to drcocodtanocs other tbon thoeo nodor 
vhich it WHS annoaacod, and it is gcnorally agrood Uut Ihcro 
tiiTiKt bt> Gome n^gl^enco tD c^reiilo liaUlity for cert.* 

TliD ilcgroo of care r^quirod, bow^vor, 10 commensarato tritli 
the danger, and thoro is no doubt that ponons roninlainEng 
wbra snspended above the ptiblio streets are held strictly «^ 
coontAble for any negligence by rinuwn of whkih any injury is 
cansed tc travclcn Jind vuUicIt'B Iri tbc vLivelic 

§ SSS, Tho same — DctNions, — A decision cipoB Uie Ha* 
bility fur f>li)ctnicl;ng tlie htgbwny vr.is mudi^ In tlje enrly days 
of the tek-grapli in lUe supreme judicial coort of ^jllhcV iind 
thJA, by Iho vT&y, is tbo only case on tolcgnipb vrirea in tho 
fllTMts cited by Scott & Jaraagin in ISOS, or reforrvd to in tbo 
fint aeries of the United States Digest^ ending in 1S70. 

Tho defendant, a telegraph company, was authorised by stat- 
ote to pot up a liac along the pnblio roads, locating iu posu 
and fixtures so as not to incommode tho puUlc um> of the 
highway- A wire bung low over one dde of the roail, and ik 
stago baling turned o£T the nsually truv^^lril tniek toward th« 
postofflce, tho nppor part of St ivss caught la the wire and iU 
was Dpset, and the plaintliT u-os injcinxl. The oourt aftid tli« 
i^ght of the telpgraph romjiiiny b* Kt,rJnj; tlie wins w«i enbject 
to tim coTuliliun thut it ftlif>iild not incoEnmoik public tramd, 
and it wa0 tbe right of all persons to poM and Te|>afl8 at tJioir 
plooanro on uny port of the highway, and not merely on thai 
part which the town is obliged to keep in rt^poir. TUe defend- 



IW»H Y. AtUntIC * PMt TcJ*|f 
Olk.71 N.T. «1:aC27 Am. K«^ 
It; Allen T, AUiuttio Jt FlM. Tolc«. 
OAh 91 Hum SS- 

'Tbonifwon «& KlM^iV-3tr. IS; 



^ mt dkdUMaJ III H 3l^ w^^ 

ii&ias(ua»> 



^% 



laLcntio wiu» iM inicMm am> ihoiiwats. jj ft2$. 



ant, therororo, hvA no right t4> make tho oltfbticlloii, and vu 
lisible Lo cUo [iLdnUIT for the rt^tilUng injury. 

la a c^sa in ^LisaacLasi?<tta, ia 18$$/ Uw only tTfitl qiMftU» 
w>Vt ivlii.^Uirr tliu piJiiiiLiiT wwt j^itiUny of cud LriUuIurj nt*-g1{- 
gunue, oatl sulijtH^t Lo thn ileclnioii of Llns tjr tbe jury it Wis 
conceded ibal a telegraph compnoy iro^ liable for am iojiuyto 
« trftvolcr caiu.^d by a win; liux'ing fMiuu frocii ona polo Bud 
Langing diagonally across the street withia one or two inchcfl 
oftbcgrouQil- Tho plaint ilTtriodlo lead his hor»c« aad wtgoa 
cmr it, but il flew ti\\ tho ivirt> cuui^ht tins axto and upsol tbe 
vu^D, apolo wo^ pulled dowD^ and tbe horses took fright and 
mn away. T^tc court said it »botild bare bcoB left to Uio jiu| 
to docid^ whotUcr the phintiff was eiorcisin;; reaaonablQ eaie 
in tbinkiog the wiro would lid fLal uid io trying to got omrflE. 

It wiu Leid in P<fnn«ylv£inia} In 16SV that a t«li>ptu>QO oon- 
pany is liable in damages for injuria caused by & saggtog 
telephone wir^ iinpcHling trsivol. Livingatoo, X, cbnrgjog Ihfl 
jury In the T^iicavLer (common pleaa, lold them that td«giii{ili 
lines over bi^hvrays musl be put up and kept so th^t the wirci 
sludl not ini|M.'d(; or ubslruct onbiimy tnivd tw n'juU'iT it Di- 
ftafiv and Hint it liy iif^ltfct of thoiie faDIng to koirp them to 
injury is suataiaed byji person passiag OTer the highway vitb< 
out fjiult on hU part, the company owning the line will be IJA- 
ble in daniag^a, arid that it is net necoasary, ia order to ahow 
nogligcnoc in allowing a wire to hang too low, to prove that 
tJio compittiy littdt hiivn notified thtit the wire ia obetruoti 
strocte and has failed to remote it* The obarf^e wob s 
by the anjJTcaic court.* 

Even whem the wir<« have been broken dot^n by ioe tbroii^ 
tiie ficexing of water thrown upon tbem in putting out a nr<, 
It haai Uhjn held that a t«t^;ra[ih oonapany i« liable to ponooi 
injured by reason of the wires b^ing down. The conrt 0M 
that since it was only by lic4.>ft«n tltat thv wtn--a had been Iib4( 
over tJie street, it was the duty of the telegraph comjiany, after 



iilmum v. WmL UoioB Tttte^ 

>Peaia47lmiU TalFptxdio Ca v. 
VftnuLiL ^ LancftAUr Iaw Ki*riiiw 
tPa.UHal!tnllf^] tt aC,6 iX 401, 
)^ AU. IWix OM. 

* Tlu dooliloci mA cooaaed to tb* 



<BM of tho ttM of Iho hl^hwirtar 
OtiUaarr Uiuij««vULwii. 7b« j«^ 

loftdtbutyoreort]pr«Mbish. U^ 
wiraa obitrtiadii|p Ui« morlag ^ • 
boiM wt uL V, t Oa p^ 6Al 



«m] 



UAuuTT worn Di/vma, 



US 



tbe fire, to remore sueh mrt^ us wero co esposed as t& en* 
dao^F pcrdOQS lawfully onn^ tho fltTOct&> 

It wfis bcM in Colorado tcrntory in 1873' tbot & compaoy 
engaged in putting op a tote^n^ph lino in a city street trns guilty 
oC frrooB n«<;:li^iice wh«n it allowed a vrire to lian*^ vrtthin a 
f«w rv«t of tlH) ^rotin<1 whil« pocplo wero passing, and put up 
noslgnil and gave no wamng. The Juit were tcld tbat tti«y 
nfght give cawinplarv ilnmag^^-s. On writ of error, how*?ver, 
tli0 K«preroe covrt of the TToitt-Hl SUt(*«i mlt} tbM in no vivw of 
tli^ eaae iras Lite court jnAtrnt?):! id Urlling the Jury tliat exem* 
plary ilninngni mnld hn nvnvf^md, Thn oniimion to station 
flag-Aignala or to give 80ni6 other propLT warrrlng wan nn act 
of ncgUgiccoo Mititlvn^ the plaintifT bo contpcruatory damogr^t 
but Ibcre vros no tridcn<:c o! wilful wrong,' 

gffl9. TbG flame contintreil — tiny wlrc^.— Tbe mmA priD> 
ciplc, of cDorM, applies to goy wirce iuo<] to support the poles 
as to tbft dectric vrires tbantielTc6. In a ai9« in tbo Xew York 
mprome courts* thoro was a guy wire fastf^ncd to a flQakcn stone 
in tbo cdg<T of a narrow ro*d whero persons would imt-jrally bo 
cotopt-^Uod to tnveL The wiro was not i?tsily econ and was 
hidden by tbc tctaTcsof troos. Tho pfainlifT, in passing* flnotb^ 
man'a wagon, was obllg^ to drivo over the stone and h^ wbo«l 
vna CAngbt in the wii^, Tt w,is hold that the defendaa^'s nj*bt 
to oso the highway was »i1>ji*ct to ihn right of ost for traTo!| 
and tliat tbe stone with tbe wire i^ near the travH^M] part of the 
rood rnndo a dungrroiis snar?, Tbeconrt dii not considor tbo 
pTsintiS guilty of nejIigeiK^c and Wd tbr di^fen-Iant Ibibln, 

Ro also, in Lodsiann,^ a toilcgraph company w^is held Itabto 
for an injttry occasioned by guy wirea strctehcd icross ft pari 
of tbo road called neutral grDond, oq wbidi it was forbiddea 
todhve. The accident happened to Ibe driver of a fire-en;nno, 
wbowastumini^ hbcnisino to ^ to a fire-ptog which stoal on 
tbo nentral ^rocnd, anc) to wbicti he bad a right to s:a for Lbe 
pvrpooo of patting ont a fira Tbo oourt mid tbo tif1<*gmpb 
QOOipaDy otigbt to hare wen that injury might eonw fronri |mtp 

I Vivh6^ *. Hinnia^^ » Minn. U> H0«mIc«« * 8L PmU Rj, Ca t* 

M 1 An- EL Cks »S (!«»>, Artm, 81 U & Ml 

■WoL Uoioniyk^Co^T, EjSBT, 'SMiM «. WmL Union T«k« 

SCotaT^rr. Hi, Ok. Al UuxflBl f|«Sl. 

■Wvt. tn-^ Trk^ Ca t. ^wr. »WiWivir. rit f^t T*4it|ih A TOi^ 

StU.a4lC(to7&vnt-:rt<dia*Mt« Cc^ii lAAii>.l<»iSaa^TSl (tM> 




su 



iLLircTBio wimi U( inuvirTfl a»i> nionwATs. 



^wa 



tiii^ wires so low in s^ch m ptaoc> oad troa Uieroforo in f&al; 
and Uable in damages. 

In a lat»>r cftdc ^ it viks held that ul etcotiio imilvoy co»- 
pany w«ft ni^gligtnt id placing guy wire* ov«p the iPAok of 4 
Btc<am railway in euch a poeitioQ that a brakiMnaii stanUiag ii 
tho ordinary courso of his duty on the top ot a froagbt car wai 
catigh: by the wins and killed. The itt^am railroad company 
wufi also held to be Uablo for pemiiuing Ui« wires to renuii 
in Kucli a position, ami ft vru found tluit tbcf btnl^^iiian wai 
nrnier the eircumftianc^ not guHty of coathtiutory negligemca 
Tn nriothor oas*;^ » giiy wire attaclied to a post nbout four fat 
hij^ltf |iUe!m] in till* luirrhi^^ way, vina Iiirld to bn a daiigumoi 
obetnictioD to tbe stn^rtt, aad a peraon injured thereby was beU 
to be cntitli^ to dama^e^T althou^li tbe accident would aoi 
have bappenfd but for bcr hor^^ liaving lKM>n frightened. 

g ^M. WlrCM hanjETf na: too low — Contributory nec:llt;cnc^ 
Tn tbe cq»o in Jkljiinc «bovo rcfcrro*! to, wheii it lirsit catiie b^ 
foro tiie court ia ltj57,* it appeared tb&t a telegraph wire be- 
eamo ^'elaok and drooped so Jow *' tbrit a stage^Kmoh in which 
the piaintilT, Mr%. Diekoy, was trareUng was oatigbt in it athd 
o?Grtnrned, On a motion for a now trial, aftor & rctrdtct for 
tbd plaiTitilTit, thft coLirt nald: "It wa« not &nffloiont for th« 
plaintiffslo prove that the dofeiidai]t3WJ?re in fanlL To endtlv 
tbemselToe to a vDnlict th« plnintilT^ wi<rre boumt to show that 
there wa« no m-gliH-t or want of ordianry care cocitHbstmg to 
the injury on tb^ part of the F0ma.1e pInintlfT/* and the court 
held (foHowing the doctrine of 7%)rofff?nft v, Bryaa, which Itas 
Biuce bet>n ovurniled') tlmt if the driviT of the atag«KM»ch 
were guilty of neglect or want of ordinary care, the plaintiff* 
wontd be as much Affected thereby as if Mn. Dickey were tH« 
driTOTp It appt^arod that the driver knew the wire was too lev 
to pass under, and had several times Lifted it while passing, and 
thid time he Let it repiai a in front of the stage whilo bo stopped 



t;a,4» LilAqil B6. 31 8. U«|k ISJ; ft 
Am. EL Ou 83a: 

*LuaJv«H T, LtTicpton EL Ix. Cow 
IT Hoau s^ e Am. RL Gh. ass, 41 

> Dicker V- Uaiae IcA««Tapli Cc^, 13 



Aniutn>af^Tba B^raino. ta ApfLC»a 
1 (I»S^)i Beooott r. N. J, R a &T. 

& W, R. Ca T. Sttflnbcrjuuv. 47 K 
J. I^ m iMarah. ma^^M Utt1« &•- 

ooiin*r. T. UMk«C» lie U. a SM {O 

tuu-r. tssis:. 



§d».] 



UAiuLiTY roB I^J17l^Ea. 



95$ 



St tlio postofllcef and lio allovrod Ok borscs U> start brf^KV Uio 
vire vras recnoveU. Tbc jud^a thought he wns giuDLy of groa 
ttogligcQce, and sgI aside the ri^rdict; but & aocood verdict hAT- 
mg bocD rendered for the plaiatifTs oc fiomowbatdLiri^TeDt erU 
d«nce, tbe oourt allowed it U> sund.' 

Tbe trao rule in sucb case* \m olcarly sUtcd^ however, bj 
Jadgo lloar, in a cdsu in Ma-wLchtuictW tbut ^' if a i^artv, witb 
lull knowledge of Uio existenco of an obstructioa or dofoct in 
a bigbwaj, wilfully or rocklcssly koopa on, and iavolvct Lim- 
ielf i& a dnng«r wbicb bo b&d no toaBonablc ground to believo 
he coatd euccdttfally encount^^r, be acts at his own risk and 
miui tokd tba consix^uvnccs. Hut bocuu«<t tbcNi is nn ob«taol6 
to proceeding, It do^s not follow tbat it \» not cons!ftteDt with 
ndUOliable care toatt«m^t to proceed." In ibia cbbo tbe plaint- 
UTf driving along u nvul, ntnw a win? Imnging dmgiinaUy uorom 
it between two jyilaatwobundredfeft apart and coming; withm 
tiro or thretf inches of the surface of tbo o^rth. Ilu found it 
would liu Bat on tlie ground tlie whole diHtLtrice Acroafl the 
traveled way, and the court held that it waa propcHy left to 
tbe jury to say nhctbcr the plnintiff was justified in supposing 
that be coald lead bta botaea and wagon aafely orer it, and 
wbetber be usod doe t^aro in attempting to do »o. 

la tbo Vamnn case in i'ennsyivania ' tbe jiidgc tvan 3ustaiae«l 
in charging the jury that if tbe pIntntiS saw the wiro or knew 
it waa tberei and be could not baro Jriron safely under it aD<t 
eottld bare driven on a lower rood, bia failure to do so wonid 
be mob negligence aa would prevent a recovery; bat if be did 
not know or aao it was tbare, bi« failure to take tbo other road 
vonid not prevent rocoveir by tbe plalnufiT. It waa alao held 
In thiacaM that, ttlKt^ a traveler on a highway finds bu wagon 
canght by a wini banging tj»o low, if lift dtn^ iUc bml he can 
in tbe emergency to extricate himself, tbe defendant will noC 
l>e relieved from liAbitity i>ecuoMc tbi^plnintifT might have found 
a way of eaoape, Wbt;Q a uiati tadd biniAulf placed in a pod- 



> Tlionw T, Tr«flC UoiOD T»)*0. Oa« 
30OVM&lSdllil8V 

' rVE*ii«* T'^l*?!^ Co. T. Vnrnin*. B 
Uan. Law tter.TL «'jU U AtL Itoiv 



dpiioa ctmwtng tatkt pain* tarty ae 
afxtj Tod» ftwaj did tu>l bfl li no* 
ift*lmiuitilA. uuIm* It U ftbo tlMwn 
tUu IIjmt wffEtt vvt up ftt tho aMN« 
tiDi«t vUli UiAtH Uiat f#l^ Wml 
VaknT^k^ 0>. t. Levl,4: lolOtt. 



253 



uxcTBxo wnoa ni trsKsn and monwATS. [{ 2SSQ, 



Hon of danger by the negligenflo of aaothrrr vriU^ottt Ins fflilt 
and, not haTtng timo to doliber&te, happeiu to cbooM & war 
to GSCiLpc whtcb is not tho beat, tbD lnw trill not impute to him 
OMttributorj negligence so readily a3 if be bad Umc to choose 
with judgment AU that it requires of him ia to do as & pni- 
doTit man would untlcr the eircttmstADccs. 

Bo alao in a oaae in ix>ms]ana,' it £{>{>oared that i drfiyniJlB, 
the plaintiff^fl fcllow^o rvnrtt^ knew that nn otectric-Ught mn> 
WfM liitn^-in^ love, but drove nnder it in tin emergency ivbt^ 
tbe Btroet vras obfitracted. Ha was driving a team of At* 
TDitW ilrHiTJng It wtigOQ tvith a Inrgo tsnk upon it, and it irj^ 
held that the rule as to contributory nogllgoneo did not apfty. 
The conrt said: "Kvon if tl^crdbail been erro<r of Jitd^mect in 
tliQ i!mttrgi?rrv ciF thn ui»Tnr*ntf it would nnt hnvv htren csrrU'S*- 
nesB or neglect; bad tiie plaintiff freely clxM-n to dnvi? undfrr 
tho low-swJRging wiro, nnd hnd bo neclig^nUy driven tho tank 
againitt it^ this principle invoki^cl \touT<1 npply. Tn tbn hnsto of 
tJio moment ba did that which pDSBibly any pradtrnl man ivoultl 
hnvc done.'* 

h is not to be expected that a man in driving, or cvtn in 
imlkicg, nlong a street \vitl ace a smnll irira atrvtcbed across 
the wity or lying upon tho pa\xmrnt when bo baa q rigljt la 
suppose that tht^ etrcot is nncbitructe^J; and ttie fact that hv 
rans into saeh a vnro is not beld, aia a matter of laiv, to bo eon- 
trlbutory n^^IigiTnoe, hut the question whether ho cioraecd 
due care will be left to the jnry. Bnt if there be danger opsa 
«nd apparent on the ttniet of vrhicb the plaintifT ie avnrc, and 
the plnintlfT Tvith hi*i eye* open walks Snio n irire from which 
aprrka are llying »nd he h injareJ, bo ia not entitled to claio* 
fig<!?i, frir he (^intrihub-H tii Iiik own tnjnry.* 

Ti) a L<aH^4 fa Tn(l]an;i* the MijiTfmi' ivmrt ororrnlptl n ilrnnin^ 
ror to a dcrhirntJon which Bllc^jed ihntan ©Ieciric4:gbl wire 
wna ni»^lig»rntly nUotrn(! to remain on nnd along a aidewalfc, 
and that wbile pla^ntllT was walking carefully along Uie nclo' 
walk, without her fault her foot caught and bocamo cntnn^'icd 
in t^ wire and slie waA injurcd- 



■ Winiama t. Lovln&nA hiiihi and 
«Cmk V. wammfftoo atj eiacbla 

Cb (Del Super, cl. isae:^ as Aa ft«p. 
04k tici«jil»jKr«lew v.IftfwOrieaa^ 



rtTL R R C<^ 4a Lk Ann. 89^ £1 £ 

*nT»iti KiATinfl Ij^fajt Ca ▼. 
iWltry. IM Inl 2:1:^ 2J N. E Rifli 



CHAPTER XV. 

CONSraCCnOW A?JD MAlNTENANCE-LlABlLnr FOB KEOU- 
OENCE- DEFECTIVE MATERIAI^ AND DAXGEJtOCS CUR- 
EKNTS 

231. iDtroductory — Dt-DnUioti of ih« duty mid lability, 
^tose who Bet up poles and win^n alcng a pubtio ftln»et are 
subject to the duly lo nso duo care that no injury happen by 
reuOD of iKoj defect iu tbcir comtmctioD or failure to keep 
tbetn in gjood condition. 

Wo bavc already spoken of the obstraction of tho stroot by 
rcAvoD of tho improper iooalcoa of tLo pcrl<» &&<! pwition of 
ibo Tvircfi, and abo by tho failnro to keep thorn in the propor 
plaoo. W^ bA7o now to coDsidcr tho liability for injaries 
Caosod by tbo falling of the polo» or tho brealcin,^^ of the wires, 
and cepeoiaUy the injuria cauai^l by itw dnn;*crouA currouta of 
aloctricity with which tha viroa may be ohargcd. 

This liability d(^pcnds upon the nature of tho duty Imposed 
upon thosewho mainUin smh a elnKiUiro in Uit3 KtrooU, Thi.'y 
aro subject, of i^ounw, to tbo duty U> take due care, amd are 
liaise for ne^ll^^nc^; but the ninoQntof cikn^ requiretlrlepondl 
partly upon tbdr rclulions to 1\k public and [Hirlljr ujkmi tha 
dangtT that b incident to nc^lt^cL 

There U a Epecial duty im)>Dscd upon tbcm as occupiers of a 
atrUGturo in or along tbo public ilrccta to take caru ih;it it ia 
well conairutited and tcept ia good repair* and whon & heavy 
objoct is snapcndcd over a street^ or a dan^^roiu current of 
electricity ia used, ipocial care ia roquir^Hi bocau^e ol tho very 
•urioQfl coDsequonoDS of ali^^ht Dc;-Uf;enoo. The liability goes 
beyond liability Tor tlao dcfundanU* own ne^li^nm, and, in 
eaao or known defects, tho obligation fs that due care shall bo 
exeroiBed, xrhetber by tbirmsulvcs or ttivtr lorvunta, or by ixm- 
tmctors ^vbonn tboy employ in making tbo repairs; and yet it 
doea not go so far as lo make them rrs|>on¥ih1ti for dufocU that 
could nf>t \m discovi^mS by the uxrroiw) of due care, nor for ao* 
cideaU tbut cuold not recuotiably be auttcipatod. With nT-gard 
IT 



A* 



2&S 



xLscrmic wmcs a atbx&ts A2n> &iobwat«. 



««a 



to ihe a» of this dangoroma cortvnt, tbera is aome qnectioci 
whether tlto obligaltoa doc« not go still fiirUkcr, and rcquin 
not [DGrely tit^t tfio cam me<l be coinroeiiinirata witli the dan- 
ger, bub oJ^o tb&t tbo carrcnt bo kepi ondcr control and not 
alloired to escapo and do hvni. 

§ ^;t2. Analofrr to the liabllitj of occiplcr or prcmiaas.— 
Tbo obligatioQ to maintAia tho pole* it&d vrirc« ta safo coftdi- 
doa with respect to ptueorft-bj may ht likened bo that of ooeo- 
pior» of UkndB and baildin:^. 

The principliw afdrmcd by tho nuthontlos on this sabjcct on 
fummed up by Sir Fredenck Pollock m his vork on torta as fo^ 
Iowa: "Tbo own<trof property abatUnj^ on a highway ig under 
a positive duty to kocp his property from being a oatuo of dac- 
gur bo the public by reason of any defect either ia gtmotare, r<s 
pair, or n§e jldJ iminBgi^mrnL, wliiuh n«»oaiiblo euro uiid ^11 
caa gaard agaimit^* * In caae of kaowiL defeota of oonttmclJoa 
or want of repair the oocu^rior m&y \yG liable aoi merely fcr 
thfi nngligoaco of bimiwlf and of his servants, but also for 
the Diligence of an mdypcndL^nt contra^:t'if- carefully cbo»en> 
" The duty does not extend to dcfocts incupi-ibb of boing dtscor- 
ored by the exercise of reasonable care, s^dh aa Inteab flaws 
in metal; though it do^ citond to all such oa caT« and akiS 
(not merely cord and sI^iH on tbo part of ttic doiendaBt) «u 
guard against,^'* 

In Tarry v.AM^rtf' for oxamplo^a lamp was suspended over 
the street upon a braoket, and the occupier of the premisoa, hav- 
ing learned that the bracket was defe^^re, employed a oem- 
potent man (not bis own servant) to repair it, and tbo repain 
were not properly nude, and afterwards, by reason of the de* 
feet, the lamp fell and injured a servant of iho owner Ulacl- 
biim, J., Maid : " Tt vrtut tho dt^frmlafit^i duty to nuiko tJi«f lamp 
reasoDably safe ; the contractor failed todothat; . . . there- 
fore the duftmdAnt hus notdonc bis duty and ho U LiAblo to the 
plaintiff for Uirs coii»«iueiice*." 



iPolloekoo Tona i3>.dttag Ebtnrs 
V. Wftrd. 4 G R a»l: Cort>v v. Hill. 

CC^, S U, & C tW; IUGkni«y r, Lon- 
4oa, Brishtott ft Soullt C^«t«l R7. fo, 
L&eQ,DLTa»; HuUflQ V. dt Jofab, 



AT K. T. :^x TuTTj w, aslitotk, t 4 

a DiT. «4. 

■Pollock CD Toria 41ft; E«aafaMl 

Ujauu V. X^O q.aD..Mpk«s:j 

T&rTT T. jkihMn, 1 ^ a A aia 



»m] 



O^XmtlTCnOV AND lUUCTKKiJCOB^ 



SM 



Bat Iq COrJt V. Bhttom^* in the 4tipromo judicial court cl 
MABttoboMtU, vrbcrea tail ohimney wins blo^^dowain ugola 
And oaascd iojurj to adjoiaing pnemiecst thu courL imid: "The 
defondflnt^ are net to l>i> ri^^nrdcd as in^arors, ami conseqni^Qtl/ 
woold >ot be li&blQ if ttd fall occarred tUrouj^b a. Liidclva d^ 
foct, which no fonwight or oxAminattOQ coatd havo diBcovered 
or provcnt«d. ... By ' proper care * is meant eodii degree 
of care as vrill prevent mjnrioa from acj cauM except tboso 
oT<tr wbich the* p.arty could liiivn no control, sncb hx v£f vu^t^r^ 
acU of tlie pnUHo i<iii*iTik's, wrongful &«tA of tlurd persons, ajid 
tbe like, which huniau foresight conld not rctuonsbJy ax[}cct 
to anticipate ur [jn.^vRnt" 

Tlw otvrupier ist niA liable in the abatfDce of eegligisnce, but 
in Bome caaee, aa^ for example, the falling of an object froai A 
bnildjng npon the highnmy, tho acoi(iont itself, io th<; al)tenoe 
of explanation, is evidence of negligence. The maxim rvt ip»» 
UfuUur is applied, and the dcFcndant con only dUcharge him- 
self by showing ftSnoati^-oly "that tlio lu^cidont was duo to 
some caudc consietont with duo ropair and careful roanagamgnt 
of the stmctnio.*' 

But in the appLicntion of thin maxim it mnftt bo rcmomborcd 
tlttt " whonerer a liffUt of action spnnf^ from the conduct of 
a doCendant tho plaintiJT mml piVE^nt proof of the f&ots neoes- 
nrjrtothe roooT«ry which ho seeks/* and that '*itiA thoguond 
role of law that the mere occurrence of the accident raiaes no 
pTQfumption of Dtglfgenoe^'* There ninvt bo soroothiog ta tbo 
oocnrrence from which the negligenL!e of tha defendant may 
nasoBftbly be inferred, — ^'^omQUiingin the facts wbich speaks 
oftho Qctgligrni^or thiMlpfi-uilHTiL'*' II. iiittfiMMMiliFiorvrd also 
that there is a diatincttoa to be taken between inhe liability of 
the occnpier of premises adjoining a highway and that of a 
ponon who mainbiins a structure which tho public are invitod 



U«l Mm. SSCt J8 N, fi Btp. WL 

*f^Qmrr^aaB.J- hi Bftfarr. Lorn- 

W< Ajr** « Co., 13 ». J. Loir, -Jai 

SIAU,& 197. With r^gud i» tU 

iin^ »n4 applloiukin of ihn 

4plaloD of DvpUD. J^ la BxocUlar 

EiKuic Co. T, sweti sr ^'. j. uw. 

SH 90 Aa B. aU; Smith oa »«& 



MO; Bat. Eight to De^Ui and Ibply 
(Anx odl Td: BigflJov't LMdle^ 
Cu«< 57*^ ootoa t^Byno ▼. Eloadlti; 
1 Quihkff Cmm^SOOl otAmto Dttvn r^ 
ecmdAm; W««L Unkfi T«l«^ Gx H 
nLv.&taft*oriQt7UBd,«a HiLMdL 
S3 ALU B. TCa. I AUb. a Ola M 



S60 



SLXCTUO WIKRS IN CTlUECTfi AXD BlOfiVAYfl. [g S33. 



to v£o for pay, us, tor example, a gnnd-eUnd, a railway station 
or a pnblio coaveyance. In tho latter cl»8i of caaoi tbere b 
anoVIt^ationinthoDaturoof iLD implied contraclibat llw boilii- 
ing shall bo TciLftOD£tb]y fit for the piir]H»9 to which It Is de- 
voted, *'flO far as reasonuble enre und «l:in c-Jin innko iL mc^" 
nnd thifl obltj^tion U notdi«c1iHrgi^l lijr showing that a oomp^ 
lent contrtcrUir h»H Ikml^q eiiiployeKl ; it must be fihotnt tbat doo 
cara was actually Uken in tht) construction »ml mainbcn&BOft 
of the buildingJ The casea on tho liahilit^y of an occupier of 
premi«e-» oa li |iiiblic street do not go so far aa to hold bua Itfr 
blein tlio £Lb3o<Qcet>f any fault on hi« part; and it is onlyvhca 
tbcro j« a known dnnger or defect, or at teoat a danger or d^ 
feci wbich dui^ Inspection would have rcvc^ilod^ that he is hM 
Kablo for the ncsligcnco of n competent coatmctor employed 
to TcmoYo the danger or make the repairs.* 

%2^. Applif^ation of the principloH to COnStriatlnMt 
maintcnaTive of poles and wires.— Tht^m priociploa may inD 
l>d applied to tho3d wbo sot up and maintain ttrti^turca coo- 
tisting of poles and lines of wire alon;- the public fitrw^a. En- 
tirely apart from the faet tbat the wire* may bo churj^od witi 
adangeroLiii current, the fact that euoh a itnEctnre is itct up in & 
public street, even though duly authorized, inrolres the ohlig>- 
tion Ui Likv rnriT Lliat it nhnM ImronTiLrLiclf^d of giXHl ritt;toria1«,iiL 
a subalantlal manner, so lui to wtthntanc} all straina tliat may nsh 
sonably be iLTitici|>ated, and that it BhuU be m^ntaiued in good 
repair 

If a nire or a croAi-arm or a glass insolator sbonld fall a&d 
causo injury, it would bo for the company coatrollin^ the lioo 
to v\io\r that thr) fjJl w;i^due to some oau:w consistent vriih Ok> 
oxerciie of due care; and if a polo ahoold be throvra doim by 
Iho mero vrcigtit of the wires or by any force roa»onably to b* 
expccU^d, it would bo noceasar; for tho company to oTorcono 
the prcfiumptloD of negligonoe which ia impUod in tlio oociu- 
reaoo itsolf.* 

iFr&wiiM T. Cockndl, I. & Q Bl 
bOI-M3: Ftckard v. J^ilh, tO C a 
(H. a) iTQi JobDV. IkKOAt X* & S 
C r. 437; iVlock oa Ti»tN «]& 

■TkLTTjuu AJibioik. 1 <^. a a ZH', 
lV«lfiuvT, LoQdoa ft BriffhtoD Rj. 
a», I. & i<^ n OHi Cooloj oo Tort^ 



(W«Bt«rD Unloa T*:*^. Co. T. UfilT 
Iftl 05% 1 A&L £L Daft I3», wWo 
l«1«i^ni|ilt ptAm Uid fjbllttL it 
mifnwl lhiUiM>iE« pTlrli^aoe UoktllMi 
pOl«f ««Kf .-Qtt«Q xofut b» 
anJ itvu lield that ffridooo*' 



%nL] 



ocxamvcnos Am> majmx»ano& 



an 



§ 2S4. The nme'C^ieSp — Tlio [>nii€lp1ea goTvrntng tUo 
subject aro ilUcuss^I la & ca^d in New Jeraey ^ rolfiting to tba 
f^ of aoetoctnc-Uglit l»itiplEiwrully HtjK{M*nr!iu3 over thn «trc«t. 
There ivas eTidcace tLat Ui« rojjt? hy wliicb tbe l:u«[> wh* «uj»* 
pendod luul U»oit frnjrcd bj frictioa, and soma oviJcnco tending 
to flhovr that the pulky ami the fiii^gKrasion wires ivcro an^tiit- 
ftblo. Oa tho quGStioD whcth(^^ thcro was suSciteat GTldencd 
to go to Uio jury th6 coprt *ttul: "The gcaaral rulo ia that tho 
oocurreQce of an aooident doo8 not tai»t^ tho presumption of 
n«gligoaco, b«t whoro tlio tostimoay wkioh [>ror{» the oooar- 
teooe by viiloh tlie pUintiET vriL« jajurod diiolosos circumsUnoas 
from vrhioh the defendaQt'ii Dcji^U^iioo is a rcaAonublo infers 
eDoe, a etm is preaentod which oalls for a defense. {BdAr v, 
Zombard, Ayr«* A Co.? Bt^rna u, B'Mutk? /i^t^rn^y v, London^ 
Bri^h/on <fe Sw/A C5>a*( Hy. &.< and J/tt/iw ». St. JbAw/j In 
ttich of OifSAt cMiM il wjw h<?M that from the happi^nioij of siioh 
an accident, in Uie abii^iu'f^ of t»3C[iUrmtury vin^ttm^uifici^uq, i^flg^ 
llgonoo vrUI bo pre&uiTied, and the burden is upoa ihe dofend- 
eot of showing ordinary cjiro," Rofiirrm* to tli« charge to the* 
jary thd court afud: " Thu lenrutrd jndgti dhX not charga that 
the defendant was an losuror of tho safety of persons using the 
highway a^iin^t tnjtirics from the falUng of its lumps. His in* 
atroction was that the defcniiant*a duty wa5 to prorido n. strong, 
0oan<l AQ^l suHicicnt ropo to hold tho lamp securely, and to pro- 
mte good and flufflc-icnt rope, wirot^ and pullu^'dt to havo Uio 
lamp properly nftUod U> tho rN>po, the ropo run through tho 
policy* anti properly socurod to tlio clamp on thio y^o^U Thia^ 
we think, was an accurate elatomont of tho defendant's doty 
in ragp^ct of iU oociap^tion of tho public highway for its owq 
parpo^ea.^ The exoeptions w&ro o?orrul<Mi. Th^ jtidgmoat, 
however, was afterwards reversed because the trial judge sat^ 
Edited to tha jury a <|uestion not raieoit in the plcadiags or ari- 
dtDoc,— tho queftMoD of duo oare in m^ntoining a proper eleat 
Qpou the pole. The n?«l ooDlroversy waa over the quostioii of 
Iba wcaknoa of tlio ropo.* 

iwajwer«d«cnjocliirMi»dBiMli1e *f H. AC72a 

wUhnsl pMor Ibnl Uwy Imd Iimb < L R 5Q. R 4l1,fl Id-TOU 

fui lip U Uia MUX* llnu. • S? S. Y. 597. 

■EiofdtkrEiicUloUhr. 3wm4.it • Exc^Wor EUctrio Ox v. 9wm4. 51 

31 J. Law, S»4 » AU R, rvvi tltm^ N. J. Iavt, 4^1. Z\ Ml R 7?t iMOL 

■a N. J. Law, 'S&t.SSXtLK. lOT. \\\ih naff^t^ l*> tlw U«btUl/ ot Iba 



899 



SLECntIC WIKGS IN STltBXTft Amt HlQIIWATft, 



ism 



gS35. Thi-samf— Cnsestuntinntfd.— In&caseinUuacbu- 
getts^ itftf>[>CAr«d thntUioplaintitT, while drivini^in the stnel, 
waa hurt by the fall of a piece of iroa, part of ao iron car used to 
cl&itp It trolley wire and kocp it in place. The cjir broko under 
the strain, bat there ivtijE m> oLh&r evuli^aoe that Ihe mil va^ com* 
pany wad in fanJt; on the other hand tbcro was eridcnco t^ 
tho ap^iaTotus was put up by a manufocturor of hi^ rcpati- 
tioQ, and that the dc^vicc vas tho best known for tho porpofSt 
%nd that compotont men mndo inspoctictt of fhe wbolo lino 
every wook. Tho court held that it waa pro|xrr to chai^ tbe 
jury that the happening of tbe accident made It incnmbeitfi 
upon tb« dcfcnd/mt to show th^t it had takon dna caro U 
mak^ its apparatus aafe^ and aI»o that tbe Jary might tak« iabr> 
cv>n»;idvraiicin. a^ one of the most important thin^ tbe ap- 
parent danger — what wculd \k Itktly to hftp|xrn if Uiure Wtt 
ft failure to use due care. '^ Thetit! iostr notions," tbe coorl said, 
"were in acc^nhtncc with the rutu often stated by tho court>8a 
in Sutchin^m v. Si^fiUfa 0\vf L^fM Co-^ * Ibat tho Ti^ilaiu:^ anJ 
attention rtquirdd niuat conform to tbe nature of the etnficgeacy 
and tho danger to which othctiB may be oxpcsod, and ia aJwaja 
to be jodg^dd according to the sabjoct-matterr the di^ngcr and 
foroo of material Tiudcr tho defendaDt'a obat;^.* *^ ' 

I& a oaMi in New York' a gl^iss ioaulator, rc6ttng looaoly on 
a peg on a croas-orm of a high polo, waa thrown off aooidcntAlly 
by Uio act of a lineman discntan^'lioj; tho tiri>-alArm wiroa be- 
longing to tbe city. He vrm not tho Sk?rvanl of the dufendaat, 
but tbe defendant^ a telephone company, inaintained the pole 
and had charge of it, ulttiough jUioUior company had % lioeasa 

(Kic^iiplnn ot Annigtnmt^ pramlMtf; tho 
opontuB ct Etoua^iodUr^ AtQ. um 
AUlonc T. Hfbthftwa^, ffl HI. Y, fi: 
GdOTKron v. iLitl. SS Ulcb. 274; Wa» 
bin T. PMtlU Wl F«. y. »E. K«^ Blfi, 5 L. 
IL A. TV A : l>hUlip« V. UbHkiy Cb, G5 N. 
J. Lftw, 80T, » Alt R 47S; ITorrlMown 
T. la^iy^r. or Pa. St. 955: Cbllit V. 8e1- 
dM, Q L. IL C P. 4»J LbU or a «l>ati' 
dolicr la a public ho^uo); Host r. 
Hort, £0 JIL Ml; Coirixaa t. CToicci 
B\is^t TUiBrtiti^ Co, US Vatt. ^TTl 
Barton v. tM^io, IS L^ Alia. 4iSt 
Hwhidi T, -yr«i«»L 88 If, J. L»«. 
«J8; Loa«ev. 6a.i»iain&,U N. T.^t« 



(UiA U&t cvA Ttloclr^ lo atA^tn-bofk 
1 UfiKte r WtNvt Cad 3». BIT- Cto. IN 

Umi. SSI. 4 Aitk CL cu.ae» (leMj. 
JisjuaM9:v,Ksi 

> SfvalM Uolly T. BosfcoD Ga^ Uate 
Ce..8Unj. ISL Tfao idnctpal cut 
h oll«4 tn W. n, 1^1 QvT, State ol 
Uar7liis4. ^ Ud SBQ. e Ara EL Oh. 
Sia and Unaaiax v. W«at l^oU 8L 
Dy. Cu, lea Uml Ua 6 Adl CLOii. 

«<}ttm Y. Enptra dcain Tilepk A 
Trl*«. Ca, 03 Uuu,BOieAliblfiLC^ 



^^Ba 



SM«-] 



coiminrcnov avd HAimsKAJvcnt 



S63 



to use tho crofls-arm from which the )iisQlator Ml Tl>c pUlst- 
iff, wadVIng in tho stn^eL Iv^low, wjik injured bj the Ml. A 
}arj fa&TiDg found % rertjict for the plaintiff, the court reTnwd 
to dihUrrb it, iuilI giiM: *'Thcr tlt^rnmlanl-, owning^ mjiintAJntng 
^and controlling the po1«, via» rvHponftibl» for any negligenl 
Moditioa oi ite aifpartcoanoes vhi^h it pcnuittcd to exist hj 
ito p«8sIt« ftcquicecence, irh«tbcr »ucb acquietccnoe followed 
Actc&I knowledge or resulted from failore to acquire knowl' 
^edgc^ It was objectod t^at the circuauUDces wero oxtraDcly 
exoeptiotial, bot tbe court ^id tbo defendant, maintaining smOi 
a polo ID a public placc^ was bound to gaard afrainst tho dan- 
ger, onloa ita occmrcoc^ would, in tbo minds of rcoaonablo 

r so, be in tbc highest degree unlikely.^ 
In a case in Louisiafia, already referred to«* the pUintiff iraa 
mjtiMd by tbo tM of an 4«I(-ctric-light polo wbicb waa dragged 
down by the wire being caught by a pasaing dray. It appeared 
that tlio pole was not of the dUm^t^r r^tiir^d by the cootnct 
wUh the city, and that It waa not msultx of h«?art limlier, an it 
abonld have been, and because of tlw sap it was barlly decayed 
near U>e grrKind, nnd wh(?rn tho j^m wmi cjutglit ti^«7 pole waa 
pntlod down and fell upon Une jiUiatif!, The cvurtitaidtlie polo 
ivaa defective originally, aad that ordiaary care moat be exer- 
otaad againNi the vreakeniag and decay of timber from age or 
tho action of tiie clementa. The company waa beld liable.* 
. t S36, Poles aad wirca thrown doirn by an eilcmal force* 

& however, tbc proximate came of the injury ;a an ex* 
foroo for which the company ia not reaponaible^ the 
qoeatioa of liability will depend on whetlier the Coroe waa one 
thai might roasonably have been antietpated; whether there 
na negUgence in not having tho loatenala ftfoag eaoo^ or 
mmd eooagb to reidat it; aad wbecber tha IbJvtj waa the naC- 
and and prohafala oomwqaaace of the aegligeooa. 

The oUigatioti of tboae wbo ntalntala the polei aad wbaa in 
Ihaatnela with bwfcil anthority bonly that doe care ihaU be 
tiheo to gn&rd agaisai aucb daagerv aa laay reaaoiiaUy he e& 
|Kted; they are not ia ir ec a of the afaeolato wfrty of tha 



iQt^ Oilmen I % X 

loitOiL,ia>!i.Ta»;a»lf«r<v«. ffladpta evt ^ted la 

aa,aaaWI<; IC Tort, tat X.Y. tag te Flertrie ahed^ a^V^ l W 

Ok 0tm^ 

Ha^«a(iaaaii-aB.ii Ckaaia 



fttEtTTRic wEoiB in arsxEn and nioHWArs. [} 934L 



stmotare and are not liablo for itd bre&Jang down imder soim 
oxtnLonliDnry' OKternnl foriM^. 

In ^f<W V. Atlnntiu an/i Pacifie TA<ffMpk C(Kf ftpde sttnd* 
ing ffir eDmigh from tha traveled portion of the highvray to b» 
ffifp itnilf.ir onMnnry ciTv-unifilnnm^ witu Ktrntrk by a wagon rlnvni 
hy runrtwnj' Imnc"* aind f«ll down solhaLtlirt wins* Tvnn»llirowii 
across the road in &uch a niaiiTii^r that Uicy oiught Lbe plai&l- 
iir^ curri'i^ and ujwH [t^ iiml the pluintilT was injured. TIm 
coart h^lil Lliat tti« plaintilT eoiiUI not rr>t'Over if ihft collision 
ircrc the proximate causo of tho brcz^ing and fall of tlw pole, 
find thnt the judge ought to bivro ohai^gcd the jury that, if tho 
polo would not have fallen without the eolliaioot the plaintiff 
could not recover, and that tho jniyooght not to haro bcci 
loft with tho impn^ion tba^ although tho collision was tbo 
canBo of the broaldng of the pole, they " coald And a verdtct for 
the pkintilT on nccoant of tnoir fipocnlAtions as to tho ori^nal 
defldency in the str^ngtli of tho toU!gra|>h polo to rotfist mok 
a collision." 

In a cjwn in the K"ew York i^tirt of npjM^aln, vhcre tho 
and wires were brokoa down by a storm of eicU^ordln 
writy, the court sai'l : *' The ilefendnnt is not absolutely boosd 
to mak«) its posts in Uie sLrei^t so stTion^ jtntl su-cuni thut 
cannot bo blown dovcn Dr broken by any sLorm. It doeft 
insure the safety of travdcrs in tho slroct* from injuries by iU 
poate lawfully placed there. It isl^^itnd tonm reA»ODablo cftre 
in tbc construction and maintcnanoo of its lino, so thai no trar- 
elor ehaJ bo injured by it, and tho amooni of caro mnstbt 
proportioned to the amount of danger and tho liabUity to too- 
dent The poks mmt be strong enough to withstand snch tio- 
toDt storms oa may bo reasonably oxpocCod, bnt they arc not 
required to be so strong that no storm can break tlkcm, or to 
withstand stieh su>rms as rcjisonablo foro&ight and prodea 
could not anticipate,'*) 

la WtA^ah^ St^ Zoutgf &u, i?V' ^ ^' J^^M' A bralioQUkD ove 



iiiiuui U^ht A PcrvnrCSni. 4S f A AniL 

QuL nu. 

> WatJ t. Aa ft P«(-, Ttatic- Cck, Tl 
K V, At. £T Am. RfrfL |(^ I An. la 
DM. ZU (1S77^ Bm Quiaa r. Empire 



State lVt?pk & Tp]^. Gtx, 03 
O.'S; niibbell T. NcvL- Ynrk, lf>l K 
494; a«T4lftodT. N, J. St^Awbo&ti 
tS» N< T. ew, refvrt^ to iti 
ai|3ni;U]kLhBlt«.Cluirl'«k>AU 



ooHffratcnoK Atfi> MAnms^AifCE. 



W5 



^^^^BBgh WAS fltan<!ing erect upon a. moYlt^g ^ight car, 
some iachcs higher th^n (ho avcmge. In pacing under tel«- 
gnpb wira stretched aotom the tmck nl a stattoiii his bood 
came la oonUcb irith a wire whicli, fmm aq unexplained cftose^ 
hiul booomo slackened. The wire bcini* so caught aad pulkd 
broko tho iiisiitfttor,And tbe wire fell oml coiled around ii toaa 
on ft ftat-car twent/STO feet away, and, citchiii]^ ii|>on a brnho 
banrlle of amonnE^tmin^dra:;;^ tha man from thacnr and W 
was tdlt^ Th« court rofcrred to tbo eajK« in which pcrsoiu 
passing alozif^ th« highway war^ sinok byohjects falling from 
building nnd said: ** Th^fs? axsa^ go upon the theory thai Uio 
injiiriOQs thing was inberantly and Enlrln«icnlly dangerous^ hixrU 
fol and Inaecure, and that it was hence aecessary for t^ d> 
fttniUnt to hSuw tlmt he was eKiMvrisin^ reosonabk^ onro at tho 
time of the aoaulHnL MbtrthH^f which «>uld by no m:iu>Tuihl& 
poBsibitity have be«n foreseen, and which no reasoonblo perwm 
wouUl hsTe anticipated, cannot ho taken intoaoconntaSAbasIi 
opoa which to prodic^ibo a wroag/* 

IS97. Dan^orots etirrent^ In tb< wires. — TIm chief soorctt 
of doagcr from electric wii^ra in tbe streets is tho i^ectrio €«r- 
rcflk 80 long as tbe wires were nsod only for the purposes of 
tbo (slogTvph ojhI tbe tetepbono the cQircnt woa haratcM, bub 
when wires were stmng for the purpose of ibo electric rait' 
way oihd electric b»hc and power, they wcra charged with & 
eart«nt that was highly dangoroos, and tbe eoossqaanoes of 
tbe broaking and failing of tbe wires beoanio wry eeriotis. 
Hisve was daiigsr not mer&Iy of tbe eontact of these wires 
tbenuelTes with persons in tbe streets, bat also of their coatsct 
with the wine of the tetagtaph and tbo tdepboss, wUcb la 
torn, if thvy shoalil fnll, or oven ff tbey sboitld ravsis nn- 
bokffo, mi^t carry tbe corrt^i mad gire & vrnrs sliock to 
asy one wbo might Ujoch them. For these rossooi 
pwrsiiiions are required to kaep tbo beavily cbarg sd 
Muhd cuodkioa aad eb tl^ir proper pUoSr anJ to prevekt tbe 
other wines fhim ooning in oootjct with iboa. Electno UfU 
•■d pover woes are safe if properly ■■nl*'*' sad aa b w hsa, 
bat tbs etectne imilwiy wires msM be kept hare if tbey v^ lo 
Mrre tbrir porpose, aad A teUfrspb wise tbat Uk spoa tbas 
U ebsinad with tbo dssgr row carrel. lUsslslssf facts bM 
tosoaelatenallaffqMSlMMW m to tbe babOUy of 



who m&tntaia Uto Tarions Idodi of wire for injuries 

LUsod by ^Idotne shook. 

§ 33H. Ll&btltlx of llio^e who malitaln iht wlret.^1f the 
injury is dun directly to the negligence of tlte petsoni in con- 
trol of the wires carrymj^ ttio ditiigi?rDti« corrvnt, Uiero is no 
IQiestiooi as to tlirir Imhility U» tbt? |)er>uD lujurei). If it [« doo 

tiie ne^Iif^n^^t of ihoaa la control of ttio harmless vrirea,aDd 
if by rejLson of this pnwTTnci> of tho ilnngorouK wires Uio Uoogv 

obirioiiv. And tho Uijury ia the oatoral and probable conoo- 
'^enco of tho ncgligoncct tbcro is no qucittion of tho liability. 
]jat there arc coACft in n^ht^h the danger is not obviouo, and ii 
which it would not have happened bat for tho QegUfOnoe of 
the owners of the chcirgod wires in allowing ihc iDADLatioa to 
beoomo dofootiTe; and a^ain, there may be ca£oe in wbieh thoev 
in eontrol of the bi^-hly charged wires aro rvspozuiblo for not 
taking prc>oautions lo guard their wires againit ftoeidcntal or 
even negligent falling of the other wirve through wh-eh the 
shock ie giviTH, 

§ 2St9, Nature and oxt«iit of the liability. — In all then 
coses those who muintnin tho vi\n% in iho stnwte under tbCfS 
OondiUons itre cbar^eabtti with a bigh degrtie of rRBjxrnsibility 
for inaintainiDg in the public streote some(hiog» whuther it 
be the wire or the electric current, which, if not properly kopt 
in pl^oe, is likely to c&nse injury to tiioee who aro paaii^ 
This respoostbility is simihir to thot of which we faAvo npolnn 
in the former part of thia chapter— tho responsibility of those 
who QUinlAin any stmcturo alongside of or over a public atnet 

But the electric current oreou*e a new element of danger 
and fumiflhc* a new ground of liability, Tho ditforoncc may 
be merdiy one of degree and th« ultimate eonroe of liabili^ I 
may bo no;^iig*>Ti<M:; but the fact that tho dang^ la greater, 
and ^e consequences of slight neglect more aoHous, impoeca 
an obligation to observe a higher dt^grvo of caro, and otco 
to antieipato ncctdent^ or the possible negligence of oChcfS* 
it may perhaps he reasonable to go further tlian thia, and bo 
declare, as some conrta bjivo doRie, that those who for their own 
imrpcvsi) even though un<lor authority of law, have brought 
ioch a dangerous force into operation near the icttrfare of s 
public stivet, are bound fit their peril to keep it wlMire ic can 
do no hand, and aro liable if by any aeeidcnt it gets boyoitd 



■3 



Ooonrsccnoir axd maiectssamil 



S97 



Ibeir control and dom iojary. Tbi:^ LoireTffr, is a ngorou 
roqtiircmc&t, aot to bo enforced oaless public neoesntj kods 
to deiiuad iL Itcnatcs liamlitj witbout failt, uid goes W 
the nUe eatablbhcU in England bj ihe rftU-koonu caae 
/"MdUr v« Jiy^^utde,^ whicb lUelf fornu an cxcoption to 
ho prmfiiple that n fuult of sociko kind is the bub of UabO* 
ly ia tort; for is that case tbe daiigeroiu sabetaace was 
lootod by tbe defendant, not onlj for hia owd parpoeoSf 
talao without antfaoritj of Lair and for no public purpose, 
whereas tbe eleobio current u naed in tbe ttfeets for a public 
M well as a private porpose and bj authority of law, and the 
doctrine of J^lMchfr v. J^y^'jnd^ has cot been applied by the 
Fnglrsh ooorta to casee ia whkh water or other dangerocs aol^ 
PlUhoh wtm collected and stored for a public purpose and by 
autiionly of law.' 

§340. Doctrine of Fleti^hn' t. Rjlanih applfod to the 

electric eBrrrnt-— The dt*ctnt>o of FU/^h-t v. R^Uii^ uw* 

declare<t broadly by Lord Cranworth in the Hoiiie of Lords, as 

[oUowa: "If a person brinf^ or acctuniUates on hia own land 

nnythia^ which, if it ^\<aM escape, may caoso daraa^ to Lift 

leifbbor, bo doea so at bb p«riL If it does escape and cause 

ianiage, ho is rapoosiblo, however cnrofnl he nmy have been 

md whalorcr pfeoanttona he may have taken to proroot the 

Ittna^"* But Lord Cainia point^^d oat that the defendant 

iraa maldn^ a noomutnr^ tuo of his land in etonng wut«r 

mpon it in great qtianuUea, and thedoctrpae of the cos^, as wo 

kre SAOD, h&s not been applied in certain casee in which the 

ict of the defendant was aniborized bv Jaw. 

In a recent English cjwp tbe doctrine of .^Trfcilsr v. Jf^cnds 
waa applied to tlie uni of » (hmgiTmas «l«ctHe current by a 
itfeet railway company under la^'ful auiUttriLy for tbr <jfi«Tr^ 
tiooof itacan* Thocnm'aNiUumalBfUT'sUp^^naCo.v.jitiJc^f 
referred to in an earlier chapter.* K^^ewicht J.,diA»rTnting from 
the opinion of Mr. JoflticeBroiTa in a case in tbe United Statca 



il.ati:x^307iL.R3ILI.Sn> 
8«e ^Uock on Toite, oh. XU. 
asSeLveq. 

SItedna R Ol T, Zcmiiulir ot 
U R 1 Xiid. ApiK 
\i DttBD T, BoiodaffaeiaOBiul Co, 



U R 1 Q R 4S tli^L OC Wm Aj. 

of cknuu t. Dnid, 1 Mock r. a (N. a) 

maad^i; IWlockoattart^4D3-Mi 
»LRau.i*S4a 
'[iwjackiaa Sseinimpra, 



$6S 



Bi.c<naia wtais itt st&ssto ^kd nionvrAiu CI^L. 



circuit court,' said: "It flcema to me ttuit if the pniKipl 
^ielo^erv. /iijlands boA been tally adopted in Am^Hctt* the 
cluKion of tlii^ cfLrto ju,-^t eitixl would bave bwftdifffinat^ 
Alter rcfloctin^ much ontbo novelty of Ihocflws, oa the ir^ 
nwnt iLddrcasciL to mo, ond od l\w peculiar character of th^do^ 
trio ourr<!nt nji distinguished froro every other power, I fail lo 
80Q why the doctrine should notboupE>lLo<l to it* I ceinnotice 
my way to hold t!iat a man who hiii eraatcd, or, if that ho ia- 
acourate, haa caU^ into special emlence, an electric carrort 
for hie own purpose*^ nnd wlu> disehjLrg43» it into t}iR oarth he- 
jond hh eonirol, h not reftfjonsible for damagea irbich thst 
curi'ent does to his neighbor, aa I19 would havu boen if lio bzut 
diMthiLr^l fivtrfiiun of wiLt4fr.** 

It i« to be obaerTwl, howi>vor, that this was not a suit for 
damigcfi for injury from f^lectrlc shock happening by rcaioa <iS 
&n unfore.siM'^n accidtmt, hut & question of the Itahility for^^ 
liborately allowing the powerful current to eacapo into Iho 
CfLfth, where it woj suro to disturb the opcmtioD of tho currt&t 
of th« plaintifT. 

§ ^11. Doctrine of Fletcher v. Hj'lands not fultj adopted 
In tho United Ktatcs.— It 16 tr(]f» that the doctrine of /^/(M'# 
V, li^lofi'JA, in ltd broadoBt eenao, ha^ not been ;>eaondIy ao- 
^•ptQd by tho Amoricna eourtSf and liaihility for dnmagos, 
in oiisefi similar to that, haji been phic^l upon the nc^: 
of the prec^autiona which the peculiar cin^uoistancefl fi«e 
T^rquiro, or a hreJioh of tiie duty of extremo dintron iin 
upon the dtffendiint by r^aioa of the danj^r whleh be hinaelf 
ha^ ereatecL' 

Chiiff Justice Bensley, in Marnhatl v, Wfi'icttod^^ tt caso of 
injury to ueighboriug proporty by tho explosion of a ataui 
boiler, doclinod to aeoept tho doctrino of FU(<Aer v^ Iiijlit\d$, 
or to Admit tfi^t a tnao U in lavr nn imun^r thai hi« ittts dooo 
lawfully and with duo care sball not tnjurioaaly affoct other*, 
and insiiUed upon tho common-law rule " tliat in order to 
tain nn notion of tort ibo damage complalnod of must 
Irom n wron"ful act" 



V. Umitod Bloctna &r- Co^ «a Fod. 



S AinaiA&iaJtbV»;oL Cxt^m 00 Tc 
K JL Law, aett S Auw a SmUh^l 





COSSTUlCIKiZI AXU SAl»TK:fA^nE. 



Th« courtat have applEcMl to the nso of tho electric CDrrent the 
doctnse of this and other ca«e« relating Co Lhe duties an<l !ia* 
InlilM finsing out of Uto lawful use of tliingorous Articles; ncd 
tbft nil<! I&id dovrn in itut l)iH.i IIkjui who l>nii^ L1l« eUv^iiJ 
current on wires along the str^wta are bouDil at all bazanlH to 
keep the current from doing harm, but rather that tbcy aro 
tiod«r obligation to excr€i»» the high degree of oare which tho 
danger of tiie situatioa requires, and that this iavolrcs the 
doty (o anticipate ait<l to tcko precautions agniiut any occur* 
renoei that may roodonahly be looked for; and if any acoident 
bappena by rcjt^Q of tho escapo of the dan^roua current, it is 
for thoM who ccnlrol the wirt^ to ebow ibnt it happcntxl from 
0Oma cause beyond t^oir ecmtro], and not by reaaoa of any 
waat of car? in the construction or maintenance of their appli- 
anocc 

i SIS. Dntf measiired hj tbe Jan^^r.— There are cases m 
wbtefa it i« held that persons dealing with article's eo d:ingrn)ui« 
■s to conatltnto a publle nulitance are reA|>oaiEh1e for any dam* 
age th«^y nuty do, t^ven in the absi^-nce of Di>gligii?Tioi? in dealing 
with tliem^ uHy for exanipti-, the f':iHii of the rrAplnKUjn of dyii^ 
mile Ktcjred nt*ar a dwvUiiig-tiiiuse,' or the injury to a hotuae by 
tbo bhuting of racks in the noighborbood/ even though tbo 
work in hand in cither cuse were auUiori^^d by law. 

In frueh cases aa tbeee, where the work is one that^ in the 
ortlinary mode of doing it> is a Dnisanoc, the dcfcrulant ia lia- 
ble for the consequeneeftr even though he la careful in the 
conduct of the work, or thoo^h tbo nogligunco be that of aa 
iodepeodeat contnurtor earcfally chosen.* There nto other 
cflMS in which the danger is not so serious nor so imminent, 
wbere the article b daaj^eroua if not cnrefully dealt with, and 
yel the dealing with k is not In Itself a nuisance. In sncb 
oases the care that is r^iiircd fs commensurate wltJi tlw d:tn- 
gQf, but thvru is no lialitiity ncvjit for want at xiirh c^irp, Tlio 
UaUtity In such caacs b not meMy to persona with whom Ujer« 
ii a coTitntct, )nii al!K> to tho publiri :inif all who may nusoo- 
ably bn i-ijkftrtt^ ti> In! puL la pi^ril by the ui-gloct In one of 



iHc&ndnwt «, CoHdrO, <1 K. J. t- Cobon^ 3 If. Y. )C3j Wood n 
Law. na K(UA»rM, fi Tia 

■lU^Y. GohoobSK. T.WilWn ■€«!! v. NcwvkAK. Y. B,aC4» 

S3 N. J. Uw, 17. 



2T0 



SLECTKIO UlREft VX ffl&SSTS Ain> BIOEWAT8. [i 513. 



tben cases ^ the court said : " In all casea in wliicb any pcreon 
tindBTtalcet an act which, if not ilone with caro anil skill, will 
bn htghljr dtingr?rrim tu tbo |yrr»(tnii or lirea of ond or morft p«^ 
aoDH, knovra or unknotm, the lavr ijw>fseic impottCfl «3 ft put^ 
lie dtity tho obligation to use such caro aod tkilt" 

This priTici|}lu h^t bcea applied to tho liability of tbo&o who 
deal ia or have ooatrol of ioadod tirc-armfii' a&d cX|>lo»ivo or 
highly indumtDnbk materials,' poiionoiudriifEs,* gas'urul atoam 
boitera/ ani aUo to persons eziga^rod ia a public otnployiDoat 
dealing with dangerous mochiiwry or applianoM.^ Th^r^ara 
many oiroumatancM under which the aamo principle is appli- 
cable for determining the UabiLity for injuHiTfi arising out of t^ 
nito of danj^rouA currt-ntst £n electric win» In fttreet^ and high- 
ways. The mQ of ths electric current ia astborite'l by [avr; it 
will do no hjiniv if kept in its pr*»pi'r pljicv, but in r«ry duDi$<rr^ 
ooi if allowed to eat-apt^. Thoete who uae it are ofkargad with 
a public duty to use the gr^tatest c^jb to keep it from doing 
barm, nnd for failure to obsE^rro this cure they ar« responsible 
to iwrsuiw anlng the public streeta who may be injunrd with- 
oat fault of their own. The application of tho ptinciplca to the 
facts may bo best seen by examining the reported cases* 

g 5W, Tows on liability for escape of electric current ia 
public liii;hway>— in I/ay/n^ v. Ii<Uci-gh 0^ Vc.^ tJic dofoad- 
ant niatntatned a lino of pelca and wires in the streets for eleO' 
trie lighting. Two t^y wires supportinj* ona of those 
booame loose, one of thorn came in contact with a badly 
kted feed wire of the electric railway, and the other, 
the first one, hun;^ down to tho ground, A boy who 
this latter wire was killed by eleetrio shock. The court 
that it was Incumbeot on the defendants to show that it 
through no fault of theirs that thi» ^'livo" wiro Iwloo^ng 



t Par BaMl«r, C J., (n V«a WhtUs 
T. American duau-Bt^tlvr Gk, ^ ET. J. 

t Dixoa T, B«ll 5 M. ft a l»i Blf4- 
low, Letuliuff Oaasm. AT^ 

>6MTh« NUTOflrMniM C»n^ )$ 
W4tL SUE Polbok oa Torte 407. 

3»7; aijidinr, Imdiuic CvD^ 30^ 



< MRnfuU T. WAlwood, Be K. J. 
33«, & AmOft * fittltb*B (M. CkSOi 
1Wts,83a 

iF1rt>T«n T. Pffid«9, 11 Q R 
50S: l*M»l*T.C90kr*a.L.&a«] 

MI4 X a wa 1ft a & Repi Mi 



$»«.] 



aWffTBUOTlOK iJn» llAINTKKA3iaL 



an 



! 



Ihom was hanging down upon tfao stroct, and said: "It if doo 
to tho oJtizoQ that electric oompanios that are permittocl U> uaa 
f<^ Xhoir OKU p^rjKwotf tho stnseU of a city or town, shall be 
roqwed to o^ thd utmost dej^re^* of care in the oonatxuction, 
fatqHwtioB and repair of thoir wiros an<l polos, to the end that 
liar^ters along the highvnj may not bo injured by tlioir ap- 
plianeos. The danger is great, aad care aod yatchfninoii 
mast bo oomnwuaorat^ to it." 

In Block «, JitivoauJcee Street Ry. Co^^ sji el^trio miUvay 
conpony was sued for a. shock received from a broken tele* 
phone win- which hail ojmc in conUct with the trolley wire of 
tbddofendant^^ltnp. Tim t^oiirt Kiid: ''Ko iloubt it ixthi^duty 
of the defendant to use sach customary and jLpproYed appll* 
a&ocfl tt arc known and uscdiaLhobtuuDCCS of operating street 
Ailvaya. So far ait reaaonablo knowledge in the pre^L^tit stato 
of tha actonee and the practical uae of olcctrlcity as a motJTo 
power for strwt niJlwiiv^, und rETtifionable forosight» can go, it 
IB bound to guard the public agsinat the perils attendant apon 
this tiMof ckctrioity. Bnt it \s liahloonly for whats known 
aa reasDoatjto care;'' and it ^as held that it could not bo do- 
dared as a matter of law what method of guarding the wires 
ibould bo reqaire<l, nor whether any guard tliotiU bo required; 
bot that It ie a quesiion for the Jury, nnder all the fact» of tho 
case, to determine whether the method actually nsed was ne^ 
IfgonL 

In Pmwer ConaoiidaUd J^Uetrte Gk v, Simpaon^* the two 
cuea laat above nrfbrrcd to wen- cited ns authority for ttie in- 
slnictions given tolhe jury; and where it iip^if'^ired that an iileo- 
trk>tight wire charged witb electricity had become diacon- 
aectcd with ite fDSteoing, and hung over a pablio alloy so as 
to be daogetoaa to persona paaaiii^, the coort said this wai 
prima fad^ OTidcdce of nogligoncc, and that it was not orr«r to 
chargo the jury that in the conduct of »ach a bu^ineMi Uie ut^ 
most oaro waa required* The better practice, the coort said, 
vraa to charge the jury that the defendant is bound to oxocefso 
tbo rooaonablo care and caution which a prudent Dtan would 
ODfirOM under similar circumsuinccs; that the caro inerenses 
witli the danger^ and thai when the biuinen ia attended wUb 

lie wii. sn. Ai N. w, Bd[k iioi, a *ai Cbkh ari. a abl el Cn& na 

a& EL C^ WS ^1900^ (i8KxuFw^Bef*a 



CI $IUI.LV § AVD monvTATfl. 



[Saa 



gnat pen] to the poblic tbe cans mnst be commeosttrato vvlh 
thedaogtr-. 

SHi. Tbe n«f — C«Btfiiied.— In 1F<:«Cfvn IT$%hm TA- 
fMpl Cb. «^ TTi^m,^ the Htuied ^bkt<« circaii court of appetb 
In tbe third circuit approTcda charge toa jury in whiohitm 
ito rtMc d that a teJapaph cottpany is notbooad toiaaon tti 
afetotatapomaaoBCTof itsptutor fts poleeor wircat and Ibil 
tlie aiera brealdoj^ ct a tekigraph wiro was not evideaoe cf 
Mg Hg <DW y bat that tbo oooditkia <rf tbo iriro,and itslocatioa 
with Ksp««t to daiijB:«fo<9 wirfa, waf crideEioo of a<^ligttfloe, 
aad tbe (juoetioo w one for the jary to dotcrmine upon th» 
ftvidcaee. Befarriog to tbo qneuJoa whtth«r tho brtaktRg d 
tbe wire was tbe proxtmate cause of the injury, tbe ooim of 
sppcaUsaid: "Tbe brohaB wire wis tbe pnmsry caose of tbi 
injuries lo tfae plaintlffL If it bod become weakened by lo&g 
osoattd pxposore tosac^adegrwiA topart brita oim w^lit, 
or from A Ktjgfat notion prtvliic^l by the winil, it wns s fjjr 
qaestion for the jary to decide whether the defendant hsJ not 
faitcd in itsdety to the public by allowing iU wire togeti&to 
stu:fa a ccnditioB that it woald rA^ily brr^ik, »nd in bfvakhif 
would be Uktfly to f^l ucro^ Ui»dc<ctr>e-ligtit Vfim aiul brooini 
dangerously charged. It was Dot ukcoinbetit on the ptatntifl 
to prore more under this bead." 

In OirQudi V, Eiectrie Imprtnemeni 6b.,* it woA held Ihstlt 
was proper U> refuse U> charge tho jury that ihc public, wh4 
receive the benefits of conrcnicncc and oomfon from tbe rap 
ply of a dangerous commodity like electricity, nre presnmcd 
to know enough of tbo natare of the clement to avoid tho daa- 
^T3 whichmtut ahseotit of its practical use. Tbe court aii<i: 
** Tbo public — odido from the consoiucrs mng tbe comvioi 
ity — owe no duty to tltosc introdneing it; batoa tho othtf 
fafind, it ta tho duty of thoec making n profit from tbe use of 
BO ilun^crons an clomoDt ne electricity to tise the utmost can 
to prevent injury to any c1:iks of people ootDpoeinff tlio pabllci 
which exists in congiderabl-? numhers. Tboj mutt protect thosi 
bavin;; lf«s than the oidiaary knowledge of the character of 
tbe commodity." 



I Dl Ted. llcp. ^, 1^ U. a Apjk 123, 



1 lOT CbL ISO. 40 Faa&fa 1'^ 
£l.UiaUie(l«e^ 



oocfSTBCcridar ai^d UAisiTK:m*iM. 



«S 



$ 24A. ThenaMie — ronHniEe^.^InacMaiii Arl'anni* tha 
duty of coiDpaoies DiaiQtamin^ electric wires io ttw atr^eU waa 
baSBxl upon the rule which roquirM every oao so to use liia 
proporijr Ml Dol to injure anolUi^, and wuh UknaeO Ut Uw duty 
to preToQt daageroas animala or dangerous saUtaooeB frOBn 
cacaplDg; but tl;c decUion was K-uod on failure to ime carou 
Tfao court B^d; ''Electric companies aro bouad to oae^iva* 
•onable cmre in the construction and maintoQ&nce of tboir lines 
and apptrntw.' . . . Tiiia care varii^i with the daiij^r 
which wUl bo incarrod by uogliKonctd. Id co^os wbero tbe 
wiroa earry a strong and daagerone current of elcctridty, and 
tka rcAilt of nogUji^oe might be expcaure to death or aoriooa 
aecddeiDts, the highest de^*ree ot care 10 required*** 

In the court of appeals of Karytand ' suit wu broug^bt af^bst 
ft itnei railway company and a telephone company jointly for 
an electric shock received by a penoa walking in a str^t. A 
Itflopbone wire bunging down hitd <!omi» in contact with tbo 
feed wire of the electric railway, iind Lad remjiiiied ho for two 
wooka. The court said tbo privilcigc gmnied to the d^renc]- 
«nta lo inCLuidHjr th« jiEiMiit highway witli appliances so likely 
to become dan^rons to the public safety imposed upon them 
iho duty of so managing their affairs ae not to injure persons 
lawfntly a|-'on tbe tUneete, «n(l that if the wires were not ia 
proper condition and by reosoa thereof tiw plaintiH wae in^ 
jared, there yifh»pnma/a<U evidence of negligence on the part 
cf tlio defendant. 

Id a recent caao in tho court of errors of New Jeney,' la 
vhtob « ftroet railway company and a te^ephotie eompaMy 
w«re mti jointly for an aleotrie ehoofc from a broken telepbono 
wire ia contact with a trolley win,t^ the court Kiid: "One fac- 
tor En the moa-tare of rta*onahle care is the prohnble rc«uU of 
negligence. In the use of a powerful electric ourrvnt in the 
pubUc atreetflf reasonable ciire 11 grvat care.** 

Thtwi caM-K will ai*rve as exaTiipW Then* are many othera 
(o ibo aatne elTecU* Thvy are cited in the notca and i^notod in 
tile following st^dona. 



*Ci%y Z\tja At* Rj. Ca t< Coattj^ 
ft Ark, ai, aa *i w. Rap wi. e Axa, 

A 8utiuH«a Ry. D>. aa ud saa 

XU. Kvn 7118,6 An. EL Cte 8ia(l8V0X 



■NewTorfc ft K. Jl T»1erK C«^ t. 
BmiDDtt 43 Atl Arp 7^ {\fmi 

'Sm th« i^ttst cit^l In tiMi E*Tt 
foUowiiv MCtioa*! aad else W«rt«fn 
Daloo Tel<^ Ca V. Bebinacfii UIW, 
EUi^ iia 4 ABk EL Qml Ml; UlUilwU 




2T4 BLKtrriao virbn ur irruKm axi> uiauwATi. [§g d46,Ur 

SS46. Iftjnrj from the olcctHe rurrcnt — ClasfifScttloa 
of eoMK.— Some of tlino arc coac* fa wliicli tbo injury vru 
doDO^ not OD a public hi;-bwiLy, tnat on priv&to property when 
the plaintiff may or mny not Ikum hod it right to be In ot^ 
ers the p!aititj0 baa been a serrAiit of the defenduit uid tbo 
question of thd mks of erai^oyinent has been inTolrcd. la 
othen the priuoupul difficulty bo been to dotormioe vrbicfa ol 
two partiea waa nnponslble for the injury, or whether tbo ut 
waa the coocuiTGrt v-Txing of both. There are c^s^s iDVolvtng 
the ijueslioQ of proxtmutc cilusc and whether tlto injury vm 
one tba: could ren^nably hare been anticipated, and fa maay 
casrait isn^cossary toilecide whrtV<%TJtidui"th0ciroa 
nL'gligeace on tho part of the dofeiidant may be inroired 
proof of llid happening of the accident Examples ofth«B 
oljuwa of cfi«i4 ure giv?n iu the following «i?ictioD8, with tcma 
instnnrr?K nf the hp|)Ucatio[) of the madio rat tjmt f/Mjtitfttr, 

g 317. Tnjuricfl from olf^tric current— LUhUILjr to pentoni 
on prlvnte property* — The liubility for injurios from the elefr 
trie curnrnt to iwrsons on private property is not pnvcisely tbt 
tinme us that fur mjuricd to tboae that are asiri^ tho pnb& 
streeta. In the public strt^ts in«Q have a ri^ht to ex|)eet »£« 
poaeage, and. ttionn that maintLLin electric srin^ ihrri^ Are aoder 
ohligatLOn lo tike car« that no one shall be iujurrnl by mcaoi 
of them; but when the injury occurs on private property, then 
may be a question whether the person injured vcas entitled to 
require that any care should be exercised tovrarda him. II* 
may be n trcspaascr, nnd ono whose presence was not to be an- 
ticipatccj, or, if not n treapaaaor* kj may still be one towinl 
whom tliere IB no apocial obli^tion to take precautiona, Ob 
the other hand, if he be one that haa a ri^lit to bo where b* 



T, Chttrlmtoa TJicht ft Power Civ, 45 
S. a 1 4rt. 22 ft. W, R^p. 7rt7, fl Aiiu EL 
i"4UL ^i^: NewBrk KleoTrlfi Light dt 
Power COi r, Ru4«!y iN- J. tiuji Ct, 
|8ft$).4lALLKcTp.Tt?;Hiiiiat.Cvalnd 
Pa. T*luph. & .Supply Ta iPa. Com. 
PH 1 Lrkck, Lo^ N»?w4, aMi TuutOft 
v» rbwvlLoD Elci^trJo Co., IS^ Pa. &L 
40ft, Sft AtJ. Ri.'p^ I0.^3: P^rTmm t. 

T. Contra Ej. Cu, » UL Ap> £08; 



App. \VA9S\, 47 a 7. K^-p. 1MI Mj 
ordinniy luni rH|iur«i:t of ■hirrir 

WL->4iT.jr i<Upc(ric«i cb. 4aw:T» 

Ml. ^ -S. K. RufL as^ S» U K A-^fc 
(iflunon r. LAol*d« Oaal||;lit 0», ta 

3IU. iM^ 49 a w. ttep, eei»; L*«ii' 

Adni'r T. lyvalFfraie Electric Uct« 

nfrp.9D2: De^tAv-DcmraaL^Cft. 
iJ Aa E«iL MS (Pifc, iSOt), 




gM8.] 



OQKSTftUCTlOS IVJi UAESCtTTfAHCE, 



875 



i% or If be ifl tbere hj the exprMf or ImpHod {nvitidon cf tfao 
dcfeodatit, tliB (IfifendnDt may be untler obligaUon to t«k« cnre 
tbat tfan jirrmittn^ sUnll bn sJifi^^aml that no injnrr shjill be <toQO 
by reason at tli« elftctxie wircn, 

Tbft priTAto property on wbicb the accident b^ppeos may bo 
tbo property of the person mainUiiiifiig the wirc^ or it may 
be the property of another on irhich, by ri^htorby pemiittioiL, 
Ibe wires an> maintainod. In tbo former oaso tbe liability to 
ooe vho comes in contact vritfa tb^ wirc« ia, in one mpoct, tiiat 
of tbo owuor of dangoroua promises, and bo depends upon tbo 
qtu«tion whether the person iajnrcd cajne by o:;|]tv£a or im- 
pliod invitation, or was a Jiocnace or a mere trcftpuwor. In 
the Utter case, aUo, tbe aame prinoiplo may well be applied, 
oxoopC thatt the duty must extend to all who bavo & right of 
any kind to come apon the place to wbicb tbe wires aro a& 
taohed. 

§ 24ft. Tbe Kame — Tbe UablMlj' erthe owner of dan^r* 
onn pronilsfti.— The duty of n land-owner to Uio« who coeno 
thevD by express or impHe^l invitation is ^Mo tnko n»«ODftbto 
oaro to [iruvf^nt dtiiiijij^t from uriLKUjU dangi^r/*' "Ther« ia 
no ab»(d[ite daty to prerejit danger, but only a duty to make 
tli6 place an little dfingerons as such a place wonld nMflonably 
bo, having regard to tho contrivancea neccasarily used in ciLt- 
Tjiag on tbe hasinoaa." There is a poaitive duty to toko caro 
that the pl^kcc sttAll be in such a conditiot.' But to those whoao 
entry is by mere pcmussion for their own eoDvenience, and 
4/brlM?ri tooctnal trosponerst^tbo land^waor is under no ob- 
Ugatioo to keep bis land in a Lon baKardona atate." Tbe mero 
Uoenaee or tbe irespafiser must take it aa be finds it, anbject 
only to Al»tain from positive acu or injnry and from crciating 
concealed d^mgers which are in tbe nature ol a fraud.* Insnch 



■ lAdflrmMU T. Duna^ U ^ 1 C F. 
fascp. «lt 

«IWdL »MalioCcvb3rv. ODLia 

1 EL £ rCS47; Chkpm*a r. I^nZimH. 
KL, &l & CL 1««; Wrtfitil V, Loadon 
« IC Vi'. Br Co.. ] <}: a Dlv> &59] 
Smeny *. 01^1 Culou]r R. R. Cu. 10 
aB«B, aOM; Ifafi* r- <:<mEml Cct^ 



T^llimd Co.. lOS U, S. 3TT; PhilUFa 
T. UbrufT Ca.» K. J,Uacn: D.I. A 
W. K a Ca T. lUioh. et N. J. L. 4S>!i, 
«tS; fijgdow oa Tortiw «eT-T0lf Pol> 
lock oaTortKtlO: 4 9bnniL aad Rett 
oa Nag.: I HMVUfkon No^ SOT^IT* 
■BouumI v. 8mrtb. 7 C a IV. ft) 

ni ; Oautrct t, Ex«Tion. u a a c a 

an* OAtla^hnr t. UiiDTphn?, a l^tr 



276 



SLVCTCJO WIKtt CI WTKMXn AJm HTOSWATft. 



GOSOB the nonliitbilfty ntu vpon Uw figlit of tbo l&Ad-owHr 
to tho cxoliuiTe enjoyment of the eani« without liaUlltjto 
otb«n for in juries occafitoDi^ by it« nnsftfo condiUoD. Itiia 
rulo of pro[>erty ratber than or cofiduct, and U not InooB^stfl&t 
with liability for positire per^ooal aic^s of ne^Iigenc^ or wilfal 
wroog. Th?re is thEtdcstinction bctvrts-n thp riiMt of a lErvrvm 
ami tliiit or A tropasttir, Oiat t!io |n«Mnca of tLe tresputtcr b 
unexpected and tiiat of tlie liomsee ooj^l not to bo, ami tli«?Q 
iini acto that aro iMgligvot or not, according U> Uw danger of 
iftjurr l« follow. 

% S49, The same — Othf^rTTonndfofliabiJitj wllli rnpcct 
to dangerous electric curretit.— 'W^iatcTeTlimiu there may 
bo apoQ t^ duty of a Jand-ovner towaM those who hare do 
right to como upon hia premises, tbcrcaro other groandsoriia- 
btli^ for injnriea eauaed by negllgtnto in doaJii^ irilh 
gorooA currenle of electricity. The liability docs not ezteal 
to alt alike There arc difToronccs in the habtlity with rcopect 
to tbois who come upon the premi»es by legal right or e g prwi 
or implied jnvitaticn and thoae who come by mem penoinSon 
and tho«o who are actual troipassen. But tl:e om ^of eteelrio 
irms with dangerons currenU is something more than malo- 
taining unsjifr buililmg» A dargrruii^ forc« IB used which ia 
deadly if mri kept in ilH place. Tl Isi EnvlttOilt* aiMl mTtli«« nf> 
noive^ It is a concealed dan^'L^ and it lurkit in wires that niav 
appcAr lo be harmless iinil may bo easily overlooliwl. An in- 
jnry done by meana of such a force may be a posHive tort witb^ 
out reference to any relation bcCweoo t^o parties, and there 
may be liability for &egtig«uce in letting the cnrrent escape if 
any one ia injured who ie nsing due care, and ia not is fault 
towards the diUndant, and whose presence may reaaooahly be 
anticipatdil The duty of one who makes use of such a foree 
haa been liUenod to that of cno who kccpe a ferocioua beaid, 



lenifl 

fflMftV 



tenth.»^ QMk oa T«rta see: BKl<^h V. 
8«>lth. 7 n. ft C?. 730-745 : R<*T<)on V. 
Thom|«oa, ]^ Hai& 247; PJuumuC 
V, Dill IM Uam 4m 91 S. K »*Ft 
MB; (Ufasv v. Nick«n>OTi* 130 Uam 

I- «7i PtlXhim r. Literary t^ M »- 
J- U lOT: n, T-. « W. R R Co. T. 
HbIcK ei X J. U VI9<MS; Ftollook 



on TortK 4?7. U b oflen wM CM 
itL« JuLjof tlMkoi^ovoef bodlfto 
aIMbIii fniin "wit witftdlj kijurl* 
c^*:* b«i 4H (teUKgher v, !!«»■ 

tArvonrnr rnr lajKrimlcw to-Aotlw 
avgllgMOO" ia thehandliasolaflib^ 
clUafr 



^ 



M0.] 



OtXrSTKCFTTtOer ijrD lUIXTKIEAXCK. 



W7 



who 18 bocnd at his peril not to let him eacnpe/ or to thit of 
one who ctoros op vater for his owa purpos^:?^ and is bouod to 
keep it in. or U Least to tuke gnmt cam tbut it iJo«4 no tutnn.' 
Tba aoalogjr at leut euggeibi the obLigation to ate gre^t 
OttTo ftofl ro^ioostbility for the oonsequ^noes of tbe faulure. 
There in anoUier cla.^tioriiiiMi's in wliiHi nho llir* Uitbilitjr Hnm% 
out of the d&figer of the act <3o]te or the tliJa^ ilt^alt vrtlU, aud 
depeitfle, not [i[>nn thu rvlutinn of th« pEirtiea or tho place of 
the injury, but u|xjit the prolmbiUty that gTifrrcii» liArm will 
foUow tbo act or no^^lect. Sacli, for Lnatance, are tUe cases 
rttTorrod to ia «o«tioQ 2^2.' 

In all theae casea tbere U ao obli^tton to lue great care, 
beoattse for want of it aome od^ is likely to be serioiulv hnit 
by veona of a bigbly dangcroos object act in m^ion by tho 
defMdantf and tbo better opinion aeems to bo Uiot tbffro ta a 
liability U> any one who (without his own fault) is injured by 
itf OTon tiioQgb thotv bo no ooatnict or othor cpooiol relation 
between the partial, if the injury were reiLSooably to be antiei- 
pBted.« 

The doetrine fa oonAn«d to oa*cs In whfRh the icc Itfto highly 
dangeroos that there Ja aduty towaria ihe public to take speciut 
oaro, tind in wbioh negligence ia liktOy to result in serioua injury 
to ATKne oiic 



■Attnabi CcfbsoL SL Ej. Oft t. 
Dvln^ B7 Gfl. CSa Am, la Ca& 
SHc ilay V, Barvlctt 9 (^ K lOli 

ytonh T. ouiLDic. L, K. « a R L 
|nn) 9 cb. 1XS: riotohDr v. kjIukk 

BatMrSi£3A3{0Hr^fnt 

■Sm aJtoIHknihnc t. B«rnA«. II CL 
B (II.a)m; L9Ainii«M r. Holb<1a^ 
» U X £■- 4Jtf; Lr«a Vh Orangn 
DaL Itiilian lin a 1 Aa «0; Bn^Unx 
M Atbaay R R Co. v, Shiutlr. 107 
Itaa an: fteiiih T. Boetoa Oiulifttic 

4BnlV«dG on Torti;«r-4lt; L/^I^ 
ONtd r. Holilift^ ^ U X Ex. ul 
p^ 4301 Van Winklt* r, Amvikaa 
SUmaa Bailor Ca. 01 tt, /. Imw, UDi 
IIAtL Itofk <n; ilMimci T. I>iifl«r. 
U 4 a Dir, nuj, eOUj Tlvrasio!! f. 



Hanapilde. » Q. R DIt. Afl^ 3ftl 
This VTu A ou* oT D RiAn ■ngaa*' iB 
a work dADsotouii to otbMa and 
botm aad riToin foU oa wraJunaa 
bnlov. In llti* cm« 1 Tnwlil rv^ J,» wld; 
"Tho ruloappttaabk to Ulw ciu*— tdo 
not nay to Mil CMDAf for aaedi <«#• Moal 
du|iv(iJ oa all lis cireait&ilanow-* 
Ik UMt wlwPA A nuin U 4*m^aj9A to 
do cttlAlrL yi-ork. aii'l k.iiOfr« Uud tlif 
work IioIa iloina k 4ao«vouB to ot^ 
«in. aftil tliat aocMama an Ukelj to 
Ii»lif4>n. and fcnowi tliMt oOiot par 
•on» are ImwfnBj aaga^ed io olfact 
wurk, bud mra wiidor oblinrtlou to 
perform aoob verk, Uie ptnaa «•- 
jca^civd in tbe dan^oritu* vork ia aul^ 
ject to Hid dut7 of mmojc itaoonablfl 
avo aod i»kipic ta^Boaaiin* tQ pro- 

tho work la wbiob lao la 



f» 



[KW0,S5t 




frte^la to the «^ or tka 
dKUWtanocs under 
to the OM of tiie €l«otne 
» proper B96 of it « 
Otftftoi itu^n tbat ai4 
«ia(tt«Bdao«ellkBoira toaU. It 
totitodoft cn« to ftToid oonttet 
lii^lilj iitoi4iil ■ilTi nil II nil ilj^iinl 
h ii »ot n> be eipaetcd that men irfll 
TWn ii ao g Mc ril dntj to ntftin- 
of tto dffniiig a nr ot^ordlnafy 
of kHMB fite l eq iii^ ii, and there an 
vUch GSDiiot bo gnutttil 
hf imm^mtkm. The tnflar vIk^ Cor f a rtaft e o , niisl be expend 
toorderto^otovoi^niif thkor ABjother neceanaily tOr 
poB^ coninetar Ii ftiad to tho pmrnt* pny rrty nf its owiMr, 
ooe who nedJk> with h data «d at hk prtil. Wlivnr the vrhm 
are laiJntaiMd npam ftirmtc propefft/ th«r« k a apeeUl diitf 
tDvwi eortata <iamm of fcnoas to tako pnsotntiofu agaiaiL 
injofta^ then— a duly thai araa uoi of the tvlatittn of tto 
pcnoos to the propertjr aod to tho d«f«odaat« and there m 
ontaitt plirici id apofctic aatnra wbgothgdaty UgMfceral ; bet 
IB tbeabaeaoacf thiaflpedaldatjritMOBlr«ichn(^igv!Qor«% 
hr reason of tli« d^n^tr inrolrocl^aiBoants to a breach of pnblio 
da^, ttoi ovtea a liabUttj. 

{SM. The Mate— Vaacs.— 1b a can ia Loninaxia, a tiii- 
■Bith goaog DpoB a foof to aiake rvpotri recoived a sboei 
froo isel^rtric-Ii^t n-ire; there was eridcDoe of dcfcctire iafl' 
lation vrhere the x^in wa^ spiked; and it was held that it wm 
the dntf of the companj, iadepeadcatly of statutory ttg^ 
liODs, to see that their lines were stfo for xhose wLo bv Uuor 
oec&paitloB were broc^ht ia eloce proximi^ to them.* Tiai 
decision wa^ qnoted and followed in a ease in Kcutuckj^a 
vhich a nun painting a bonss receired a sbock from an olQctri^ 
light wire a:uch«d lo the boose, the InsalAtion havim^ bccentf 
itii]xtrfiM:U The court said that at sncb a place as this, wb«e 
people have a rigbt to ^ for work, bosiDsss or pleaaorBf tbt 

Tba Tvk bid dcwa b7 Brett IL R« LlghtCcu44 La. Amwliin &IU^ 
In BaTen V. P^nrler wu ojkptorHL 51, i AfiL EL Cma. SSI (UI«S> 



Sssa.] 



OOKanrcCTIOlf ABU ]CAINTKMA9(CB. 



tfr^ 



tDSolation of the mre ought to be nuide peof ect and tbo ntmott 
caiv used to ke«p it bol' 

la a aac la Gi^rgm ' it was liclil that wh^re ono leavce tho 
sti^eet and clinibs a pole without permiasbn from or notice lo 
tba compHoy to which it bvloags, and is injured l^ reason oi 
the conttixTt of ihia win*« on tliafn jmle witli tlie daogtrrouH 
and improper!/ inaoIiLtHed wire* of anoLheET crompaQy, !i« catinat 
recoiTr dajnag<cs from either; but when the compluint vras 
amended ao a» to allegis tba^ the pljuntJH \r&» not a tn^jxucicr, 
bat waa on tbe pole by purmiasion of the oik-ner, and in the 
Qa«ud coinso of his dutice a« a u^ltiphonc lineman, and that bia 
preaenoe ahonld have been anticipated by the other cotapany, 
it traa hold that the compkint waa aoOicicntH' 

In a bU«r ooao, uitrUr circumatanoea vory similar, tho court 
diatitif^bed between the poaitioa of a mere irenpotti^ and & 
worknum engagod in tho pcrformanoo of his dniy for anothor 
company, and held a r;ulw£by eompiLTiy liable to the lineman 
of m telephone company (or injury from ahoek hy reason of 
oontAct b<!tw(.^^n the tijl^plione tvjrea and tho^ of the rsulway 
company.* Lumpkin, J., said: "Those who employ for this 
jKiipoaea of their husincas a palpably and highly daageroos 
agency^ aueh nji olncaricity. Am iMtund to uxcrciso sitrh preoau- 

^^taiS U* prevent injury tt> othera a±i the emergency vtouIl) rea> 

^^BiaMyBcom to rLXjuire." 

^HjSfiif. The name— Flrf ra^^es In ?llaHAachnaetta.-^Then> 
^Ee Ato caaea in SIftssachtuottB ^Uicb should be read ancces- 
tiTCly. in tbe fir«C a boy ivcnt npon the roof of a coal ahcd 
belODKiag to the defendant, without hb permiaaion, to get ft 
ball wJitch hnd lod^t^d thore, Evidence tiiat tliD place vob 
frequent^ by boym and tLiit they bad boon going on tho root 
to ^t balls for several yean pa«t, was excluded. There waa 
& dyiuuoo in an adjodning hiaildingt and two naked copper 
witea on the roof to eoadoct :ho tstirrent for lighting. The boy 



lUoLnVhlla v. Loiibirflt« Eltfotrio 
LlalitOx.4TS.W.E«fL»:LeAin. EL 

40 nw^: Uw&H' Adiu'i 1. ShMHV 00 
aw. Ebp.Ma iKj.. lAM) 
lAusuatB Bj. Ca t. A&dnwiv 89 



Om. Saa. IS & E R«ik 30^ 4 AoL EL 

«8uie ^ fivivs D£ Ga. TDd, 1« G. E. 
Bi^fLTia 

«Atlu&U ConnL 8l R:r- Oa *. 
OviAs*. K Ga, «*S» aa ft & Befk «7r, 

e Auk EL CAft tn naMk 

^SaUbwi V. Soeicti A albujr & 



s» 



■LSOTUC WI£B| la nitlKn AXD HtOaWATS. [| &S. 



wu killed 1>y a chock Trooi tbe wiree, Tbfi court Mid: "If 
the plaintilTs ink-elAte was not a tr^pofinr, which vro do B«t 
dooido^ ho vTfls ftt most ft iu«i9 Uocotw, uid bo fir u hv «u 
Donoomod Uu> dcfcndimt had & ri^ht to arrange and oso ito 
property iq &jiy lawful izmnrtm*, aad ovrod him no duty with 
r«4]wct Ui it^ <fxc(^pt to Terrain from tcuiag a iraf) Cor hln tod 
from doing liini iDtenilonal or waatoa bann (citUig oaae^ 
The Uto wir« vitb wtiicb tlio decoiMd oaiD« ia oontact wwa 
Uwful upiiiirutiift txm\ itt thai ordioar^' biuiacta of ilio delvad* 
anti and waa noL dew'gned as a ^rap," 

Ib tbo Eocmid cum a stcinOnrd for tho support of elocim 
wirw wa« uaed in <>DmaiOQ h^ two c(>r|K>n4lUtti?k. UaUkxI up^m 
the roof of a baildiiig by permis^oa t>f the owner, A linerofta 
in Iho c-mploj of ono of tb« oorporatioaf; vhWt engaged in 
making repairs, came ia cootacl witb an el^ctdc-bj^t wim cd 
tbo other, dc recti vol y iainlatcd.' The court »aid that two par 
sons having, ia a ^ix9<d-, a commoo iatfinatin tb« cae of tkA 
structures, to which wirea aro attochod, should bo under Xbb 
fiomo obligation to ono another, as poreoag bavini^ coiDBiOt 
hght£ to a place or pasaa^ n-ay, ^ not nogiigenily to pfakoo a 
dangarocLs subEtanc€ in th« cotnmoti t«rhtory where it may 
reasonably be aniicipat«d that cth^r^ buying common rif^btt 
may bo injtireii by il" - . . "IVe aJTo of opioioa that ite 
duty of the own<^r of tlio structures is to axcrcjso rcaaooablfl 
care in Reemg that hu niras ar« ^^^pt, ko far as pracUcnhlD^ b 
a safe condition at uii^b places as the servantfi of the oUi^r ore 
exjircsstyur itnpliivUy Jioi*<iscd togoin pcrfoinnin^tbcir duties 
with relerenc« to tlie win^b attaelteil to such stinjccunw.'* 

In another case docidcd on the same day tho accident hap- 
pened in a place where it was not i&lendiML Ibat the iiDcneii 
should go.^ llie structui'O for the common ns^ of two oonpa- 
niCJi wnis on the roof of one building and tLvre was access to ii 
tJi rough that building;. A lineman, iu^ftteadofuaQStbaiiiooiM 
ottcnipted tocr^es tbo roof of another builJtoga&d was injurul 
by contact with an eloctricli^hl wire bolooginc; to the deftfid- 
ant. The oonrt bald that the defendant owed no duty to lite 
plaintiff to hac^ lis vim properly insnlatod at tbo place wboro 
he received bU Injuries, nor to hare its wires su{)portM] lo Isr 



ISMLJ 



COaVTK^Onoef and UA£VTK5AyCE. 



sn 



aborv Uitt roof th&t the pUintiff would not come in contact 
witU thcBi. This GASo wmt tri«d a srcoiid tinift, aulI tJi«ro vns 
^ridence tending U>»h<tvr & joint use to n graiter or lc« eiLt^nt 
bj tii« tvro oompuiicft of the Aamc fltmctans throngiioat tho 
dty, buc tlw court foan4 tb3ttbcr« yni9 no proof of invitation 
or Uoend» and Mid: ^'li \b not onouf^ to ahoic tbat tho do- 
fcndnnt bod nnsonablo caaso to expect thjtttfatt plaintilT, in 
Iho disolinr^ ol UU duty, woald go, rit;htly or wronf:ly, upon 
roofii covered with ixb wiro8. Tho pbintitT wu bound to go 
forihor nnd show that tli« dofoodftnt h.vl invitod or liocntod 
him to CO whore he wag in]nrad." ^ 

On tho other hand, in a caea in which the plaintiff, & tin- 
imlth, wts cngfigcd in putting upuiiroOTifpooQ Uwoiuui<loof 
th« honse, and it came in conta^^t with zt\ eleoCHc4ight wiro 
dafootJToly inajilabod^* the court diBtiitgntflhorl HnioT v. Batfat^ 
iOMr^ Ia^Ai CGp., and >aid: "Tho pliuiitiiT wiu not a IrMi- 
paanr or mora licetwee who most take tiie pfemifles of another 
na bo fimis thmxL Bo was rightruify apon tbo premises for 
parpo4<a of lju5in«9:^. On L!if.-«) premines the d^fenthiDL bad 
tightly placed^ as tha caao findi, two elc^ctrio wires. Thcao 
wcTO n sociro« of danger untcas properly inAulatcd, This fact 
vaa roco^itci by tbi? dcfvmlant hy in.-ialating thom- But it 
vaa ne^li^nt if it failed to u^e dm diligence in aocing that ita 
wirei wcro kept in a stcito of repair. This duty it owed at 
leitft to oTcry peraon who, for pcrpoacs of bustiicea, waa n^^ 
foUy upon tho promisee.'* 

Anit in anothor cnso it ww hold by tha came court ihAt on 
ol^ctrio-lif-ht compony la hablo for injurle* from electric shooL 
to a workiiiao aont by th(> owDor to n^p^tr n roof, ^ven thoagh 
the light company, in coQKideratlon of the partnLu&on to VM 
tho roof, had agreed to make all repriira,' 

§ S53- A eaao In tho UiiU^ SUtea elreult conrt mf^f, 
pmiR, — Tfio prindplea governing such oasea ar« dbeotted by 
Jndgo Dallas in the United Statvts circuit cocrt of appsaJa for 
Xew Jonoy.* A polo owniyl by iHo Wostorn Union Tolograph 

*B«fMcan r. Dostoa EUclrio Uabb 

CiX. 107 Uml 40^ 4* TC K I[«p TM 



) Bactor V. fitntoa QeMrlc LI jrlkt Co. 
OImk, jliia- 1 leOO). M K. R RD[k BOL 

Ca, IM Ua^ >aa 41 K. K lUfk a75 

Bbtstrfe UebtOai,47a W. fi^tjiL-Ua 



C<L Y, UHrJxo. AdmV of Hnon, t$ 

U a Ai>|x4ia.75r»d.B«p.7<t 

£L cw rs Cl»e)b 



M> 



BLECTSIO VnRE3 SS era&BTS AJTD OiaSWATBk [% 3S9L 



Comip^SLj vraa used for the wtnes of aevoni «ompa&Jea, inolod- 
iDg UiO defendant, A liBeman in the etoptoy of odo of tkese 
CKHnpAnici^stTiiigiDgft tclcpbonfs wirc,sk>o<lon a cro«»stTia be- 
loDgini; to the ddfeadant, And waa killed b^ eleotrlo dock oa 
cnofoot coming in contact with ouo of tho dcfoodont's cloctrio- 
light wires. The inBQiation of thb wiro was defective jiut at 
tike point of contact. Tbe case came before tbe c<»iirc od ex- 
ceptions to ft rcfufjil todirect ft verdict for Uio doforMUnt. The 
court ^cid: **If, in viewof tbo facts which have beonnamtcd. 
it could be unqualifiedly asserted that st the time and place of 
the neciclent Mnson was wrongfully upon the s<^par&t« property 
of tbe defendant, and if nothing but that bare fact shouid l« 
r^anlorl^ but one conclusion could be reach^; for the law ti 
Widl Ki.tt1t<d tImL i[i ^^ni^ml the right U> ki9'|i hiii own pnif^rty 
in wjch conditJoiiaft the owner may aee fit ia not n^tricLed t^ 
any iT<)iiirement to guard aga.infll itH oauHing injary to OIM 
who, \viihoiiL invititiiiii, a::tu&l or ap|nirvat, bat aa a bare rd- 
onteer or mere trespasser, intrudes upon it This limltatioa of 
tbe prill CI pie that no person may lawfully use croa that whkh 
ia his o^VIl 90 aa to do hurt to .-mother id not ooatrolliDg in all 
cosce, and the duty of care, which the law impoaca npon tbcM 
who undertake to operate such fiEtnagcrosa force oa olectricity, 
may» under some circuaidtaneea, bo duo to one who ia tochaJo- 
ally a tK)spa«eer. In 8uch a case aa tliis one its special facte 
are for contEiUoration, nnil upon them, and not fiotely with n)f- 
orence to the o^nerBhip or occupancy of tbe hcut in ;uo, the 
qiiestioQ or duty must bo determined." 

The court referred to Uydrax^ic WorJtJ G>. u. Orr^ and 
SthUlxYkg r, Ahemetliy^ m the ffupreme court of Fennfiylrania. 
ami UjtJim Par^JU RfUhea^ Cf>. «l MeHenaldf id die smpreiDa 
oourt of Llie TTuhinl Slati^ iinO Mitd tlie applitwtiijn of iJia 
principle upon which they were decided could uot t>e conflned 
to caws JQ whicb the perwoa injurcLl wm a cliild. ^ Tbo doc- 
trine of all of theae la that a duty of care may be doe from tba 
owner of property to one who ia teclmicaUy a trcapaaser vpon 
it. « , , Wo are not attempting to lay doirn a mie appli- 
cable to all caaea, but the principle which in o^ir judgment is 
oontrolling in the prcsiHit one ie that ^ny person who cnga^ 
in ft hi^y dangeroua oecupation i» bound to tal:o saoh pro- 



ISSl>S*St38t 



ta IV E&j^ R»t Cna tftf-IQL 



caations in lu ptiiYQit ns a eonriblo mnn woulil ordlnaHJy tak« 
to avoid doin;; fatal or otber £Overe injury to oce irho comofl 
upon his prvmiMis, not as & mere tre^paocr or |>u«kivQ wrong- 
Aoetf bat for a purpocd in iUM lawful, an^l which the owner 
had nmaon to believe might bring himtliere.'*^ Asanuittt-rof 
fkt;t tfa*f c^tnrl fotjpd Unit th<i iltrffrnduiil wiim mil n iiiem In-^ 
p98scr in BtHUilirij^ upoD tbt?rroH>fr^nu of tbedpfendant, but that 
Uic unn |>rcsi'nti2<i &a uppnrenily Hif« fooimg with no rii^k nx* 
c«pt tbe invisible poriL of ibo Jrfc^tivti insuUtJon of the de- 
fendant's wire. Acbe^on, J., diesented, 

§SM. The same — Other coflCA.^ In a cam in Orcpm^an 
etectric-ligbt company harini; tiro paraLlc) wire* near tog^tber 
on a bridgo was bold Uablo for not giving Dotico that H wo* 
danjE^Grouft to touch both iriraa at ondCi even thouf^i tb«r vrero 
insulated* The phuntiff was a serrant of tho own^ of the 
bfidgo, oniplciycd to amke ropaira. The court said : **An eloo^ 
trio company is bound to aiereiae the ntmovtcaroforthatafety 
of penops liable to come in conliict witb wirua cu-ryiog dan* 
gorous «l60tric currents." 

In n caae in the court of nppmU of TllinmM,' n p«r«iin killed 
by doclric mImxtV wu a euHUrTner of ibe «]e«^ric4igbt ootnjiany, 
who took hold of an electric lamp in hit own hooae, and tbe 
alh^fttioD of ncgligcnoc in permitting the wire* and appurto- 
maooes to becocae out of repair, whereby tbe cnrrent eacaped 
and became groun<kd, woa held to be anCBcieat, " since tbe de- 

iThv oemti tvtarr^ to wid di» VaUb r. Fitcbbor^ B. It Ca. II5 N. 

U^obb^ ft fBoent <n« ia New Y.»liI>uikb«,K«« VarklLB.Co^ 

im-j In wMah K ww boU that » 3M U>ml 8«: PMt t, Emmi R L 

MvpboMCttiDpn^wMQiotliftbUto Cix. 64 K B, tMt Torw« v. N. Y^ 

tteUMBkUiolukotfacrooapnTfor &w% ft W. & IL Cch, III N. J. Iat, 

tbQbriatlBgq<*CM»**«*benhe 8I140 AiLBep. «t4; D, L. ft W. It. 

dMdatVHiCODtJwcTiOQndtiwttlio & Co. ir. Boklu SI If. J. tJiw, etS. 40 

aili«id*nt WM oot bottlut to iMfco ML &«^ ««« (IWB^ Dslna P^iSo 

Bwhftfi iftteftded Ear mpportiBJC R [L Ca v. JlcUoaftl^ ln««w,«r«ft 

wimw erf wilPciflwt atrffutib to bd^ nnf ■ mr nfi rhilil iiw|iwliii upon 

f9t B miui. 8fi>k4iarT.K T. ft S. » duifBfDtti tfttcM&v of Ra ftJhuiftg 

aMvfklL Cu, » N. J. Law. n. » elwf%«Mv,b«ltk»ou»«f*ooaoMl*d 

U Bn^ Ml. aArcM4 4t AU Hcit. duifptr o( « i«^ Krlota kiad te 

ItM, 'Tbft dccirui* of llw (Jtiitsd pr— iit— ^fwra to ■wfilciy>ei >■ J UmU 

l^tai aaiifwia oowrl with r^guid to cbUdna. 

*^^P«foiM«tti*«Uoii«"fotokUarea '^ir^Av-.^rUaad 0«bEbL-trio 

bUn-tivn^abk-oMn^ntcvndto Ca tOm^, lam OS fte ft«|L 14 

hITiiktt PneiAoRRCd T.llclk& * AUon Rj. ft nbnn. Ca v, r^oA^ 

MLm b»p t-fH>«*M«d b7o««rti njRAi^tticmK 
4 Ui!b ftutiiofit J to Mmnl «l»t^ 



2U 



]£U:CT3U0 



Am moitiTArsL [^SH, 



fcndant wtM boimil to excvdm a bigh disgrvo of skUl in d«^* 
eriD|>: ^Lich & dangerous element aft electricity, and the injorj 
iteolf fnmiflhcd a pretfumption of n^lJgeciOG," ' 

In ^i:tv Jersey the courts hold Atrirtlf to the mle tli&tthe 
owDor of hind i» qol reaponatble for ila daogerona oonditcon to 
tfaosc who come upon it as tn»p«8*crs or mere ticcn^eoe 
out iiiYitiitton;' but in a recent oano in tiiat state an el 
light ccmi^any which bad placed wires m a light and air sball 
in a olab^iouao was hold Liable to a Dnecboruo makiDg rcpoin 
to the air-thaftwho wafl injunad by electric abock by Masoaer 
dofoetive iosDlation of the vnre^. The court said : *< The sec- 
ond count of tbo declaration, to which a guner^d di^munvr hu 
boen ^led. Is, in my opinion, good. It wdxs out facts from nhiel 
a duLy an^u from tbe defendant to the plaintiff, and negatJTes 
the jH^rfonniLiKMi of ihjiL dtity. Tn ftne, tlw diTinumcr estah 
liakea this state of £at:tA, viz. : That the defendant and fof m 
purposes wires that it had placed in a Jight«haft> whens it kaev 
that tbr chim nf taborcrs lo which the p]aintil7 beltin^od wooU 
enter lo work; that the^ wires were under the control 
nmtugemcnl of the defendant, whioh passed tbrottgh t 
current of elcotricity dangerous to a huroaa bein^; nnd that it 
foiled to maintain a proper inhalation of this cnrrcot, whciehy 
plaintiff, irlillc working* in the shaft, was lajurcd. ^ow, the 
eleuentul rulv im that wbocrcr usee a highly dostmctire agoncy 
is held to a correspondiD^Iy blgb dcjirro^ of earo. Care,io this 
sensot means more than mere mochanionl skill; it inelodsa 
cunupecEJon and foresight with rvgard to reasonaUy 
conttD^^ncies. The demurr«<r:idinlts, tn effect, that the do 
ant ko^^•K that the pliLtniilT \rould enter the shaft and w 
the ricinity of Its vir^ and that it did not use reasooahk 
oare to renderthp^m sale, in view of tlioir loration, whoruby tbs 
plnintlff wiL4 fnjunut. A good r^inse of aodon is thus stated, 
and ilm dt'murr«r m overruled." 

In an earlier caw in thesainocomiinNfW Jersey,' the 
anU of a stnoct milwuy ciim|«iny, tn taking down a fecil wire 
of that company, hl^:>ke a \vire of an electrio-light company^ 



IBaa bowonr, Caruiii«t Elocrtro 
St V.J. C<k V. Gnv-i> TO UL Ap}x 9gL 

>A«d(*rrau T. Jttracy Ciiv Eluctno 
Light Co. 43 Aa Rttp sot (N. X Sup. 



■tcownrk EI I. A P. ODl r. H«Ovt-| 






uid this caused ft fuM to be iKinied out and the wire bocamo 
dtsmA, In ttiifl coadttioD It waa bandlod with impQaity by one 
of th^ workmen wbo tbtu broke itdo^o. Shortly aft^rwanlfi 
ft now fu0o was pot in and & corrcnt wuia sent through tho 
wire, ftnd tho Sftmo man touching tbo brukcD «Dd of the wire 
WAfi kill<yl. The ooort 8ai<l that u^ to persona pofidn^ along 
thtt street the clectn^lt^rht company owed a duty to refrain 
from fleodiiiff a ctin^at through tho \f\rtM imtii h waa asoer- 
laEned that it wa« safo to do so, but that to one wbo hud xaVmi 
fnri ID brettkift^ down and expodng the dangi^rciu* wWa, and 
who aft(<rwftida moddlod witli it, tho company o;ved no duty 
nnti] he bad gWeti him noLjt<« that the wire wa^ broken. Their 
onlj" duly was lo rofrain from wilful a*:^1» U> his injury. 

g 2'Hi. IJabililj to fti^riraiita— fieiteral rules.— Tho liabil- 
ity of thoAB who maintain polea and electric wires to p^rions 
ia their own employ la dct^rmiood by the general ^al►^ft gOT- 
crainf; the relation of master and seryzmi. '^Tho fcrfunt, by 
accepting cmplc^mentT consents to take the risk of all dangers 
obTioQSly or naturuUy in<^i()ent to sooh emplo3^merLt," and tho 
master ia ondor a poaitiTe duty to tako reasooabie care and 
precaution not to tubjoct tho Mrva&t lo other or greater dan- 
gftn." He m\ist "take re^ksonable care to have the tools iinJ 
applhLnae« with which and tiui plac^-a In aad aboat whicb tho 
Morvant ia to be employed reiwonably aaf^ for the work Uw 
1at!4^r is rmpiiiyM U> do.*'' 

One of the onlinnry mkH aNiuitiRil W tlie servant is "the 
rak of neglignrncn upon the part of a fellow-sarviint wl;ca ho is 
to^agnd in tbe discharge of his duty ** to the comnion master.* 
In the ftheenoe of statute the master is not liable to the sorvnnt 
^r the negligonoc of iv ieilow-ficrvant when they are engaged 
, common omploymefit;^ but tbe master is bound to take 
eare to select eorTiints rrasocably competent for the work 
t is to b« done in commoD-' I'ho aorvunt is bound to t;ik« 



lor 

i 



i:ollr,&7N.J.U]W,VtiAtLRopi«9T, UnJ Kf. C<x. U R 1 C P. at p^ tt6| 

t Aia EL Cha llWftk >S0; lUrrkon FArwwU t. B»io& ft W<mi«l«r]L a 

thitoUBHMi V. T. X> A U. fijr. Co, ■Bn^lbnn K«c.TSl 

• Krab. »4«j» saMT. A tUMt on ^a^a R. R Ovr. eaiiBt.l«V. 

Ikff W» e<l^ K tW; Smttk UMfiT 8. }«K at |L RW: HTphti T.lVunM^ie 

»0tlft.ntiiiit,a33n;PfimllyT.row»#r. C E TSTs 1 ShiMna^ ft Rodtoa ^«C- 




^6 



KLECTUO WESSS IBT VnESTB &H1> BlOlPCATQ. [J Sfii 



diis care for hh own *n.fct^\ im<l the nuuler is not liJibto to Un 
ior&n injury towbidiiua own negllj^^Aco has contnlKiteil. 

g 356, Tbe ftaiao— 8iioclal an^ obilou^duifirors^^irtlun 
are special features of clanger incidcDC U> the einp1o\nnent, the 
ficrvaat a^inica ttic risk of tbcdc, if bhcj are such oa ahovld bo 
known to one oniinanly sUillod in tho employment. Tho yoan^ 
and inexperienced are entitled to expect special warning and 
iostriiction/ but persons of mature n^ a^umo tho r-.«k of tbe 
obdous dangers of tbe employment upon t?hl(^ thoy enter, 
even tbcu;;;h these danj^ers are peculiar to thl^ employment, or 
nrifleoutof adi^fi!<:t Jn tlio applmncnw fnrnUhodbj thomurUr.* 

In B CASQ in New Jersey* a workman oUmbing ao eleclrio* 
light {K»ki ^w tfmt one nf the iU^ivs waj» brrikeo, and in coming 
down LLh fiK>l B]i|>[]ed btn^jtuie (if tho bn>ki<«i slnp imd lie fi^Il 
and waa hurt. Tbe coui-t ftet aside a verdtet for Uie plalati( 
and 8Aid that olwioLis tkn-frrf which are entered upon Toloa- 
tarily arts d^suiuetl by a 3t;rvaat if he coutinuea in the verrioe. 

'^The caaea rigjdly bold the doctrine that the eervant takft 
upon himself sucb definite and dotcrminatc risks nAare obi 
and no action will lie agiainat tbe maator for injuriea Ui] 
servant in euoti a caaa"* 

In a similar ofi^o in Indiana ^ tbe snmc cortelnsion wni 
Tbe plaiDti0, in tha employ of an electric li;*ht company, 
using a dofootive ladder^ one rail of whioh Dc«r tho top iru 
broken off. Both master and sernint knew of tbe defeet and 
neither considered it dangerous. It wn^ held that the aerrant 
could not reeover damai^ for injuries due to the defect. 

The decision of the supreme court of >"ew Jersey wat ap 
proved by tbe court of errors in another c-iue* and at the sane 



l^ttwLh 

N. J. U 4^ 500. 

« KalAy V. J^naff^ Ctty KIa«trl(> I^^ t 
U», ^i N. J. L. 411, n AXl Uop. «bT 

fias^ 

'Clllng n&yltf r. HnU L. A W. R. 
a Ca. 40 .V. J. L. *£3; Mc^gan t. 
Del, L A U\ a R C<%, lao N, T. «;8; 
Od«U *< IC, T. C«u(. EL EL Co., m H. 
T. asn; Rur^Vai t. RiRiOirill* C^, ^ 
Cow. »ti i Owp T. Yoxtt, ) a « H. 



T43: ^eniiuDAv. CkiaKh.9 Q. ft K 
059: Qrmtti r. Oodlov, id. U^^L^ 
t^nKoiahing Ckwk v. Be1tn<<>, 7 ILA 
N.eJ7.wbBraUie ptnlDtlf eompUuud 
of tlkA fUn^B^'o^u *tate ef tba uu*' 
chiaoryandthe OMUr prooKiaidtO 

• Jrmnoy Rt#tf*tTte. «|a Ci\ r. Unp-i 
ph^. 115 Ind. 6«4. IS N. !£. lU^ 91 

Mttltntt >\ J. U 151 » Aa Btfv^ 
AH 4 Am. tX QuL aia tlA9^ 



SasTO 



OOKdTECOnoK AXD lUtNTEXUrOL 



«7 



time tiw coart bdd that it ia the duty of th^ mofft^^r not to Mub* 
jcct t^ acrrant without bu knowledge and con^at to rUks not 
Odaamcd bjrbim^ TfaopluinUtT tcu» workiQj^on a poIotowbioH 
telegraph wires aloac were atuicbod* and be wa« iajun^ by 
a carrent tbot como Irom bi^Jy chai]^ clcctric-ligbt wiraf 
doM to the telcgrapb wiroB. Tho court n^rovod ii cb&rgo lo 
tho jury decl&niig that t^o plaintiff usQmoi *' Haks arblng in 
ooatoqn«QOO of spvcbl fuatura* of danger known to bim at 
wbioh be could bavv discovered by the ezeraso of rcoaonablo 
care,** hot that the defendant was chargeable wfth nogUgeneo 
if tfaapUtaLifT wajiiaJurtHlLlirougb some latent dagger of whieb 
he aboukl have be«a warned. 

Tn » caw iu MixMoiin ' wlior^an oxpiiru^noed HneruaD climbed 
a piAn acd aLU<iuj)itM] in ihd day-time, without glorea, to ood- 
nect the eads of two live wires that were obviously uainanlUedt 
It iraa held tiiat he aasumied the risk of tlie hid ploy ment, as4 
that Ihe company was not liable. The court mid: "The eu' 
ployment was very bazardoua id its very natare> bot be ntadior- 
iooIe it with knowledge of iis dangcn and be wai bound lo 
exerctae care to avoid the ootuoqnenoee.'' 

On the other baod, in a ease la New Fork,* it was held that 
it waa properly left to the jury to detemina wbetber it wna 
oontnbntory ne^ljgenoe not to wear glovaa wbOtt triauniag 
Ininps in the day Urae when the wires handled were dead and 
the ahock was received tbrovgb tbe lamp frame defectively in- 
■lUaLed. 

Again, in the I7iilt«d Sutes cirvillt conrt in Tadiana,* what* 
lenao, in the coorvo of faia dntiea and by direeUoo of an 
of the defendant, climbed a pole belonging to anotkiW 
ipany withont having inspeotod it, it waa bekl Ibat be an- 
the risk of its being traaoond. The ooort nid tfae 
s onder no duty lo inspect tbia po^ and tbat tho 
if ba vraa ouwilliog to incnr tbe risk, AotU hnvn 
an inspectko being made before ctimUag iL 

|»7. Tb« enmt — Def^eUve 
qvtna of tbe master -•ibe taatkm of 



>Ji 



■am 



nW.B«f»mM Aa. 



Ca. n A|» inc. m^ e ,i4a. sa Cka. 
i DteM «. W^ ^fe« U«. Ck. 



^m 



E1.B9TS10 wiiisa m OTREBn 4101 otcnvrjtTB. [$l 



in ftirni^iiiig uiiiable machinery and ftppUaticGA for c&tryiij 
oa Une buAJneA for vhicb he tmyloyt the 8orT&Qt« And in keep- 
ing such mochiiKfyauid AppliAAcca in order, iaoluding tbo 
of ouilcingr inspcctioDS^ Usta and examinationd ni the 
httervalfl.'* ' "Of cour»Ot aomo places of work and »oino 
of macbinrryivn) nioro daogeroai Chan othcn, but that ii 
tbiB^ vrbach inhcra in ta« thing itaalf^ which v a loai 
&43co6Bity aod cannot bo obriaUul Bnt Within suoh limiu tho 
nuwtj^r, who provides the placo, the tools aadthd macbiDeir, 
owe« a pOisitiTo duly to hia eonployoo with respect thoreta 
That positivo doty doe« not go to tb« 6xt«at of a gtatranteoof 
*af<>ty^ but it does require that reiLsonabla pr^autioiu bo 
to secure mfety;"* »tii]. uliboiigb thoro it jjitidnl <1i?;aj 
HittnL, thn ^i^it^Tal o|jiru(jQ la lliaL It at nut enuu^li t)i»t cciii> 
potent agents have been employed — the eervant las a ri^bt to 
rM|(urg that the pn^rautions for liix Kafcty be taken * Tb» i»a 
daty devolving upon the mtuiicT, and if ho aelecta ao a^nt to 
perform tbU duty for hitn^ and the a^nt faiU to exerciao r«p 
fionablc cftro and skill in itfi pcrforma&oCi tb<i mafttcr is rcvpoa- 
^ibk■ for tho Uxiiii* Some confoston has arisen by readoo of 
tho fact that the scrrant to whom this duty ia dclcgvtod is oftca 
a foLlow servant of the ptaintifft for wboto nogbgcnoo aa Moh 
the master is Dot liabJa. In such a caa& it has been saftf[6Bt«d 
that thd qoeetion t^ms rather on tbo character of the a«t thaa 
on the rdation of tbo employ^ua to oaeh other;* and alto thai 
there is a distinction between a case in which tbe employeeli 
duty to ingptjot is incidt^iital to his duty to u*e tbe app:initu« id 
oommoD with the otben. and a €a»a ia which the dulv to in* 
^>ect is impoaed apon one who ig not engaged in uaing tht 
ftp[>aralBfl in a coitimon employ mi?nL* 



I Union P&filfid Rj. Co. -r. Uenld^ 
lae a a Satj ICorth Oormaa Uor^ 
BleuasMp Ocl t. las^brasHteo^ 07 

K, X 1^ 4w, z\ Ati, Rop. eia 

■Bait A Ohio R. B. C<L Y. B»i«h. 

e1it[t Co. T. tafpttottfftttiDt (7 H, X U 

»ld; Nod-Lliem Tmi\Qc It IL Ool v. 
Horbert, iZA U. a MX and <vMi tl»r« 
oitedt &aUj v;fioiu^W. fta&R 



Go, ISS fL ^ SOf: Tby ▼. UalM 
SUtm Corb^dco Oa, 156 U*m. SUl 
fit% hi»f oivr. Bsmx Count? Ehertrio 
Ox ▼. KeLJy. «T X J. U 100. tot. 
Sf^abD UoKlnUir, I'lU^w Bcrv^ala 
» Se^ 86-95; I 8tMr. A Bedt <a 

»B«il ft Ohio & tt. Co. T, Ba^h, 

^7?arth OnraiHB IJojd 

Ox V. le^v^'nt^'^ ('^ V- J< I' 
401 BceaboAlchl0OivT< 



S»7.I 



CCneCTRTOTIOff AHD liUIKT2!:jJCC& 



S69 



It 18 aot roqcttrod that the best poesiblo applianocs shall bo 
Qsndf hut 6ii1y thtt thoj sball be suitable [or the work,' Th<^ro 
is no iroplicotion tlutl the work and the ftpplionccs aro not of 
a daQg«roQscI]aracter,faiitit isonlyreqiiimitbiit tbcr« shoold 
be BO cthor dftogor than i^h ns h obviotis nnd ;^ec<fe£»rT* 
"When dangeroiis appUaaoes are lued there Is an eipedal dn^ 
oa both Bides to take Kiich cur« as tbe conditions require ;* «id 
"vliera n Aorvkni rry^i^ivc^ tin injury hf miJfOO of ii Intent de- 
feci in tie Appliances with vrbieb or tlie places m which be Is 
MDplojrodf to f«tfdr1i?4h Uti^ liitlkility of the niMst^r the evidence 
most justify the irffrrmy? ihnt Ihn m-inlftr mtlirr Icnnvr, or hj 
the exerci&e of the care and dili^nce required of bim by ihd 
role noight h^va known, of the defect* A mo^rr will not bft 
reflponsiblo for d<;foct» which cottid not have been discorored 
bj tbe moatc&reful scrutiny.*^' His duty m to nst? onlirtnr/ 
and T«BAonah1« care to famish «efo and sulHcif^nt appliancea 
mnd vorktng places, and to take ordinary care at all timos to 
kocp them in n reasonably eafo oonditJon.* 

"^DozigoTs that aro the resnlt of common knowlotlgo which 
«&B readtly bo tMn by Gcniraon obsf;r?atton the eorvant a»- 
flunoa the ride of; bat when tbe dan^fer to be avoidetl reqairea 
a knowlodg* of acurntlllo fftctn, nn ordinary 6on*ant J8 not 
preaomcd to bare knowledge of tbem, and it ia tie duiy of 






Vmlatt IVtUSo E. a Cd v. U^irU^rt, 
aa Dfk* v. AUaalto An. Tij. 

9T Fca H«p SW; Kom t, D» 
Cul^ n«ir Co., 13ft R Y, M, SA K 
& Best 1«7I: Oftrlcy r. BulTuto Ctir 
M^ Ca, 14V N T, HU »it N, P. apfk 
«tM; J<iDM V. Ontnitr MiJiB, ISO Maa 
Ml; Barker t. WhcoLkti- accUio 

Cft. *s w\ viL Ml, « a E &i(k 73a. 

I» 1. a A. 4M ftS9Th 1 SbMf. ft 
todt DO Nc«&. ft la? 0Ui «cLk 
• BdUaiam ft Oluo JL R. Col ir, 

•JuaJor r. Ukwoorf EL L ft ?. Cb^ 
UT H<L TVl a Ao. HL Cm 3W<13aD; 
l^^n ¥. I^twb t:L Kt^ht Qv, Id 
Apfi Df7, 1^. y.| ISO; UcAUmfl v. 

C«atrat It7- ft Elcf Iflo Cft. 07 Ccaaxb 
M«Am.CLCtoUa 
1» 



«pj«wi County FJflclrio Oa. v. 
RolJy, 57 ff. J. L. lOOi VTr^ht t. 
Nrrw Y^rl. CwL R. R Cta, M If. T, 
MU: Dtivlin T. SmitK 80 Id. 4?0i 
Uoldoa ▼. JFitohbufg Ry. Go, 1» 

ALnilil V. New Bf^rctfd TEr. Cn.110 
MhML 4L3; Sp4c<crr v. fionUi llccftoa 

leonCu, ItfSid, i2dL 

•AUhlton, X ft & K R Cd r. 
Mi-yon^ fU Kod Ki^fv TS» rC a A.}: 
Dixon T. WsUrn Unloo TdojE' ^^w 
CB t^Hl Rcix 030; N«w K«Btuckf 
OmI Gx V, Albncl 12 tad Ajip 4ar, 
40 N. E: Hfrfv 70*^: Ndrih (i«nniui 
Lt^yd fttfmnulbip Ca «. loeffamcuciit 
«T N. J. L. 40a 31 AU Bvp^ eU: Wood. 
Mm. a f^urr, g 414; &nltlv Haa ft 



SdO 



EXKUTAIQ WlKBa IK smEETA A2ltl BlGUWAIfl. 



» 



tht mastar knowing tbem to inform tbe sorv&Qt in raip«ct 
thereto." » 

§Si8. Injarj- by electric sliock — Duty to »*rTanf« — Ik* 
f^tlv« ai^pllunccft — Oisi's. — In an uction Tor injury to u 
employee by electric slock it appeared tbat the wires of aa 
electriO'light company were so Btriirg tbat those of one circuit 
CTOBsed those of Einotli^r in suvU a tnannvr tluii it tHgtitKn^gilig 
of one wire would bring two in conUctaml wear oiT th« In- 
sulation, anil that one oirtniit was miLint&ined as a livo «» 
whil<.<i tho mrn vrere at work bamlling tho wlrt-K of Lh«t 
with Ihrir bare iiau'la. TIio supreme court of Mtcbigan 
that tlkifi was eridonco of Dcgligeoce on tho part of tbo coft- 
pany in vjrw of the deadly nature of tbe cummt, and that it 
vaa propi^rly left to tbe jury to determine whelb*3r the defend- 
ant waa injured by a current from the dcf<'ndaat's worka.* 

In a Cftsc ia the auiH^rior court of Buffalo. >"ew York,' ia tt 
action for the death of an employee, cauficd by fipc, an alk^ 
tion that the fire was causi^ by tho nc^iij^cneo of tho defeat 
nnt in not properly attaching tho electric vnr^ to a dynuHs 
and in their faulty and defective insalation, was hold pxA 
even though there was also an ailrigiUion that ihcro tvoa negti- 
genoe on tbo part of foUow aervantfi in failing to put out tA* 
fire- 
In a case in N'ebriLfilca* the court onipbasizad the fact thai it 
is not tbe dangerous character of the appliances, but tha wg- 
ligence of the dof^ndantf thai maWos tbe ciqao of action, la 
an action l)y an employee it was held to be error lo obar^ ibe 
jury that '* a street railway company ^a« bound to 8e« that ib 
trolley wire ivas n^asonably safe and sound and of BaffldcBt 
distanee from other wires as that , . • it will not endai^ 
the lives of persons. . . , The instruoliuns uiaclo tbo cam 
turn OQ the fact of danger and not on tbe fact of oeg 
A master doea not insure his servants a^Dst defective 



i Chicego EdiHon Co. r. HudflOCf 
GO IJL Apa O-m Sw aIhu MjIjilu t, 
LoiiIsEama Elw?rnc Ltghl Ca.4\ Lel 
AmL W4, I? Am. »t Hep. 1^0. Se« 
10 Am. & Ea^. Eucy. ef I^w (OU vd.). 

■ Kruti T. BrUBh E^ooirie Llffht 



Ox, SO 3Lch, 457. 48 K. W. Bep^ m > 
Am, EL Cm. 48] (WW^ 

' P7j>i>ka V, Anwriraui OhwoM Odw 
11 Uktft. Kfp.^ Y.) l3l.aAAil 

Cfi8.3F^rtn9n.^; 

«L[ii<X)]ii Street Rj. Ocx ▼. Oqk IS 



5 W^-l 



c^xaTBrcTiox xsd )CJayrc^ji3:c& 



tn 



anoes. He is not cbargeablo fit all eronts bocanac the applian&t^ 
ftra dofoctiro. He is Uabic only when ho bju been oegU^Dt in 
tbo matter.** But in the suprcmQ court of Xow Ycrk^ it rrm 
hold that the reasonable care required is meafiured by the daiu 
gor of llio forcee dmplo^Git 

In the miprerae court of errors of Connecticut,' whoro a Moo- 
roan climbing a pole received a shock because a span wirg aaj>* 
po«ed to b4! ]iiN(ilKt(*i1 hacl eonm in (Y>ntiu:t witti u Lnjll^y wira, 
ajiother wire at the same momeDt Leooming groundeil, tha 
ilpfpDflnnt^s atlj?ntion having bwti chII^I a few dajhi bofort; t<» 
thif rlAngRnmn rfintlition of thi^ wirn nt thU [ttimt, IIir court 
■aid: ^ When the legislature authorlxefi a corporation to aso 
mch aa agcoc^ (ils oloctricity in a trolli^y vnrc) in the publia 
ftreeta, the la^ Implies a duty of uaing a 7»ry high de^ee of 
earo in the oonstmction and operation of the appliartoca for 
the u»D of that agency, r^squiring the corporation to employ 
ereiy reasonable precaution known to those poaaessod of tho 
knoivlodgo and skUl requisite for the safo treatment of (dch 
an ageoey, for providing ugain9;t all dnngera incident to its 
KM, and bolda it accountable for the injary to any pureon duo 
to tho aegttgenco of that tluty, whether tho person Js or fs not 
oao of (U own employeosi. This standard of duty was correctly 
appUod to the facts as found by the CAmrt betow. Tli" nirthod 
«f cOQitractioQ in (^nnection with tlie failure to insulate thd 
ipaa wire was a violatioii of the duty imposed on ihddsfeadant 
by law." 

g 2Mm Unty to serrantA — Defectlre poles and wires — 
CiMfl.— In a caae in I^uiaiaaa,* wher« a lineman iftanding oa 
tko croM-arm of a pole was thrown down by the breaking of a 
wire irbioh other men were drawing tant, tho court fouftd 
tho a4:ctdeot vraa due to a defect in tbe wiro, which waa Bulfl- 
ciently provctfl by the fact of iU bruakin;*^ there b-^iat: no proof 
that it waa snbjocb^ to an oxtmordiimry strain ; and it wm 
hold tbat the eorrant on^pii^od in a dangerous employment had 
a rigbt to asmme that tbe appliances were sound, and that the 



> FLtnTHin V. Bnuth riootrlc Light 
Co, U App. Dkr. {X V.) ISH O N. Y. 
Eup^Tia 9 Ahl EL Oh 8£7 <1«>C> 



Elnstno Co. » Ctaa MA. 35 Aa R«i>^ 
4HU Am. EL Qu aM lia*4> 

1 GUinuo T, WoMom Union T<l«f . 
Ca. W La. Ann. 1T«L a 8. Ibn^ esO. A 
Am, EL Gm, »M US% 



xtpCcrmio wiab* lar rnavn avd inonirAT& {{ 3C4L 



mtatJBr wat \^qtiA to p» Iha grcAtcit ci» la &9 «el«cticii of 

It baa bevn beld, bowcrer, that the linemofi have no rig&t 
to ■nume tbat the cros»-b«r« ait? stnmg <<no-jgh to Umit iImIt 
VMfl^t, acid that if tbejr 109 them in dlEutkug, or rest tltoirfoll 
weagbt upon tb«m, they <Io m> at tbdr own risk. They k&oT 
that tbe purpose of th« bare is to ctkrry the irtr<^. The dn^ 
or the compu^jtouMduecaro to tare them in good coadiUoa 
b limited to this pnrpotetADd it b open lo the men to detcnniM 
for tbcmselves whether ther are strong enough to bear tbdr 
weight. They most rely upon their ovra Jnjpoctioti and take 
the risk thenuelree. Such vras the decitfion of the ?ieir Y ort_ 
ccGrt of appeals in the ca£c of a scrrant of tbo defcndantO^H 
piinyi'aDil of tite Nov Jorsey supremo ooort in the oaaeofflP 
lineman of anothor company raakinj^ use of a polo.' 

I S60. Th« Bam« — Duty of Inspection. — With regard b» 
Ihc duty of tlie master in ro«pcet to the condition of lb 
applianc^es fm-aisbod, I have already qiioted ibe ophiien ^ 
the aupreme court of Xew Jersey in £s$^ Covi^ttf EUctm 
Co. «i. &lly.' ThU vtus a case in which llio liDeman of n 
electric-light company was directed lo take down a pola Sfi4 
set it up in another place. The pole fell as he wafi taldngil 
down^ litul wtic^n he hiuX stit it up ngidn hn climbH to the Up 
and drew the wires taut with a "strap and viie/* Thepolf 
trokti nrnder the strain ami Ki-lly wiih hnrL The eoQTtw' 
there wae ro doubt that umler theevidf'nce th^biviikingof the 
pole wafi clac either to the fact thstt it was rotU-n at the cor6or 
thai it hud been woiikened by its prcTious fall, but that b 
dther oaiic thft liability of the company was not madn oct It 
the latter ca^e the wealiuesA \\a& due to a fact within t&« 
knowledge of thf3 phnn tiff, and be climbed the pole witbwt 
making the fact known to tbo company: and in the former cise 
tbo delect wm ono which the most ri^id scrutiny would art 
have iliacloscd, and tbt^^o was not sufficient evidence of tbs 
FajLuto to make inspection. Xho duly of tbo comim&y tw 



Co., m N. y. 003, 30 N. E. Ii*p. IWI, 
4 Am. EL Oils. 402 I ISQ^V 
IN, Y, « X J. T«!»pK Co. T. 

O0iaw> CeiiUtanl4effuk£LLii£nb 



73 n± B<-|x 74, 6 Am. EL Cte ITS 

«a7 N, X Ia ica ^ Aa fevp or, 



8 961.] 



COVjraCCTIOK ASTD MAI^TLSIjUrCX, 



wz 



^'tliat or taking K«aoQab)& care to have ibia pole when errct^sl, 
and to keep ItaTtcr erection, oF ^aj&cient atron^b. It ia a dutjr 
of reaooiuUo JDspeotion and euiniinution. Tlmt tWrc wna m 
Mlnra to porrorm the duty ia not made oat eitticr bj diroot 
proof or otiyJQstitiiLbloiBroroiict.*' Uponnnovr trtul there was 
proof that proper iospectjon bad not h&m m«d€ and a TordicC 
for the ptaintiU iruc sQsUined.^ The judgm^at vraa affirmed 
by the oourt of errors.* 

The Btipreme court ee^ms to haT9 o^^rlooked the fact that it 
d«clftr«}d on iha iinl trUl thjit tint di^fiurt vnt odo which tli« 
most rigid wrrJitlny would not have diAclouMt- 

]■ a casct in Clif^ UniLnl Sttitf>« circuit cntirtufnppeail*' it was 
held that an imilructiom dial It m th^ duly of aii I'li^TtHc-liglit 
coropaoy having poles in the streota to make tnch iiHf>ection 
of them " from tizno to time as will determine And ascertain 
irbether decay baa t&kcn place to ancb an extent as to render 
the tintbor unfit for nae '' in misleading where the defect shon^n 
by the evidence waa notviatt^o from tbe cntaide, becanse it 
aoecu to rc<|iiirc tli&t the inspuction most bo eSoctive,aiul go«a 
beyond the requirement of n^uAi^miblij and ordinary oaro. 

% S61. The same — Other cases.— So also in New York, 
wboQ a pole on which a man ^as workt&g xxat jumxl by the 
bmakfng of an eye-bolt by vhieb a wire had been held taut, it 
wzM shown that the eyd-bolt bail been purchaso'l from a repu- 
table firm and appanHl to be sound, but this partknlar one 
was welded, aud parte^.l at the place of welding. It had been 
put ID the pol? \jy a feUaw-wrrrant of the plnintilf ongagod in 
Hilt same o(i ujution. The court said the oegligenoe, if any 
there was, in putting in thia eyi>bo1t. wns that of the plaint- 
iff's follow-4erTant. A master is not txwnil to fumisli tbo best 
known and conceivable appliances, lie is required to fumuh 
such as sre rcasooahly saTe. lie is required to bo reasonably 
prndent in seleoting tools or maebtn«ry. Having ordered this 
eye-bolt "from responsible and wellknown BUinufaeturein, be 
hod a right Co assume tb&t it was properly made. Having 
aet«d oa an ordinary man would un^ler similar oirctunstonoe^ 
ho cannot be held to have been negligent."* 

iKwvJtConttlrKlnrrltlnCfLT.Kdlx, 
S> N, J. U SD«^ 3^ AIL Kcp, «ta 
*T1l« S^CDA ei .V. J. U SV», 4t Att 



iiasTi. 



•DoDTcr T. Sherrm. W FML Hup, 

<tvrrto T, wiiit«« u um lu^ 
(ff. t.j iiT, a> K V. fiuiiRk Tea m* 



SH 



BtxcTBJC wmxa m stbebts xtn> BioswATfr [£ SdS. 



A declRmtioa was held good on demurrer which alleged Umt 
a liuetnait eiigiigii?(l in the couraw of bj« dutv ixt climbing a pQl« 
to mmcre wires waa oaing due care aad ims thrown from the 
polo and fsitall^ injured bv re^ison of the aegligcDcc of the de^ 
fendant in having a rotten ^nd tniwcars polo* Uio defect in 
which wofl concoalod from him and vrna nnknowc to him,' 

§ 262. IJefectlvo appl Innces — KUks of oraplojaient— Ihitj 
of servant.— On the other hand, the rule is well settled thai 
the serv^tnt assumes tho risks ordinimly inddo&t to his omplox- 
ment, and HDch dangers as are apparent in the appliances as fac 
ftDddthem* He is not entitldcl totho best Appliances, but only 
to auch as ar« r<in»onab!j fit for Lh<; purpose for which they were 
intended;' am} with r^pect to appliances in hie custody or 
unilL*r hta observaLioti In the? cuursu of hli; duty, ho nittid nw 
due care to obtservc lUear cvjndiiion, and cannot n^uine that 
they will not become defective, 

With rE>gard to an electric lamp, for example. It bas beea 
held that a servant removing a lamp from a pole, knowing that 
all lumps of tlis pattern were being niDOTcd And acwoncs 
pat in ihoir placc^ WGk the risk of injory by reason of tlie 
defective condition of the hunp. I'hc court said: '-Ho mutt 
aaanme that th6 lamp might be out of order and goTcm his io^ 
tiona •ccordin^ly. The defendant is not n«gligent> having 
done all the Inw r^^uired, onnaely, tb« furnishing of proper np- 
pliancea and competent workmen for the performance of the 
work,^* 

And in Illlnota it was held tliat one engaged as a Uncmaa 
in rt^.tnoving wires Trom one siM. of jiolcs to another assQom 
the risk gruwiuj^ out of the eTiileuUy lusecrure and disfoctiw 
condition of the poles* 



OAS l\9&{\). CitiSi Id Boiketh v. N. Y. 
C & IL it. K, R Oix, » »< Y. Supp. 

1 Wvtcni UnloQ Tolog, Oa v. Jcn- 
ktDS.e-J &x30S^17S. £ Ra^ flSC^fl 
Am. CI CoA 40a il9Sffi. 

^ rivKc T. Cniniica* Q. A W. R5. 
Ca. 5S X J. L «00. « Ant KL Ou. 
an: Wiado*tir V. 'Vroy City Uj. Vc, 
4 Ap^ Dir. (S, Y^ U<»^ Am. EL 



■AtUatTo Ar& Hjt. Ooh v. T«a 
Bjrk«v ^J Fed. R«fi US, JS D. a Apfk 
»3V 6 Am. El Cu aM: DoyU t. 
Wbit^ H UiMh BcFk m- Y.) 4:7.tt 
K Y. 8«p|h 1«0; Wend. Uh»1 £ 
Serr. 4S7, 2^ ad. 

'OibboflM'p. BnMh E3iipUio Itbaa. 
Co.. OS App Div, (N. V.) 144 » K.7* 

^PooriM UuEutuI KlarUiti Ca v. 



1 



Whflra &n cxperirnced tinrama Att^icliing trire to n |>o1c Mt 
actirr^nt and toLdllie forevuan thecurrfint w.i» too Htrong and 
viu AMurcd that it wa£ not, itnii then fdt it a^aun hiiuMlf and 
went on iTith bis work wiiboQlcoinpInint^and Aftcrfrnrds vra» 
iDJiir^ by shock, it w^as held in Hisaonri that hia claim that 
ho relied on the forcman'c ossurfincc was net euetnincd.^ 

A lineman's spurt ect at & vrcn^ an^Io and made of matoriftl 
BO soft that it will bond under a nian*a weight aro dofoctivv n|>- 
plknce*, and the dvk'ct« aro not «nch as ought to bo Unon-a to 
aa inexperienced servant required to ose them outside of bis 
irq^fcdar employment* 

DajigeroaslrTegularltriQ the location of the poles of a vtreet 
nilvay constitutes a defect, in the appUances of the company; 
and it a conilui<-Ii>r it injtimi whilu mll^'tiu^ fiin^K hy Htrikiof^ 
a pole set unnAually n^^ar the track. It may \t^ l^ft to tlie jury 
to determino vrhcitbcr tbo danger vtw eo vrt^W knnvrn to him 
that he accepted tliis a5 oQh of the ri»lcx of biit t^itiploym^^nt' 

g Sns. The same — AppUaDces not faruinlied by the mas* 
ter.-- Ax a general rule it is only tippliancee fuTnL-hcl by the 
master for vrhich ho is res|>->R^U)Ie, The sorrant takca the risk 
of tbo condition of other opptinncos made i]se of by him in tho 
ooDrse of hts employment. Jt has been held, for example, that 
a telephone compiiny is not reepondble to a lineman for the 
breaking of tho limb of a tree which he dimbed for tbo pur- 
poae of BtrinjcriD^ the company's ^irirea upon it ; ' and also tltat 
a railroad company is not rt^punsihlc lo the servant of an eleo- 
trfo-ligUt coiupcicy for the condition of po1e& belonging to the 
former comp.*ny on which he was stringing wires for the Inl- 
ter; hnt iii tla* Krunit (^um* it vnm }u'\i\ that thn ftlroLrIc ccimpttny 
owed its ^rrunt the duty of inspecting the poles of the rail- 
road company on which its tine was strung, and which it ro- 

lBpi«noar, P««Ul7ct.GaUtt0ft R Itcfv &tl. 9 Am. HL Omi 3M (IMO: 

(Ma\ CO fl tir. Eirp. T» Om^l Wb»[lJn r, Kr>w York. H. A R H. 

■ IndUot FijaunUAIIli^nLlHuOi IL R La. 19 l£.LW7.n Aa S«fLaOCH 

T. HaniluuliliKL Apf^XS^KUKAfx Crudiil t. ti^m^ie R L SWISS ASL 

88Siie»^«lSiaC tmjm oa tbe di^lfnt 1l«|^ 807, « Am ZL QiA SH <10M)| 

or iB*>lir aad nnnrant vrith tiupDct lllutfviUn RAEO. ILlLOav. 

li»«H>l^°«^«<^ ^t^<^ *' -^t^ 1^ ^^^C Am. ELOm, 

83 N.J<Uw. «(>0,3G AaRoikSM.* «Yf«nle7T.8ilDteiTDlas,ATi1«plL 
Ami KL Qm. 377 (LlISS)^ Simdr T. Ai> Ox. 110 Cml VlB,4t Vnn. Rtpt iSa^ a 

vMiMaubB.u.co^eeG^siii^8>& aol £l Ou mh utf»i^ 



soe 



BLSCTUO wiitu lar fTiu;Ki9 AXD nianwATft. (S^H 



quTFLHl blm to nso;' &ii<l * disUaction wiut mftdd bctiffeen tliia 
caae and onj^ in vliich aaerrantincidcnUUj, in thcooono of hii 
cmpIoTineiit, was required to climb a polo bcloo^og to VLOtlwr 
coinpuay, ud tbiawuhcid tobconeof tbonikiof bia^iaploj^ 
meot.' 

$SM, tontrilintorj iiucliffCncc — 4;iift«.— Xho liability <rf 
tboiC who mainUin pok^ und Tiirc« to |H)iv<mt injvwl by r««- 
SOD ol their neglig«iioo in cottfltmctjng, lu&inuiniai; or oporat- 
in^ thoir Liooa U eubjoct to tiko ItmiUilioa that tho plnifitiQ 
hiiniolf inu»t oxerciso duo care. Tb« prioclplQ is a familiar 
on«, and the application of it depends upon tlio circumsUncci 
of the pjtrticaLar ami- It U e&ough to giro oxampLot ctf tlio 
applic4Ltion of it to cases relating to poles and wires. 

It bus b^>D held that a mun drivirg a clusisj vebicle who 
comes ujion n wire luingini^ tovr at^ross a crowilisl KTnH?L ii cot 
guilty of contributory neglii^i'iioa because^ on being auddi?Q|y 
confronted with ua omergency, ha mods an orror of judgmcat, 
turning the wrong way;' that the failaro of a pt*ntcn walk- 
ing in thi^ street in the day-ttioe to notice an el«ctxio viro on 
the aidovalk is not to be bold contribntory ncgligcDOO iK a 
matter of law ; ' that a man repairing a roof on which tlieto ^ 
ao electric wire which ho mustcitbcr 8tcp over or stoop oniler, 
Ia not n<<gltgcnt la doin^ eithor tiio one or tbo oLbcr^if tbu 
wire id apparently properly iodolatcd ; * that nadcr tho furenm' 
atanctis of the caeo tlivro was no oridcnco of oontribatory wtg- 
ligonco on tho part of a boy who picked up a wire which au 
lying on tbo sidewalk and wa3 heavily charged with oleotrinity]* 
that und(;r other clnruniNtanoos it was a qn««tion for tho jury 
whe-ther or not a boy waa ne^gligent m pfclcing np aod throw- 
ing away from him a broken wire Eigaintt which ho had beoa 
warm.^1;* :iiul again^ lh:Ll. it Uncgligrnce ffjv'an intiilligisntbiiy 

* Dnuli ElooL Lf ghUog Ox fJSM^t 

iM ind. 32a sa K VL uvp. sia am^ 

*0«mU]lH T. LonUdftaa CkirUfo 

UjcUt co^ 44 La A^kik ooa^ ti a R*t^ 

31. 4 aoi. EL Oaa tai (lR»a 

K a »f, 19 a n B«p au a Am. Bi 

Caoi M iiBH\ 

'TfVKiickun Om « EUdtlo Llgkl 
Ca T. On, n Att. VIS, 97 & W. 
44, 5 Am. EL Ov> n (1»H> 



> Saa AntooJo Edban Ca T, Dixon, 
4S S. W. liflp. liXM* (TflJU Ctv. App, 

^Dfxna V. Wmt«ra Cnfon To1«t» 
Cft, ffi hVJ. R^ii iwsa ?l F*t n«|^ 143 
(HW5> cy. Nnwwk EUotric U « P. 
Oik r. OiVTd«D, 73 P»d. R«r^ 74, » U. 

a ArjL iia 

potr«T Co., 43 tA. AitiL w. a & R<^ 
sas, a Aak CL Cu. 470 viesu 



S»C60 



COVfTftUCl'IO^ ^Nt) UAlKTJ^KAyCK. 



StT 



scTontocn ycara ot tiga to Uke hold ofafalkn «lcotr>o iriro 
afl^ ho has be«a u>Ld that it is daii^roiu.ui(l eft]>oci4lly whoa 
hd ehoiFod by wrapping h.B hAadkerdikl around bis bn&<l tliut 
bd knew th^ro vii« clatij^r iit toaobini; th« vri»;^ aud th^t it 
IB not contributory ne^liic^nce for a policemati on duty to at- 
tempt to i^iDOve a d«o£oro«i0 wiro from tbo etivtit with hKs 
ibAca.* Id a cam to MowaohoaetU It w&a lef i ondecUlM irbecbor 
aa «2perieQ0«d Unt^m&n standing on a copper roof ww n^gli- 
gitnt in stooping nador a groap of wiros vrblcli ht knvw mtght 
be dangeroni, and to i;omin^ in coniiict with another group of 
dnngemos winH wliich he might bsve seen hut did notniHico* 

§36r>. The Wiinft — Olhf^r cjLsei«. — fr atxahur ntw^ in thn 
aamo court it vra* hpM U> bavn been projjt-iJy Wt u> Ui« jury 
to say vbothor a workman, not the ficrrant of tho d<>fondjtnt, 
iru ncgUgeot in not seeing that tho mrvs ^Liuon^ n'hicb he was 
iroridn^ were not pro|>crIy insalfLtod at a ci^rtain point, or in 
Icttaa^ hia pliers get caught upon a. wiro.* In a caoc in Coii* 
fomia* it u-as h«ld not to bo error to refiuo to ohar^^ th« jnry 
**tlut the public are presumed to knovp enough of tbe dangen 
of electricity U> avoid thu dongor^ wJitoh ariio out of iU pmo- 
tical nac." Xho dcgrco of care required, the ooort said, depeoda 
uponthakiiovh3<iji^andint€UigdDoeof thoperaoit, TheplainV 
tit u only roqalrod Co use **such oaroasaman in hUooadition 
1b life would ordinarily exert under the carcuin^incAS,** 

In Virginia an expenencod lineman Boarcliiag for an op>>a 
eurreni, and knowing that tho currvnt for good n^aaona waa 
turoeil on, was Iie]d to be guilty of contributory negljgonce Id 
gni9|»ng the sbttot cord ut l\w vni\ \v\urU b<> knew u^ he nnin- 
aolated, and ;;nu]»in^ at tbi? it^mc tiiui: this uut^u^'irmd t*f)d 4>f 
tbo lino wirv/ But whetv an inexpenenced man wsui sent Co 
retnOTo lamps froiu a ctrcuiti and tbo ctirreat waa iciraod 



*DnkinrAtl«eli«firCi>iintT Light 

« UfrUw r. nofllon KUrtrtr Lts^t 
Ca, I«l Mm 5W, 57 N, B. |£*p 7T4 

*lUUiCB"vrth V. lkc4oia KlscUio 
tl(bt4:<v,IA1 3tom8a,^X. &Kapi 
niL a Am. Ja Cm, 3)3 (]l«i> bee 



t^ao Orlfln T. CniCed Et«e4rio tUffht 
Co.. 154 Ua«. 40&41 74.&H«fLg7X 
a AvL EL c^ ass (laUSi; B«^a T. 
Bootoa iavotrlaUafatti&,iaTlUM 
4M. ti 14. EL Aap^ 7U (lem 

>Oir«n'li T. Kbr4jlo IfniiniTvcnenl 
Cd. 197 C»L tea M Pm, K«fi. 148, a 
Am, EL Ou S10 OiW\ 

'Fiadmosl EI«otria lUon. Ckb v, 
pDttMOn^ Ailm'E, 94 Vik W. a& tt 
IWp. i 3 Antb EL C^ 8» (1888^ 



sdS 



KUCnBO WIMMB IV HflUVIt AJEp VWPWATI. 



BMA 



I 



on outior than ofnl, and be was isjojod bj cloctrio Aook, H 
was bold in Cotorodo that m ikomait was pioperij refottd, iftil 
tlut the qnftftjou of d^Uj^oc« aod cootHbotorj negligesM 
were properly left to the jury*^ 

Whero a pol I^iaan wu f ouod de^d at the foot of tn etecttk 
lump pott ttoand vrhicb was coikd to niuotnlated wiT% njiA 
Oi«Tv was eridenoe of B]«otrio Ehock, it was bdd tv K«w Jtmajr 
tbitt IbA mere fact that he came in contact iritb raeh a win 
was not evid«itcB of contributory DegMgence. Tiie coart fiu4 
tborowas nocvidcncc tbnt ho ha^w it was charged vritb de^ 
tricit/, and that he bad a right to prMiinM thAt the line was n 
nuiDtamod as not to be a scmrco of danger to persons in th4 
•tt«et* 

And ID Kansas it was held that the fact Umt a lire win ii 
omitting sporkfi, apparently jcopardmog a bailding, will not 
preclude the owner troza attempting, with ordinary pirudeoce, 
to remove the wire and rcUove hb property from danger aarf 
that such an ftttompt is not, as a matUtr of law, cootributor; 
negligenoe? 

So, alsO) in renaaylvEnia it was held that a poUceman ea 
doty, who on a miny night attempts to remoro with bis macs 
from ft str^t on his beat a broken wire hanging from a p(^ 
knowing it to be cbari^l with electricity, is not ■nrcMafiljr 
golUy of negUgeutA;* and in MaMscbuMtts the quos^on 
of the negligenee of a person in the street who was struck bj 
a switch stiek wbidi flirw from th« hanils of tho conductor of 
an oleotrto cat whs held Co bare been properly left to the jcuy.' 

§SGO. Iiijurj from electrk shock^Joint ne^llgeMe— 
Vruximate cnaso. — la many cases of injory by eleoUio ahock; 
the accident is doe to the joint D^gligenco of porsoos or coa- 
paniot mamtainin]^ two different liaco of elee'-He wire. If the 
nt'i^'b^nto of boUi contributes directly to the injury, ibcw ia 
no doubt that both are jointly and sevorajjy liable; bnt then 



1 1 Cula sea, S Aiu. EL Cna 801 <lfle8b 
■Aaburbau ElMtrio Oa. t. Nngvak 

■S S, J. lAV.t^UIAci Uflpi less 

(IBMV 
> LmrfiuKorlh Coft] Ou t. RaKIi- 



« mn&tt *. Atli«bwi7 Co votT UsH 

* UA&Blnfc T. VTMt ECod St. Hr. Oft, 
1«« M»«. C30. 44 7f . £: Sep. m* 
Aiu. Et U& 3Cft(tdW> 



i 



$436.] 



oo^'l!TltuoTtovr ^Hi> UAi3rnt.vA7Ccic 



flW 



nro CO9C0 ID wbicli the cc^ligcncc of oiic is tho remote, nn<l Uiivt 
of Ibo other tho proximate, oauae, or in which ihcrc b a quG»- 
tiOQ as to ^bich id the proximnto couee— wfaetbor both hvq cU- 
root and oOLcicnt ontm^, or whothor tho n^^gllgenoo of ono ;s 
too romoto to he the ^^round of liabili^. 

Thoccbj^etof pToximatocnuAOiedi&cDwedin&cfiM in whidt 
tho immediate canse vas not the electric current of nnoelier 
company, bnt that which came from the clonds in a thnnder^ 
utorm, nnil it vczn hi^ld (hut :l ti'lophonc* compttny ^v;ls tmhic for 
a ibock to the plainiifF from contact with a vtjre hjingioj; loytr 
in tho streot and char^I with electricity bj reason of the 
aUtrruJ Tlin cuurt^ rvft-rring tit tht? niht laid ihtwn hj t1J9 
United States sapreme court in Jtnttim^u^ Ct*. c: Twt^t.I,^ Haid: 
"Th© new foreo or power horc would have heon hannlcsa bat 
for Uift displacoil wire, and the fact that the wire took on a 
DOW force with the creation of which the defendant was not 
fespotLBiblc; yet it contributed no leu iJiroctly to tho injur/ on 
that aooo«nt«** 

In Ah^r/^ tf. Oregon Td^^ol^ Co.* the defendant had by per- 
minion ctrnn^ a wire npon the polo of an elootnc-Ught com- 
pany^ and afterwards, when the xTire was no lonf^r used, instead 
of rtrmovin^ it, the dt'fendant wri*pped it nround an electric- 
light pote, and tbi.n tho electric -light oompany took down thig 
polo and bnng the wire on aDothi.^r pole so that the ond of it 
catno !H*wr the siilcwalk. Hero it bivamu <'li;t!vi'd with i\ rtir- 
rent from an electric-light wire and injur<?d tho plaintiff. It 
was shown that bh«^ tiOephone wire wiu harmlvM in itself, and 
thai tbr* rurrrtot vtii» Uiai of the e[ecin4;-tlgfit coinpuny, and 
that the di?fendaDt had no Icnowledge that that compdnj bad r^ 
moved the pole and wire; bat tlie court hold that the clefondantt 
kaTinjcr the wire wherd it had no right lo be, and havinj^ left 
it in the street and knowing that there w*!.-^ danger of iU being 
ebarged with a danj^rou:» ouircnt of eleotrieity, woa houncl to 
took after it and see that it did not become dangerous lo irnT- 
aloni. AlthotJ(:h the current came from tho other comjKiny's 
wife, yc% without the defendant's wire the cuneni would not 



lB«athw«»Ura Tak^ « T»1«ph. C«. 
r. BoUiuon, 50 Fed. &«|k 6l(^ i Am. 

■iTaltsa 



>M Orag. «7ak 88 PiKi Rep. 4*^4 
Am. EL Ou MS (IMVft aOrinffl OQ 
rouUDQ fora nhMriafii D& Dm^ lUpk 
ai>il9lM> 



JM 



AVD n«««4ri. 



U«T. 



hM.te reoehod the plaiotiil; and although tb«» wu sa tnt^vrcs- 
iof caose, jet tha deEeodut** Degligvooa oooiribaieil diroMly 
to tli4 in jury, A vonlict for tha ptaiittifl wat awtuned.^ 

Tlie qoortloiii oi prozisiat^ caiasa and joint liability $aom h 
A COM in the Bopreuo coort of X«w York.' A telegtaph oo» 
panj oOQtrotlad aJhw of wires glthar aa Icaaee or ti ocni ai^ 
used it joiatJy vriih aikotlMr oovpany. An tnnlntar 
tha other company, set loostlj oa a p^. warn Uirown dovn b| 
tbo act of a lin&iDan fimployed hy the ^itr. The danger of tbi 
loceo insalator being thTown off was held ta bo not ao rsiDola 
that tliv jnrj coM not rairijr fiml that it might rcanooablj be 
anticipated. The defendAEit vra& b^ld chargeable with Iba 
nafctjr of tiw pole becanao of its cootroi of tho line, crco thoo^ 
ilweroateaMe or eT«naUcoitaee;aad the fact that bat for Iba 
act of the city*a Uneioan the mjury woold not havo 
wm h«ld not Co kUcvo the dcfcndaat frotn Jiability, 
the eaaa came fairly vitliia tho nilo that ^ vrbon sereral prosit 
mato oanaoa contribnto to an accidonti eithor of which is aa 
€fflo!flDt caoMi, vithout trbich tbo ftccidont would not hnTo hap- 
pondd, it may ba at:ributod to any or all of them." 

Tha uma rule was appUdJ in a cam in Montana wbcia a 
horse, becoming frightened, ran into and brolco a gny wira 
iw |>lnn«^l lui to bo d&ngeroas. and tae bfx>l:en wini, reocHliigt 
dragged tlia plain tifr from h«rhorxi>,an<i^Li> wua Injured. Tha 
oonrt bald triat if the o)j3tructk>n in tha street con tribal 
the injury, and thv sliyin^ of tlie stranger^ hone was not' 
aole catoe, tben the dcrfr^ndaot was liuble.* 

$267. The same— Unard-vlrf^-^^VbcreairolIey-wife 
lawfully snapended over 4 street and was nnprotccted by 
viroa, and tbo ptaintiff^^ boisea were injured by electric shock 
thron^lth a telephone wire which was broken by a stotin and 
foil upon the troUey-wire, it was held la Xow York that the 
proxtEnito eamo of the injtiry was the falling of the l4>lephoii» 



'Ofi lh# qiUMtieo of proximico 
ewHe Ifa* court elt^l R^iTw&r Co v. 

T- TvtmS, 7 Wait M-. *yilhir«rt. 
am tW«» A: TtaWplb Co. r, Bobtn>», 
&0 F«L lUfb ei(^ i Am, EL Cn* Sa 

JQeai ^ Enpin State X«Upli. A 



Tolog, Cou tS live, Bofx {». T) 
N, Y. Hnp^ lUI; A Am. CL Ou. 

LigLt Ov.. IT lIuiU. E3, 41 Paa B«lL 

ofio, Am EL c^ aia <i«0K 



.] 



COyiSTUJJCnOV X3IB UXlitTB^XHCK, 



801 



wire, aad Uiat tbe elcelric ndlway conipuiy rvaa not tUble.* 
Tli« court said; **The coiutruction and operation of tbed^ 
feailftiiL^ milrvKul by « ctiigi<» tnilloy pow«r wac not the direct, 
iKoesBary aod naioral cause of tbe iojurj complained of. But 
for tho oocinTQDce of other events over whicb the defeudaot 
hail no contnil^ i\u^ injury ih^tiM nr>t fjivo }iHp|M*D<ut ^ 

!n a Mse in Teniie«S4w, where tha wire« of a u^lo^hocie com- 
pany liad plainly become iin|)£Lircd where tht>y crossed the 
wirfttof an el«clric railway and llicrc tTJW no guiinlwirc b«>- 
tween Ibcto, &E>d tbe iioniedUte c&Lise of tbe fall cf the t«lo* 
pbono wire vnis the brealciag of a pole by a burning boildtng, 
it was beld Uuit both cotiiparui.^ft wt^re liable to one whose borao 
wa^ £tmck by the telephone vrirc and idllcd by the electricity 
from the trolley witi\ The court mmt that both compankt 
were nader obligation to keep the highway rcsfionably aafe; 
both know of tbo ungouniln^^cs of tbe tolepbone wire itnil of the 
dan^r of ita coniaiGt with the unprotected trolley wiro, and 
both wore liable for tbe failure to gnard against thiB danger* 

Tbu drsTision wa* api>rov<!il iind followinl by the «i]pronie 
court of Alabama. The pl^ntiS complained that his horse wna 
kiiUd by » *bork riMrJ^vi^l from a tvlepbonn win.- which hacl 
fallen upiJii It trollwy wini The milway isomp/uiy aictwered, 
aetttog up ilA right to maictam and opera^te tho trolley wire 
with ft dangrniUTi uunriitr ^*^*^ ^^^ Urlnphonn c(>mp»ny alvo &n* 
avrered, iniiaUng that it was tbe duty of tbe railway compcioj 
to prevefti contact with ita dangcrooA wire in caao a lelcplioae 
wire shoojd falL Uemurrent to both of tbc«r muwers wero 
nstoincd. It waa held that the companies were jointly liablo 
for suffering tho wire, after failingi to remain in contact with 
the dangerous wire,* 

g £08. The aaaie— Continued.^ In a ease fn Arkansai^ 
^^laie a telephone wire sTitepended above a trolley waa broken 
^^■d wns allowed to remain for sevctral ilnys with an t^nrl ia thn 
aU«et, and a boy, stopping on It, natt injured by electno abuck, 
in an action agaiust the owner of tho toleptiono wlro And the 



«tlL 4 Am. BL CiUL 30: {i9HV Wtth 
ncard to Ibo pnc&utioDji to be uboJ 
tv knpliic tok^lluns wtrts frum 
iMaUc< vith bMvLl7 ea*rn«d vitv^ 
M* K4>b«Mku r«i«pk CoxT, K»ir Ycck 



T LT&iUid Klcolrto Ox t. StMltant » 
Tvnn. 433, 1« a W. e«p. SB {tm% 
» McKay v. fi^vdi-ni Ball 'Mt^h. 

via^col. lit Aift.!m. 19 aBo^oav 



3QS 



m.T'TTsio wtBBS t^ arocrrfl asd niaitwAT«. [{ SO}, 



stroct Yaiiway i^ompany the jury fouiid both ^ilty of ne^ 
g&nco^ttic former in peroittiag tbo wire to romain itov^a, 
Ami the letter in alluwin^ it to become oharg^ with eleoui^ 
ity. The court eaid: " If this be tnio, tho iojuiy wto tho k- 
suit of the conc'urrio^ nogligenc« of the two porticA, nrnd wouM 
not har^ oocurr«4 in tlif> abnonco of d'.hcr. In that case tho 
nogligdnco of thd two was the proximate cause of tbo a^mtt, 
and both prticft tir^ liablo.' It wii« Also WJ that the bcU 
warrnnted the iDfereQoe that the telopbone wire recoiled tW 
dafijf^rou* curi'ent from the trolley wirL% although Uwro wu 
Qo evidepce of a^tunl contact Tliom wa« a ftimilar dediloa 
in t!tii ^raryl^tid court of appwk In a Uter case* A teE^phoM 
wlro Ltd liiiit«tn rmd fallen acro^^s thv intuUU'd rr-i«I-virv of 
au doctric railway, and nfmaicnl fur two wrvlft In liucb a po- 
sitic>n as to wear off the insulation, and it was kcid t^t tb« 
facU ja^tifii!il the infi^nmoo ibat tho currfnt which IuU«d a 
man who touched the telephone wire came from the feed*win^ 
and tL juil^cnt egatnat both componi^a was sustained. 

In the UniU'<l St&Ccs cirouitcouri of appDils in New Jenej,* 
whoro A boy was injured bvfihock from a telegraph wipo wbi«i 
had brohen and follcit aoroes on olfictri&light wiro and boooou 
beaTily cltiu-^'ed, evidtrnoe of the condition of the wire nine 
months aft^r the accideat, and that there w&s then no guinl' 
wire, was held admidsiblo as shifting the burden of proof, aaiI 
it waa held that the questions of negligence and of proximata 
cause wore properly leift to the jury. Quoting Mr, Jostira 
Stnmgfn aciuein thi* supreme eourL/Judgo^iileisiaJd: "The 
qnration always is: Was there an unbroken connf>ctionbetwe«a 
the wrongful iitrt anrl thr? injury ^-a nunlinuotm op<niiv)&P 
Dul the facia coDNtiLute a tHintinuouA sucx^saton of events 90 
linkt.^ together aa to make a natural whole, or was there wnio 
newnnd indrpondcintamse interrcaiing between the wroog 
the injury ?" 



>Clty UlACtnc Bt Ut. Ctx ▼. Con* 

> WMUim naltm TnL Ol at BaltJ* 
mon Uiy T. ijto^ «! 3(4. ^90. 38 JUL 
Bop.T8l.ft An. tZ CW-L 314 UWh 
8i^*U> KauUkTC E^octric By^Co. 
T. wriiirAniora,4nnL A|>fk«ii4 A31, 
1£L Ou 3«^ A to ai(t%«u» of «ueo» 



nllvTkf PompKOf In allofr&ns tnChf 
po^o to bnmk a teJephcnv vin ■> 
th«t U foil Qpoia tb9 troUer vfaVb 
• WeOvro rnScm TbL Ca v, nam* 

3sa aAn^uaLS4F^B«fL«T.a 
Am. El Ca& les (ISH). 
^RaUvmf Oft v. Eelk«(,H 



i2«^.] 



COSffTaCCTIOK A^D UAlKthSiSClL 



dod 



S69. Tbesame — Contmaed*— Altloagh Lho absence of 
giunl*iriT«4 maj bo an clement of negligence, yet it cannot bo 
Boid as a niaUor of Uvr that citln^r or botb of two ooRipanicd 
maiataining different linca of wires in the samo 8t<^t aro bound, 
ia tbo abacuoc of statute or ordinance, to nuuDtnin ^nan1-nnr«« 
for tbd purpose of prcventb;^ th« horinJeaa vnrcs of iLa ono 
from coRiio;; id contact witU tb« dan^roiis wires of the other. 
In tho o&M in Xew Tork above rt^i^rrud to ' the oourt mid 
tbero vms no ertdence " that gitard-wires u'ere either neeesaiy 
ur OMual id tho congCrtiction of sJnglo trolley lioc£ for pro^>cUing 
streetcars;** and in a reeeatCniKe in Llit* o*nirt«^jf «mjn*of New 
Jeroy' it app&ired on ihi3 trial that tliero was a difference of 
opibiua &mc»rig uxptrix ax to \vl]<^t'hr^r |friiilvrnc(f iv/i^uiiTtt ilw iiKO 
of guarJ-irtraa or not,aod it was held that HwoBt pnipifrlv IkU 
to the jnrf to detcrmioo whether the faJloro to use guard-wirva 
vraa negligencf^. In llitB caAO the court said tliat tiic d^^fcnd- 
aatSta tekphorte coiupany and a street-rail war company, were 
^'cttch maintaining wir^ in a publio highway id the cocercise 
ot a fraDchise, not of an ooflemeat; hence each was l)ouaJ to 
take rcaflOQublo can: not to injuro other tiscre of tfao ctrccta,*' 
and tbat "in tho cue of a powerful electric eurrunl m lho 
streets reasonable care is f^reat care>^ and a rerdiot a^inst both 
eompanies was sustaiaod. 

la the supreme court of Wisconsin, fa an action agaCnst a 
street-railway company f the conn said: "In the prtrsent condi- 
tion of the science and of ihe prucUeiit knowlcdgi? on Uii^ sub- 
j«ot, it cannot be said, as a matter of law, what method of 
guanltng tlm wir*?^ ithnW Ite rf^ciuirinl, or whether nny guards 
■hall be rei^uirml, fi^ir it in nut knovva to tlie Inxv th^it Jiny 
method now known will be effective. But it is a qaestlon for 
the jury, under all ti^e f-icts in the case, to determine whotbor 
the method actually u»ed was nogligeat"' 

It tho dangerous wire ot tho cloc tric-riilway company is law- 



>|BST. no(4 1 

iH»w YotIc « It J- T^t^h. Ca r. 
BaOMtC U If. J. L, Tte, 4S Ml Kip. 
lWtl8fiH 

> B\Vtk T. WiTwirilrm St. Uj. Qx.SS 

EL CW 29& Tbe court sniJ that Uh 
dvMia wiu fa no waj IncDiubioDC 



irllb tt« own dorrfrion fn St4il« ot i«L 
WisoovitlD Tol«ph. (kL V. jAOMriDa 
St Bj. CO^, $7 W;a 73, 57 K W, lZ«p. 

m^4 Adx EL <teSeS:ln which It 
«ri« hithi thata nituitf?l|mlocdliiMioa 
ra^ring tb« m» «f ^wri' wire* w«# 
r m ft o nahto ft»d mij^ b« Mif orccd hf 
mdnJaniub 



k 



.Ml nxcmc vntn nr fntn* amp moflVATt. [{ na 

follj in the stmrt and !■ it« proper pbcvt ra^ °o pre yiAo ti 
■uide bj tbUe or local aaUiorili«s that the raOtfaj conpuj 
rittll pai ip gnard-inras, it it Uho dn^ of Uiosq wbo mini tail 
other wirai aboreand aoron tbelino to talce gr^at care to pa- 
rent tbem rrocn faille^ tipoa a wire that is baown to be dift- 
gerooa, awl the caaoa in which the railiraj company has b«B 
bold Uablo aro tbosc in which it has been fooad gi^ty of i^ 
Hgesoft in not taking doc prccaotjon against aocSdoota d B 
might reasooaUy be anticipated, or in which it bu permlttoi 
dao^roui oonditlonu or actoal ooDtaet to oontioocs and m^ 
with knowleclj^ of the dangM*^ has contiai>od to diaeharg* a 
daDgoroiu carreat with lajtiriofit effooL 

gSTO. Joint n<>^1l^enre— Proximate came — Coocloaloaa. 
Thraw rJJtt'S 9vr\rt ns faamjilm n( thp qomUoflt ihat ^nm with 
rc^rd ta the liability for injuriea arining oat of tJin joint use of 
thfl Btrpctfl for various kiiKla of electric wirea* The primtptvi 
to be appTiod am dr^vrd fron cnscs that nay havv no rete^ 
enoQ to etectrio wirea, and tbcj are discossod in Lbe text-books 
npon the law of torta, of damagea^ or of higbwaja* and mista 
traci»l in the collections of loading oases npon Iheso anbjMl 

The aubjeot of proximate caoso is involted in every coso 
where two or moro pcisons are &Ucged to have cootnbnUd 
more or leas directly to an injury, and where tlik injury arises 
from tho nso of a dangeron» thin;; in a pnblic bLfoc^ tSe prtn- 
oiplM^verning the ri^htJt antl dott^Te of Ihoso who nj« tho high* 
ways are involved, Thegubjectof proiimatecaaaeiscarofi^y 
conHid(?rod in tbo htst cditiun of Sbearman & Rodfield en 
NegUgenee. The breach of duty^ they say, ainit be the prox^ 
maUi cAHsi>, and the injury most have oome in nitOTBl and oofi* 
tinuoEjK sMjuL-nre, and they <]iMrrii^ th<T qit ration n( foreseoD and 
uiforeaiien i-:(insef|uenc«t, and hovr far and when no inEf^rron* 
ing cutiso broiks the sequence and retieres the person frorn 
liability- for the nctaiil rcsnit, and conclude Unit it in only when 
itiaeithorasuperaediDgora rcApoaftiblecause. If it su|!4frscdo» 
tlie Ofiginal cause, it is no matter whether it is i&toliigeoi or 
not; hut it it doce not sapcnede it, Uien Uic tir^t party is not 
vellovcd nolosa the interrcnlng canse was the culpable aci of a 
bee af^nL* 

l5t)^«Girm A Rodf. on N4^, tS. B«« gur^ ttn TbrtA niUs 2S-3S; B^r- 
abo Tolkiok OD Tort^ pp. fiO-3D; t<rm oa Noj^ 17; Dotw«U od IVr- 
Cooiey oo Ttirt% M tt, 41; 1 ^*^,'^ vna^ ^liuWk iMv Thotaimm ea 



%m.i 



C0Ji9TBtCTt<^ AXt UACXTE^AjtC^ 



WW 



{271- N(^lig«nc« — Rrsipsaloqaitnr. — When iDJuricsare 
cusol hj the uso of electric wires id Uiu stnmte, tlio qn<!«tJoD 
often &ruMft vb^tbor bbo happemng of tiia ftccldeut ii of iUtelf 
.prand/ooftf «ricleiio& of tho Bftgligeooo of th« porson in con- 
trol of tbc vtn». If tii« duly is to iiwiro agftitut injury, thca 
the lojury ia andoDbtedly /n' mayWuf proof of & breach of tbo 
duly; bat orea wbcn tho duty ia ooiy to oxcrcisc grci&t caro In 
Tiow of tbo daoj^r, there are caacs ia which thi^ tact tbut barin 
W9S done is ovidenco of tbo want of snoh core, Esoopt m cases 
in which tho dofucdaDt is cborgod vrith tho duty of an tnsnrer, 
it ia always iacombent on tbe plaintiS to wtabti&h n^li^sod 
na tho part cf the defendant; b^t there are cases in which tbo 
faots wbloh prove tho aocldonc alsGo ftpnalc of tho noglEgoaeo of 
tho defendants and throw npon him the burden of escplaining 
them, and vbiiwrng tbnt Uiu i»x*id(nil is due to some other 
cause than hU want of c^re. In flucli cajies tbe oouru upply 
the maiim nvy»*a tofuiiur. This am only be applied, bow- 
erer, when tho aocadcot is sucb that tlie iiulurd und rctuonablo 
infereiico is that it woaM not have happened bnt for the ne^ 



K^ lOeA: B Am. A f^jt Ency, rtf 

iftw^^ai-ass^ad td.), title *-Dam>ir»." 

^ e■ '6lli^oo o otn»■ora4Jp■^o^cd^ad 
navjcvn are cltoiL Thn Iwlins 
SMW en Uffiit oovM an coUoot^d in 
S Ank0» A Smiik't flfikct Ctaaee on 
1Vtft«oh.I Anuac tb««c Are LonU 
•f Bcimnejr Hanh t. Trinitj ITdrur^ 
LR,SExcb.20l; J^ai^ch-SH; 
UcDooftl^ V. SqoUuuc. 14 AllcB (Ma«k 
ISO: 8a>U T.fibtiphDnl 2 Wm. Uivk. 
SS9: GUOUUI r Kof*^ 57 y, U. SYI: 
MUwBokM ft Sc Piud Ry. Co. T, Kcl- 

M D. & 4M; Smitli t. IjmvJoq 
W.t^.C<L.f.n.BaP. U; IUt^ 

«. fiorkt^. 1 Suoh, Uw (a CJ 
BS5: Wil^ T. W«4 J«tai7 fij. Ox. -H 
N.J.L.S4T; Al«cknJArv.:?«wOMtt». 
IISIimL au BIdCorI v. JohDSbSi, GS 
Inl «>•; F««fw Uae t, AtUalic 
VoctA Itl SlMk t»; Ifjw V. M*' 
ttsM « Bq<1«M Cttnal Co. M Hun 
(K T.I, 835; Haiba<ra r. LoaduQ 
SitmI Tra»9«An Ca. S Law Tiims 
B*fh(N. a)4l StwalBoKanHMCitj 
^ FIK U Pbc^ It«fp, 977: Wood r, 
90 






nfiimnA'l F:i«>ct,H<i Co^ ISA f^ Bt dWt 

30Aa Uep. nil, when jtvaabeld 
tldt the Df^cUKcocic of an eleobrio 
fyfisroiir wu iLot tho prnxflmata 
CAtiMoftha^loftthof «a« vhoEoLiahod 
a hotVLlj- chiktgi^i 0cn»a vritU full 
Qottra of itl twDditioo. Tttut t. 
Rnchfvt^. 37 AppL Div, 407. 5A Nl T. 
Sapp. ti;v)-H^T: afUrme't 89 Ap|L DLr, 
055. C7 N. Y. Supth ItiSl wJiorv Uis 
cJfroDdaafB idf^laUliia iqnQ a iroU 
Ivjr vrim. wm aI tAnrardi pulUl dowQ 
by oUion >o «« to atrika the f4*lA|UT 
Ia tUo MlrvcL CotikiAro hfiivU t, 
KuHtn. I g. K SS: TJLonnii r. Win- 
charter, S S^ V. WJ; O^anet^ t, Uluv- 
tnj^n. L R 5 ExoL 1: llmvon r. 
Ffcikr. 11 <i. li. Dlr. DOS: KUbU r. 

UftU. in g. a uit. bik; Cujt t. H9w. 

ark & K. V, IL Coh. S5 ». J, L. iTi 
lMt%^ V. AiLujUo VTufk^ 10? Uii«a 
101; fnark t. CZiJunliMX S Q & DIr. 
8iT, IVKn^KuLCte ja In tbli lul 
cMso II a>uiS bo obwrrvd Ui^t Ihw 
thutj£tn\iM ariScU tmmk In Um lit|l^ 
waj «H p]AC«l U»*ra uolAvfuIlj, 



40» 



XLttmuc Winn m musrra Asn> sioslwxzb. [§ ft73. 



loct of fluty OD the pnrC of iHc doft^ndant, or whea it appears 
lliat tUe fa^^ jlto «a far wlUiin the excloake knotrledgo of tfao 
df^frmUnt that it is reasonabl'? U>€iU1 npon Him for fin «Tp1anA* 
lion of UiA iojary; and il nuui aht^jr^t be remembered thftt it 
is a general ruio of law that the mere proof of the occnrreDce 
of &Q accident miflca no prc«iiniptljD oT n.'^i^cncc.' 

§ 3 j3. The 8tTne — €a«ics.— The maxiut has been appUoi 
whore injuries hare beca caused by the fnUi&g of ctectrio ap- 
p&mtus Bct up iQ the street, or from the c«capo of the oleotrio 
currctit whon it ooaEd not vreli hare oaoapod vritliout tho ttolt 
of tho ilcfondiiDti 

la a cciAe ia ^aMoohiuctta ■ a pieoe of iron forming part cf 
the overhead apparatus of nn electric railtr^y fell ii[»n a trav- 
eler in tbi> stro^rt. It mts hold not to be error to ohargo the 
Jury that although tb© plaintiff moat prove aegligence, yet if 
aothm^eUu appeared it would be competent to And nc^igvnoe 
on proof of the tnunrKT in ^vhcch tlie accldeni oocarred. Tba 
court said : '* ffo one bal the defendaat vraa resjionHible for tbo 
nbfoty of i&« uppjirntus. . . If tho defcnilaat should offer 
DO explaiutioii of ihn hr^alttu^, and no i^videaue tJtat it tud 
takcD paia^ to make the app^atua safe^ the only proper iafe^ 
tiaoe vrouHl be that it had not taken roasonable care to moke 
tbo appar^tud safe, and the jary should find zteg;ligcnc« on its 
part." 

The maxim wns rt^fL^rnnl to in a case in the Kew Toric su- 
preme coart. A man worlda^ on a roof rooei?od a shock 
from elecinc-liglit wires of ^^hich the insaiation was defecbro* 
Tha seed of makitij? proof cf ncgiigeooo was rccoj^oizcd, bat 
the question was guj*£;eeted whether the hnppeniD^^of the aod- 
deat did not carry with it an impuutioa of ni^ligonee, since 



> Bohr V, Loiutarj. AfTteA Ux. 5S 
K. J. Law,2^^ £1 AM !ta|). lOLt.^S AtL 
Koji. t07^ A« Ui the lueacln^ ttad >;w 
pUcolioQ of Vut maxim rev Jpfci taqvi' 
fur, i«e g SSa. tvpra, aD<l ih^ cue* 
tlMreclt«<)- AnJ tie«tt1ir>PciTlockoTi 
Tort*. 41E9; Hciilli on N>^IlffeDCWk *9L1: 
HoLj04 2^o<[Llniii.Da£ics.Qh.lX< Artt- 
ol« Ie> 10 Chk-«ipT U J. SOI ; 3 Jai:]can] 
na Tartu, ^ei; ^(hfomi. & Rixif. on 
y«l^ ^ M; Smil T> UDdoa A St 
KAi^zm«B I>9C^ Oa»9 H> d G SM 



(IMS); KWmftf v. Londea & A & C 

len T, at. John. 57 S. V, iSeT; T^ny r, 
Aihtos. 1 Q. a Div» aU] Bbaidao i^ 
Foley. 56 K, J. Uw, SRX 88 AtL lb|h 

Am. EL Cu SSf n«3U 

• Kiutm V. Gnlj. tf7 Uun, »&, Si 
N. Y< S«V^ rVl 5 Atn. EL Cha W. 




'•] 



ODSfTSOCnON AKU VAlKTKirjUlOK, 



Wt 



was e^dent tliAt if Ui« ^fM bad beon proporly insulated 
the accid<»nt wotild not ha7o h&pponod, and tbat ivjth proper 
care d^itci'iy^ fvb»i!a*,fon eoold hxTO Ij^n aroldcd.^ 

In a tat«r qrs*^ in tbe appellate dlTtsion or cte tiiiprame court 
of X«w V*)-k,' Uw mnxim was appli«l ia u cjisij in whIoU « 
honin vrwt IcUlml liy d^^ri:: wbooV ott «U-ppIng u^MiO ilia ml of 
an cili9ctnc railwajr. Wil'jtrd HLLrtlctt, J., referred tn \he Imd- 
mg caM-« imd siiJ: Thi^ fn^t ttiAt iho vloctricitjr t^m^jdoyud bjr 
the defendant aa a iiiott?e power *^ wa^ capable of cocaping in 
«ach a wayafltoprojuco thd casualty nrhichactmlly took pluoo 
wa§aii!fici«atto juiUfythc inf<M-Ano6 that tbeaooadtntvr&s duo 
to the a^fio^ of the defendantf in tbe abMnoe of proof that it 
wna 9thcTirUc caused. . • . TIm doctrino of rv4i/wiio7tt£- 
Iw BJmpty calls upon the defdndant, after proof of tiio aociienc, 
to giro ^ob eTidoQc^ as will oxoacrato him, if any tboro 1m, 
and rolloTM thi> plaintiff from tbe bonlon of proving tbo non- 
eidatenoe of adequate expUoatton or excise." 

The same conciiuion wils readicfl in a similar casn in Xew 
Jeno;.* T1it»coartaitd: "It niu«l be asuimed tbat tvitb proper 
and auillcient bonds tbe railfl woafd bare c«rrif]id a rumfit of 
elactricity vritb snfitj Uy htynm sti^ppinj upon LbfTtn. OUter- 
viie tlie o|ker&Uon of the ndtwa/ in a public street b/ metoi 
of dcctricity passing tbroagh itsrx\UwAxip§o/ae^A nnbuoA. 
, , p If, therefore, eleotr-ck>- did eecape fran tbe rails, that 
fact was presamptire proof of ne^ligeaoe.*' 

g C'5. Thcsame— i'ftsw.— In n cii:<<^in thccoort of errors 
and appeaU in Now Jersey,* the '^ Cb^ng itself ^* was tbe only 
eridcooe. Tho fact^ p^>rcd showed that the death of a man 
iras dae to electric shock. The dead t>oity of a policeman 
was found at the foot of an ekctric-li^ht pole, tipon which, 
at about U;o lot-ol of a muo's bend, n*ftft foaud a reel of nnin- 
I snlatod wire rope heavily charf;ed with electmity, and th^ru 
a fn^ bum upon tho man's hand, and his blood waa 



nloo ClnB«at« ▼. L»aiMuia 
BL LL Ox.^ Lb AaiL e»^4 Au. 
BLCaa a4l.|l&R#^}L 

><lufe« r. N«MMi Clartrio B^' Ok, 
I App. Dir. ai, e Ajd. EL Oa BH 
«0 N. V. Bb^ 18 riam 8m Bte 
ioMi V- Uni<vi Hj. Oi. H App. t>iT, 
SR, 41 ». Y. ScpiL »L (lM7>i QTU^ 



Dir. II. SI K, \\ st)i>(^ M itaiev 

■TVaaton Put Bj. Cn t. CoofM', 
Rum f. B«nMat«» K-J,Law,31i^ 

aTAUR-TWiianv 

■Suburbvi Blvvtric Ox r. Knt^c 
a^K J, Uv, ffMLM Alt BqL losa. 



SOS BLGCTKIO WlKEft IN 5187773 AJU* heohwats. [g 97)^ 

foand to be in the condition lumul mth tJioao who hare died 
o( electric shoct. The court said: ^* These facte nn^xplainied 
not only tnak« it reasonable to supposo thnt tho doc«dent casM 
to Ms death throtigli having touebed with )us hand thd uiiD> 
Bntnteil wim which wns friMnr^iK*!) to t.hv d^femlaDt*^ electhe- 
light |M>ttt, utiil thereby received & Tatal Khocic, hut irxclado mnjr 
other infrrcnco-"" 

III ntill nnother case in ^eir Jersey ^ relating to the hU of 
an electric lamp SDspended orer a street, t£>e supremo court 
said: "Tho general rule la thit tbo oocorrenoo of an accident 
dood not raise the proaumplion of nogligCDOc; but \rhcn tho 
testimony which proves tho occxirroncc by which tho plaintiff 
'was injur^ discloses circairu;trkiicca from which tho defend- 
ait's negligence ia a reasonable inferenoc, a eaiM is presented 
which cUls for a dof<tnso;" and after referrin;; to the ooaet 
above cited in section 23a, the court sftid: ''It would ecca 
within ih& prini^iple upon which the cases were decided tlut 
tha fall of ft lamp of thi» weight of tho lamp in qaestioD (tvrentf- 
flix jKXjnds)^ stiapeided over a public street, withont any px- 
]>kmif4>ry i^vulenoi^ would roAm a pnrsu motion of QOgllgeaoe 
fwr ^jmi lifiitU<u^T suHlcient to put the dtrfrndnnt on tho defeosa" 

Id a lator caae in the New Jersey supreme court' thn quM- 
tion wa» wlnrther the fact that tho broken elcctrio-light wire 
was seen on the sidewalk shortly before it wan picket! up by a 
little child wus %ix^z\<:::\t prima facU proof of negiigenod It 
was insisted that there might not b&ve bocn time enough to 
romo78 it, and that tbo full ini^ht have buon caused bj the 
Clements, or aomotliing beyond tt:o defendant's control The 
court said they could not agree that the plafntitF nas botind to 
eliminate every auch cause. They rof^rivd tc tho ^ew Jersey 
eases above clted,aad tho opinion of JudgeBarUettinthoeaao 
£q New York, and the lan^i^o of Baron CbanneU in an Eng- 
lish cafiOt* and held that it wa« f<ir thfl defendant to exonerate 
itACir on proof being iua<Ie tJmt the wire had fallen and cauied 
the injury. 

tCiDcblor EEoctrio Ox v. Svroet, CO N. XIaw, 505^ il AtL B«fk 7U 

m^ J. Uw.^s^^i 30 AU Ucf^ &a o^in 

(laaa^ «»ftdg« t. Xr«th l^nHoo Bj. Cb» 





BSo,al80,mIl]iQ03* it was hold tbat,iThc:« on Glectric itreet 
^pLway o&mpotiy p«rmlu a brolc«a vrlre to hang looao in tbo 
Btreot^ proof of an injury by reason of it raakos a pri.'nafaa^ 
CUO of D^gUgenco. In a cu^ in Wi^^t Virginia,' where aa 
eleotrio vlro ML frota lu support and killed & tniin in tho 
8tPd0tyth« oourt discn^g^l i^t hotiiq Kingtli lh«t upplinttion of 
Iho miLxiiii fw i/Mii lo^uliar la oriHt^s of tbiA kiml, ad<1 decided 
that tho fall of a wire charged with a deajUy currc^nt and sus* 
pcndod oror a public strcot, is primnJiicU ovidcrooQ of oegli* 
g«nce, BubjrH^t to Ixs n^buttiad by proof tlub the fall was not 
duo to want of care. 

On tho other haaiJ. the supremo court of Pennsylvania' dis- 
tio^uisb'^d the case of one injured indirectly by iho failing of 
a wire ami titoae eases in which there ia a rolatign of contraot 
nqniring tho nso of proper appliaooos; and it \rui held that 
trfaore tbo plaintiff vras injured because of tho frightening oC 
tkis hoTi/o by Lho fall of a livo wirtiin th^#tri3c-t, the proof of tbd 
fall oF tho wire waa not sufficient prm**/aatferidenoe of neg- 

UgO&€0* 

$S74. Liability of manlclpalltlea for defective poln and 
win*!* In tlieitreetM, — flow far cities ami towns are Liible for 
injurii.*T4 oj&iixi^l by tbr-ilrfc^rtivetinbEngKnxiAeondttton of polm 
and wirea allowed to be utaintained m the atreeta i» u qutfftlloa 
of «onio inU^rrnt nnd unportAnce. Thtaw is n good dtMl of dif- 
ference of opinicn on the question whether public t^r^ioratiotis 
are liable to iudividn^ila for any injury ahsiDg oat of tho neg* 
lect of a pubho duty. 

With rc^rd to the inhabitants of a diatrict it waa declar^ 
in England in JivneU 9- I£<n ^i>^«vn* that no prirato action 

■l^fttOtt V. C«otMl Rf. Q>,S6 DL Iheaiftzlmrai fpMfo^i'fitf Applied 

Appi na to BoddeaU troai •l«cUio wUvtb «• 

'AbtJot T. Wkvotias BleoUic Ckv, Wmu-m Cnion TRIOS' C^ ▼'9W* to 

4S W. V«. «U» a C R. 739^89 £. thu L'iocf Ncdaea. 61 MJ. 00, ft An, 

EA.400iUO7|.witb&^toui4bHof«. EL C^ 310 rtSW); H^fiMT.AaJaii^i 

ICrpuer t. lUrrbUirv TnwtioQ GMCa.UIIf. a»K 1«& & R«p.St4, 

Ca. ISI P^ tit. H a» AtL Reix 4ia \ Ant El Cu. VA i\SHU fltjtielt r. 

08S7V N. Y„ L. E. A VT, It It Oft, OS N. T, 

■TJu^eourtdliUncoblieaShaferv. Wa>*TAia.R«nri;Doat«Trtniinij 

LKOck,tO6Pa.aL40r.a3AtLRaiL44, fVi^ ▼. fEMd, 4 Cokk Aj-p. 01^ »> Paa 

l»UmL3&4. For oeWr rMM OQ Uapl 30, 1 Aml EL Cm. OS (IHlK 
th« pniBuptiott of D«(llQMOe uid *e T«na BeiK 007, 



m 



KLXCTKIO iTOeU tX «TKCVn AJTZt BtGaWATH. 



W2Ti 



can bo nuiiD(jdn4>d ngainftL ihem for u brcxcb of u corporate 
<lirly to Uie ptiblia unle^ the right of action u given hy «t4t- 
iiteL Ttiia doc-tnne has boen Applied th sotnoof our tUHtm to 
iu[^ir|KirnU^J Lownit lu w<?11 ja( lu LownTtliijT^ nnil r^mnttCfS- lo 
Kow Jtimc?y, Uiv i^amplef It naA applied in 1S40 to tbit cIuim^c 
frocihoMors of a ccmat/ with respect to tho Lcgicct to maiiL' 
tuin A brklgLV aai) ia IStlS to ap citv fAilin;^ to romovo na ob- 
fitroctioa from n public strci;t^ ttad the tttlo was docl&rdd to U 
liToli settled tiiut no actioo irouJd lio for injur/ to an individ- 
lUiL ajaindt a pablio corporatioa for tho neglect of « public 
duty." in Masfiacbu«ott« &leo tho rulo wjla applied to iaoorpo- 
ratod towns, and it iras oarly declared that io Uio abtoaoc i^ 
stfttutd no such action would lie f^inst them {{» am injorj 
arialnif from a defect in the highway, Tho same rule wat 
adopted in the New Kn^iaDcl states geaerally and In Midtigaa 
aod Olifornia; but m Xe^ England otpecially, statutes lura 
been paascd ni;ikmg ciiitig utiii towtu strktiy unsiveiublo to in- 
dividuala for defects in the highways,* In mutt of tlie otlur 
liUitp^Sf howover, cities and tovros are held liable for damages 
c^iLHi^d hy fmlure to \ci*ep thr^lr ittnii*u in xiifi) iY>iii)ition for 
travd whether such a, remedy is girea by the statute or not* 

§27;». Thcsame—Contlpned.— Inthosojuriedictionswbera 
no action can be maintained by an individual against a munici- 
pahty for the defective condition of its stroets, cities cannot be 
held jiablo in tort for in;urivs caused bv ekotrio wires in the 
streets. The only romctLy agniust a citj ia such a com for 
maintuinin^-cr (icrEnttting a datigraom obstruction in tlie stnst 
is by indictment* But wherever, by 8Utut« or at oomvon 



■ l,lntmin[viT. rru^hoAdirniofCun- 
dfla. ^i*K J. Law, ■-Wjl 

*Pnj T. J«ncy CStj, 33 N.J. L&«r, 
3S1 

< HowAT V. Ijk&OKtar. e HjWL MT, 
a^P; Um V. Umum, 121 Mass. 844; 
Koodceck T. OM^ Wlf«.m;SMte 
V. Dmim, 7S Ufi S48: J<id» r. !e«v 
Hatui, S4 Oonn. 1; H«wt«on v, N»ir 
UftTc^ S7 Co«o, 4TS; E>«lre£| t, 
DUck>1fr< St Uicb, M: V^tjwl v. 0» 
barM^ U5 tL a 4S»; Chop* r Ku- 
Mka. 7S CU. an. To* ft ImJintt Kck- 
lUiCO«eiM >tsrav7l>ock*T.Qibbih 



and (vdMii eiUdi Ctirtngtoa ▼. fiL^ 
Loulfc 8» Mo. SOS: MuImUim v^ Ji 
vm«, ST Wa »; Wvttcr T. SL 
40 »Eli& 4e0: Dative f. RboJm 
Cola&Ui BoniMit V. Vbttaoj,«lC 
T. 903; SUrliu^ T. Tboioi*!. M DL 
244; PftrkiT t. Umoa ftS (in. TU. 
&R1M T. UUL 6f u^nQitb'JL SI U.a 
64(M^;i GIvt«JM»J V, KiDCi m tx& 

e Pnr r. Jemr CXtj, O EC X IM^ 
3SL 



U 



*T4J 



COHCTaCCTlOV ARD VJtlKTVtlAffOB. 



821 



Uir, eitic* are b«ld rccpoosible to indivuluAls for clefocU in llio 
highway?, there rosiy well be circiiinHtance« uod^r which they 
mta cbAT^-ablo iritb tho d^ifijcu caami in Lho firet iostaaoe by 
the Deglig^cioe of pdvate companies lawfully tualntaJninif UiMt 
of electric wires in the strepu. Tbey mtiy be chafgeabk with 
DOgUgniKW ID fjuling to irntorii Uiftdimgor or olwtntctiOD &ft«r 
DDtice, mu) Ibfy m-^y «v«a Iw \IM& for permitting nioh d^ 
feoU dan^.irous to tntvelers to exist in the highway. 

IiL ManachusDttK, for rxnmplis wbcru the liability dopoads 
entirely opon t^ afcaiule,^ citiei have be^n held UaMo to p<^r- 
aoDfl Injured by oomin^: m contact with lire wircfl dangling in 
the abieut, 9,w\ the only question has bc«Q i^rhotbcr they were 
traretera at iho time or were usiDjf the streeu only for plfty;' 
but in coses to which the sututo cLid not apply it bas been held 
that there b no liabiUty at ooimaon law, iind that a oity ia not 
liabtetoaUactmui employed on its fir^alnno system for in- 
Joriea doo to tii<; bixtakis^' of a polo ncgligt^ntly tnaictnincd.' 

It wai h^ld in Maine tb£,t an tndividD&l bai a right of action 
a^inst a city for an injury catiecd by the obetniciion oF the 
a tiwJt by a Rireet railway po«t improperly located, and that an 
uDvatlafled j augment aguinst the straet railway company for 
the flame injary is no bur to thn aciioo.' Tha Imbillty of the 
oocnpokny for nngligcui^e reiipMiiLiDg the lot^ation (if the [Kttt 
eiittied, the c^urt said^ at common law, *^ while the liability of 
the city for permitting the obfttniotion to rvmaln i« crcutrd by 
general siatote. (R. B., c. 16, c 378.) And althojgh the lia* 
biUty of both is reaffirmed in soctioo S, chapter 373. of the 
bwa of 1635, for obvious rcadona tbej cannot be duetned Joint 
tort-feaaors with respect to the mode of redroaa.^ 

in Colorudo tho United i^t4Ltcs circuit court of appcaJa de- 
clared that a city^ by authoriiing an oleotne-ligbt company to 
erect poles and wires in the streota, doee net become charge- 
able with the duty of inepecting them and maintainiiig them 
fn & eafe condition for the protection of trarelerg to the eame 

)Um PaH 9tAU Ob. 5^ P li Hill >[Vtliiu:it]T.ChelMKm tfiw-BOe, 
r Ikvaon. 133 MasL UL 8TK. B^Bci^aaaaAtiLKLCw, 

Am. EL Cka. en, 30 >L E. tU^ 170: > Oov^kiid y. Bhajjor, 9? Ua 801^ 
Doitfsut r. CbmbridKth l^ 3>Ui&D&U BJ AU B<^ bVS, 1 Aio. LI Cm. ML. 
4 An. BL Cte H74. 31 K ^ R«|l am. 



313 £L£CT&10 WtBES Ut WTBSSTS AND OXOHWATa. [g 273. 

Qxtent Bs if it liad erected them itself, but that its dutyextends 
only to a general saperviaion over the light oompaay^ and that 
it is liable only when it has been negligent after notioe of d& 
feots that may be dangeroos.' 

"Wliezi a city itself pats up and maintains eleotrio wires, it 
has been held in New York that it is liable in tort for the 
death of a person killed by toaching a wire negligently allowed 
to fall down and come and remain in contact with a troUey 
wire, and that the fact that the wire waa pat np and nsed by 
the police departmeut for public purposes does not relieve it 
from responsibility for injuries to individoals.* 

1 Gitj of DenTer t. Bberret^ 68 Fad. iTwist v. fioohceter, 87 Ap^ Dl% 
Bep. 326, 00 U. a Appi 104 (1S0S> 807, 55 N, 7. Supp. 060 (I89fl> 




fH. Intnxlnctorx.— There are ureral cltast^s of cases in 
sb lines of doctrio prires in the streets aro coiisi<lcre<t a» 
property. It HOmo it is important to determine whether they 
aro r«al or personal property; in othem wliethor thoy como 
vrithin the mcQntog of Btritutca relating to mcclianics* ticns, 
and in otlicra whc-tLcr Ltuiy are embrnci>d in the general d«- 
scnpUve kn^a^ of contracts, mortgaj^s oreonveyancos; and 
in othors again tile qu(«Lioti arisos whrtlicr the privili'j;!^ of 
Duiataloing the lines in t^epaUic streets is a right of property 
and un interest in land, or whether and to what c^it^nt lines 
of eleotrio vrirts aro subject to Luxation either as real or as per* 
vona) properly. 

§ 2#7- HIertrie \U\e% m flxiiirw*,— Thn aiwurtfr to thr (^b^-j;. 
lAOD wlii^thtir lim-st nf wlrrH dtLti.'hed to posU or laid in tubes 
QDderij^rouad are relator perMHial property depends on t ho pur- 
pose for which the qnesLion is asked, aD<l on t\w rrlAtions and 
agreements of the parties, as well as on tiio cbamcter of tbo 
liiic« them^olrcs. The lines are tucturcf, and whetJier they aro 
to be treated as real or personal property, under gircn eiroflm* 
stances, depends on the principles comnionlynppliod to fixtures 
and need not be discnssed bero. "VTben the qnc^^tion b asked 
for tlie purposed of taxntjon, the answer may depend somewhat 
on the character of iho classification of propi>rty under the tax 
Uw, and it may bo motUned hy tiio foet tbat the land to which 
tlic lini*« arv nlllxi^l miiy hnlong to tlw poUte or ti>oU»*rs than 
the owner of the lines. Cases on tiucatJoD will be n*fem?il to 
later. The lines are in n ccrLnin spam Qiturw; thoy aro at- 
tadicd to posts set in tlie ground or laid m tubes under the 
snrfAOft. The eWtric-tight and the eloctric-railway Unea am 
oonnceted with a central building with machinery, ivhere tho 
power is gencratod ; and the same is true, in a sense, of the toltv 
phone and eren the tclcgraplu The lines in all cue* form a 
oonnected whole and the stracture is pcnoaneotia its char^ 



■ 



3U 



Kuomo wiBBa m dTBcrri A^m bkovtats. {% STTSL 



ftclftr; but the several wires at Inst are eap&ble of r«moTal or 
rcnrswjd &b tho nof^ls of tnt^nccs may n:<[ui^<^ Wbcro s'lch 
)mt-N ari-- att^cbrvl to luad heloD^'tng to thnir owhat, oa in tba 
case of A tole^aph aJoug tbe right of way of a railroad con- 
panj, tbc^ arc pUml^ sach fixtures ai» would pass wiUi a cooi- 
Toyancti or luort^ago of tUe land; but la moit caaea tlio Unt-s 
aro etrctciicd aXot^ public UighwayB and tbo land btlongs u> 
othcnf. uad tbc owner of the line may turu a mert lic«ii*e, or 
ho may occupy tbo latid by virtue of a public franchise and as 
0. pcirt of tho bi^hway- In duch cases tho linoe may bo treated 
a« porvonal proporty for tbo pLrpo^^ of kvcpin^ th« owncrtbip 
dietiact from that of tbe land, or, if tbey are rdj*ard^ aa fiz> 
turofl, U nuiy bo as ^turos connMied with tba land and build- 
ing wbere ihe electricity is gi^utratad. On the other hand, If 
a ri;;ht of wny orer private property be obtained by agreemen- 
orconiU^miKtiioo, an casement is created which i$ an intanwL 
in taiitl, anil il^e pQ»ta and vires are lUtnres oonnected irllli 
the T&al esLtte, Tbe Kama is W^e of a line of te!i>gnipb in a 
ptj1>1[c struct when such a lioo is regard^ as a new bordea 
upon Ui« laiuV and it may be iaL«rt>A]ng to spdccdale on tlic 
question whctJier the character of the linea a& real or persona! 
is affected by the answer to the question whether or not thv 
electric line cunAtitutes a new burden, or ia a proper n^e of a 
public stnxtt affcctitig no rights of the owner o: the land. 

S 27S- Same — Cases.— A few cases may bo referred h> ny 
latin^ directly to electric lines as fixtures or real or petaonai 
property.' 

In an Rnglish case in m^o, wlicre the qijcdtion wai? whether 
tbe telegraph line ebould be deducted from the value of a rftil^ 
way in matcin^ an asaeasment for taxaticn, tbe law was that 
n deduotlon sLiould be ouide for " interest on capital and ten- 
ante' profits^" and Dlaekbum, J., eatd the qn^ation was " what 
tBap]nLLt.*ry vvoubl piis« with tbe line if it w^rv let?" and it wsi 
held tliat dedut^tion should be tnude for ofllce and tuition fnnit- 
tun?, bnt not for tbe telegraph line. This was doBcribed at 
coiixinling of piMU dnvi^n intii Uw gn>irml and of wirea passed 
through sockela annexed to tbe puni^, but whiob wims might he 
disconnorted from the posU without injuring ord^placing UieuL 



>Xh rhiL TiT!-t?r on Ki(bia el 
MvtUog LaDJH>w&eA 



-B«ffini r Sortb SUiTerdsliiie Sj; 




rsL] 



XLEcnuc uxm IM ritorKXTT. 



«ut 



Thta wiu dassei among tie " things which, though capable of 
being nrmovod, aro yot ao far attached lu ili^t it b mtendcd 
thai thej shall tytiiuiia porPDaaooUj coooocted with the rait- 
way or promieoe used with it, and remain pcrmaoeat append- 
to it as cRMatiaL to ite ivorking>** 
This de«iaion was qoot^M id a ciM In Arizona in 18S7. On 
n bill to fjniet titl« it appeared thai an electric-light company 
iwga^^ in lighting a city own^tt a lot with a baildin^ and 
elt<iciriG nmchin^y and «ol tip oighti-en iiiiuUt in tlm «tr««ta 
upon which the vrinx were strung wh:cli earned the current 
Itom the ttynatnos to th«.' himps. It was held that thn wire* 
formed an cMentia) iii1«^ral jijiri of ilie inacliEnery on ibe lot, 
a&d pasicd as Sitnrcs uadur a mort^^gs on tho lol together 
^th all intu;UiDCry and togcihur with tiic tvacoieDta, Wvdita* 
aicnte and appoitoiLaiioeB. Tho coan aj^d the right of way 
along the »Ln»t waa a mere liccoao subjoct Ic the public nae of 
the Baine and in no way aflected tho feo.^ 

Ja B cade in Texaa in l&SO, rolatiog to a mechanks' lien. 
It was held that cloctrit^-light wiroi with the p:>3U s^tnp in 
the public Bireuta wen* r^al estate connected with tho tot 
and bailding whoro tho eiectricity wu generated* Other 
eaaea to the same a&^t are referred to in the next section, 
Snt when the question is ivtMrthnr Vmi^Ji Ki<t up in a public 
alTM^t are taxable nitlioui reTerenee to aay interest in th« 
land in which LIh? poota mx^ sct^ it haa bean held that tde- 
gnipb lines as welt aa gas and nalvr mains are pcraoonl prop- 
«rty.' And dTcn where eicctnc-iight poles haTo been partJy 
upon priTaio property and pu'lt^' in the aireeta luulor permia* 
sioa subject to revocation, it has beao held that the poles aid 
wirea arc nol port of the realty or appurtenant thereto for the 
pQrpoKS of tASiition.* U haa been held ti*at telegraph polea 
set np in a highway are part of tho freehold, and that an a^ 
tion of tnrspciss for cutting them down is a local action aad 
can bo brought only Id the stau> whcm tlev are sitaat^d.* 
The wift« being origioally personal in ihair nature, and being 
«F0elMT. DMkfi.12Faii.B^kaM. ei nt Crad<th:k, 140 IlLULSO K. E. 



tA«.ELCM.381 (Jtrtaona t»u^ tX. 
•bOJar Impiecneai C<* v. Mm- 

tiMti n. u. ca, 74 Ttex eov » & vr. 

B^48B(ieVW 
■SbeltirTflte '^Valv Co* r Paopk 



K«rK •?^ 4 Am u <te OM (iaa& 

i >>«-pon lUoBk Ca«^ Tax Awa^- 
cm. 1» a L «SI, SB AIL lU^ W { ISSI^ 

lOB, » X Y. «» OiS^ 



3ia 



EL£CTKIO WIRES tV ffTSlESn AM> ntouwAm ^ 9|B. 



capable of being detached^ may romam porsomiUy by agrtv- 
mont of parti<w and aabjoct to tytmoval;' tkxtd to wMLo oer 
win.'H ituotiod u a, porEnaoent improvemeat w«re held to pan 
under a roortxiM;^ of the proportyand linos of a ti?l4?gr&pli c<tn- 
pany, it was ulsrj bold tLnt oibcr wir^fl pui up iind«r en ttgreo* 
ment that they ahould not beoome a part of the realty were 
subject to bo removed by the mortgagor- But whwn vfirm 
fumUh^ by i\u> oompciny wi^rc [>iiL ttp vritli the iotentfoa of 
umlclnj^ th-iin a pertimnont part of the line, aniL the maa wfco 
put tbent up grncindecl one end to proTL^cit tbrrm froto bcin^ 
iwhI, in viijw of th« ap[}ointmcnt of a rccoivrtr, ft was held tbu 
tliey were nevertheleia subject lo a mortgage gircu by ibe 
roc<'iTcr' Other cases wiU be referred to in tho roUovric; 
Bectiona relating to m^^chanic^* licna and to taxation. 

§ !i70. Ktoctric Itaes Aul^ect to mechanics' llpn.— Thome- 
ofaanice' lien laws of the ditTcn;nt statc^^ are rarioiu, but it mnj 
be oacful to rck>r to sorui^ ileuisicnd on the questtoa wUothtf 
poles and electric wires act up in tbo etfcets como witbin tko 
torm« of tbo atatutos giving Item upon Innd and flxtoras for 
labor and matorials furnlsboi in tnDpmvements. 

It baa been held inOro^on' that poles and n-irc« for tbo pur 
po«d of furnlfiMn^ light and power conjtitnte a "strnctnre* 
withiD the itattili^ of that slate giving a lien for materials for- 
nisbod in tb© construction of.nny buiUlin^, rtiHcbinciry, . • . 
or liny ctb«mt rut? turd. And in ICannua, that when an elec^ta^f 
light and [}ower company, oniimg hmd and having machiiMip 
tbencion for tbo pnHluctioi oFelrrtric light, [lurcbjwod polesnnd 
m*i tbrm u |> in tli» fttreutK of a ctty and uri^I them for tho sup- 
port of its wires, the poles v?oro nppurtoDanccs of th« boitding 
witbiD tbo meaning of tbc mechanics* lien Uvv, and the load 
tind building and appnrtenaDces vrerc subject to cbe lien.* Oa 
e, motion for a rebcoring it wos held thnt tbo ivork of an cioctrie- 
light company iyus not so distinctly public in lla natoro oa W 
exempt its property from meohanica' licii&* 



> lIFosL Union Tclo^ Go. T. Dur- 

If Beaten Safe Dopvft ft Tnnt Ce. 

as KuL KAfk Sft% SlTT. 

vP<4tal T«)0j& U»td» Uol t, VflAiv 

•rotbM Y. wmUmuiCfo FaUs EL 



Ox. ta Or& SL II Poo. Rcfk 071^ I 
Am, t£L Om UT (t9M^ 

'Badger Lnnbor Cob t. Mvioa 
Wat«t Supply, Et Lt ft r, Gx « 
Kah. 1^, as Paa lUfL 47^ 4 EL O^ 

4 Au:. EL GM.ua. 



SLKCTSIO USEB AB PKOPKRTT, 



8H 



In a esBd in Toxa»,' Jtbore referred lOj where a meobanics' 
lien WIS filed nguiiut a lot nml tmiUling with c-lcclricjil injicliin- 
ory, and tlid poctfl and wires of an eleL-tne-UgLt ccmpaoy »«( 
tip in the strMta of n city, the masU^r faitiid thut it was ''im- 
firnritnibW \n Hi*jiarat<f ttw |To)e», win's, 1ain|tf hhiI oLhi*T iittacb- 
meDts from the lot and iraprovements tbercon," and the court 
deolar«d tbat ibcy wore fixtures and aabject to tho medmotcs' 
Uen. 

&o also in tho court ot cbancory of Now Jcracy,* it was held 

1% the pol« iind wire* of an clcctriolight company arc " fii- 
for Tnanafactunn^ purpoaee '' within Iho taeaning of tho 
nioobantca' lien statnte-r (>nd that the plaintiiT was entitled to a 
Ijei oa the land and buildin;;:) of the poweretation. The vic^ 
obaaoellof said the fact that the polaa 8too<l upon land which 
might belong to oih(>r«, and that tlio wh%3i extended into tbe 
dwelHnL^ of others, did aot affect the ri^bt of lien npon the 
Und Jind biit[din;{ of tho dofvadant to wiiich thu ]inL*« wvro 
eoimected ait fliturftt. 

It a to Ijo observed that all tliese rn»es relate to '•le*^ric-ligbt 
linm, and that tltn lii-u im alk>wr<d upun tb» ground that tbey 
are flxiare» connected with a piece of land with bnildiDgi and 
nuchincry upon which the lien i* ploceil, ztml in ore caao it is 
on the ground that they conatitnto ^stures for mannf&cturing 
pnrposca This )a«t doca not seem to apply to the telegraph 
or telephono. 

i SSO. Electric lines as property snhject to taxntlon — 
Seal or pen^onal property. ^Thcr^ U some difference of opin- 
ion as to whether electric wirea Jo the streets, and the poloB 
nn<I subways aro real or pen»>n.n] property for the parpoao of 
taxation. The question often <kpend« upon iha conicrDctloti 
of the statnto classifying the propeHy upon whie-li the tAXCS 
Are im|>CH<^l, bni in the ahsenea of wordi of definition In tho 
«talut4^ it is sometimes neceaaary to delerniine wbuther tho 
linM are to be olaaaod a« rvnl or pervooal property. On tho ono 
band it is atfrued that they are percaanently connected with 
the laml on which the electricity is geacrated, and arc also nU 
iaobod to the land in tho strocU where the poats are tei or tho 

iKMtlvf trripUnnnc Ov V, lUf- 'Tltif^liM t. tjuithAftTflln EL ].L 
lia.LLCcL,T4T«x.e(AUB.W. Cfv, S3 N, J. £q, US. Zl JLti K*9. fSb 



318 



ILEOTXIO WTBES Cf flTRBSTB A>1> HIOmrATS. 



[S^ 



lGb«5 lai<I; and on dio other hsnd it is fnsuUid that the wirei 
aro not in the kgml mD?to apj^irtcnnnt to the Und wbero tbv 
central fttttion t* locati^d, hot are raerdy attached U> the m;^ 
chiacry and capable of scrcrancot and Umt the atroeta aloog 
whkh the irireA are laid dcy oot Wlong to the oivner ot lh« 
wjr^andtliaUheUc^iDBC to sot poW there does notcooitlMa 
an int^rcslin Land. 

In England it has bcca held that a t^loj^rnph oompony u 
ratable as aa "occupi?^ of laad " in n?5pwt of its poles and 
tHn^ and th^ land to which they are fixed, oron though th« 
poloft tiw eobjGrt to i^tDOTdl at any time by the railroad ooin- 
pany on who«e right of vray they ur^ placed.^ 

la a c»3a iq Tenndsiee,' it was held that a tekgraph Hoe was 
wjbjpct to lot*Hl tiix.'vtion w pmpi^rty having a local Wf«M, and 
sliould 1)e re^rdivl aK real t-Atat«, a^ll^^ iht^ annlngy i^t railroads 
and iheir rolling-AtocIc. 

Tn a casi7 is 111inoT«,* Vm^ of de<rtri:> tvtrc in the ftlraeta w«re 
likenetl to gas pipes and water maina, aai the eourt refrmd 
to cases in which difference of opmum irae found vnth r^ard 
to thrse. In 8omo it was hold tJtat, m the abeence of stat- 
ute, they most ho rc^rdod as realty apparteoant to the land 
on which lh5 worl;* wrro plaoed.* It tnhcfs it vma held th*it 
tbey aro pergonal property;* and in the ea^ in IJliooia tht 
court said it was iaclined to follonr these Utter decisions, and 
to hold that the wires as woU aft the wat^^r mains of the defeiid 
ant vere taxable as pereonal property, especially tn Tiev of the 
fact that tlifi (tnginiTB to whioh they w«re attached were de- 
clared by Stat a l^ to be person at property. 

To tbe ffiime idTt^nt. wan ihn [li^Tmon of the sapreme ooirt of 
Ehtwlo Tftlard * Willi n^gard to tlu^ jkiIm and wires nsod Co 



JJCtoctrio Tsl«gntph Co. v. Ovw 
eevn cF ib« Poor of Salfoid. 11 Cx- 
obeqcMfr. ISI; AlUaT* TU Cte ST: 

tjMBXuultira Tvltfflll. Ox T. l>fttfWf>1« 

0l tbo Poor or HuKfaoster, S3 Law 

1ir«tem Cnkm Ti^^g. Ox ^ Twi- 
oetMft,iP But. »% 1 A». GL Cu 377 
(18801. 

•aWb7vi[]« WaIcc Co. r. P«opl« 

et ni Cm-S^IL-K t«i hl 04^ » N. E 
A«p. 0:9, 4 Au. BL Om. 5tft 



4OnfdiAtUt7G»UffMC0Lr,Ctef^ 
ber <kl Inft Ca, tt Ii/Ma, 31. SO K W. 
BffLSTO: App««l<irOeiUuJnMWet«« 
CA,«eio*a,a». 9e«ClrtfaMK««» 

woricd T. Bowioj, IT q. a aoa 

* Poopte r. Dcinfd ef AaoBdca 

iieaw.aGoldaViUL}3IA 

* Newport DluniiiJit^njc Cot f. Tu 
rti».tiiinTik 18 L L «^ as AtL K*^ 
m « Am. KL 1>a |i» (ise^ 



SLBOTBIO LOnS U PXOTBITT. 



Sl^ 



conifnet plectricit/ from a central suUon to buildings throngh- 
oat the dtj*t tbo court bnUl tbat iboj were not Qiturr* to Ibe 
luid on whicb tbo oontral stalioo was built/ awl tbat tlieT 
vcro D0( apfrartcnant to that land in tbc tccboicat ecd«« of tbo 
term, but yrt^r^ '^ftimply articlen of peraoaal property b«1oo;gin)f 
to tiio petitioner, sicaatcil in part in thir strtct« of Newport and 
in fMkTl Oft pnrato lands, and tuod lor tbo ti^)l^ bcin^^* in oon- 
SMtioii wHb the laod. K«feiTjn|; to the foot that the foks and 
viros vrcro loeatoi in ttw &trsot« and wore intended to remain 
tbore iadefinitely, Che court vdd tbey could not Ij^oro th^ fact 
thiA Um p«rnikifiGion of tb« city wjis 8uhj>c*c to be revoked at any 
timo and tbat tho company bad no vcttiTd int<irest, and tbor 
dialLagttisfaed tbo cases in whkcb telegraph lines and gas and 
vmtvr pvpM luid bm^ii t^xtt] ak rval (q>Ut<» ju4 Cr\tw» m which tbn 
corporation bnd an eaaeuieni in fiae in the bigljwayft in wliJoh 
tbo linoa wer« placed.' 

J tSI- The aamf — Value of tb*i Intfre^t in land for tni- 
atjon.— In an opinion by Jtid^ PeK;kbam in t^ N«w York 
court of appeals' Uierc is a discuaaion of tbc value, for tbo pur- 
poaoi of tnxiitioQ, of tlK^ iaU'r^t of a t«legnipb company in 
the land in tlic atrecta along: which ita lines are strung;. Tbo 
fltat«to dcobrrd tlut tbo portion of any t<4(^^^npb, toleptiono 
or oleotrio-Ui^bt lino in any town or %vard aboold be aaaeascd 
in tbo nnannor provided by law for tho nsMMsniftnt of buds of 
rwident owncra, and tbat the word ^ linci " tboold include the 
fntonat in the land oa w^hicfa the polea stood, and the right 
4r UonAo to erect the pole*. Tho court t&ld thai calling the 
poles, iriivfl and insulators land did not dian^ their c?tiaracter 
«a manoratTUired art.Ecli*4i capable of rvfircvliJctiEni, and that 
tho right to en^ct potra ■»,■:%% nut an t?:ictu!tire right, and waa & 
mere license, subject, nnder tho polico poirer of the atato, to 



tCitloc PMriikooe Ow Ca v. 
tbari»r, t S. L 1). Iq Fmple t, 
nnmrA of Jtw— on of RnwkljA. M 
A V- «I (WSSi, Kw l»U tlxit «a4«r 
a naiuce ivovidbiie tliu the tcna 
*1nfhratkaniiidwJAAllbc;dMtBa«an4 
otbawtklM rrertfd upon or affizei 
Id lb« iutt«b f^u mAiQinmatnjc anier 
Ihgrtfuti of tbfl dty km cmtto b« 
nguiiaJ m nU mXoJU^ i« Om Un^ 
Uoa el Uw l^d of a pv covifttitr. 



*aee Mte tb« caaM dtod la Iba 
foUowiatf McUocL Aa to wlielliar 
tb« niij haa powor to rorofeo tha pof^ 
uiMioQ^mliii t3-lli«i9ra, Aato 
ertate ol o BUoet r»ilvr»r hailna a 
TMUil rigfct Ui llA fruickiw^tia P*^ 
^ T. (niri«d. Ill fC V. 1; JSUImBY. 

diiAnK^XY.en. 

K Y. lAft,S7K,Rltofi.«meAaLEL 



m 



xLBCTuo wiRn IN tuExm Axt> niGuwiri. ^ 9S^ 



roTOcatioQ atAny timo;^ aod therefore, in esUsuitifig (be Tftloe 
of Ihc pro|>crt}* as -tach for the porposcd of taiation, the true 
oriterioii was the ooat of the pfcdQcttoD of tbo polee and Tim 
08 eroeted, iDcLndiag vlmt was pai*! to individOAls for tlM nio 
of their lands. An aiscsament waa deol:kred to bo erroaeou 
wbidi eetinukted tba thIiio of th9 property it^thtn the dii 
by referwDOO to the valoe of the whole line. The bmlnctt 
franchise of the company wero taxed onder another statute, 
and the cotirt said ihry could not \k ecnisidered undor the ttaU 
ate impoftlng a tax upon the property aa such. The onurt di» 
tinguifhpd between tho interest of a telegraph compaoy and 
timt (rf ft niilnuu] t'i)m|>iiny in thn land.* 

§ S83. FranchlM^ tax and taxation of the francblAe.— In 
this caso the qtic^tion w^ merely ta to the Talac of the intcroft 
In the land. This ih an important clement of the fronchiseof 
a telegraph company, but not the whole of it, Thore are many 
oosei relating to the taxation of the fmncbites of teloerupb 
oompaniea and other compimied oocnpying tho etroota with 
oloctnoiirired.and it i« imporlantto distin^ieh clearly botvoen 
a tax upon the franehia^ aa property and a franchise tax fm- 
posod AS & oonditioQ of the exereiso of the franchiee, Theiraa- 
chEao to op<-rau<- a u-legraph company, for example^aQd ocenpy 
tbe strwU for that purpose, hnA Talna in itself; It 18 one of die 
poH«c^ions of the compiiny, and Is incladed in the ralue of tbe 
witole projM?r1y, bnt apart from Uur U iii a privilege granted 
by the state for which tho st&te can exact a payioeiu. In thit 
rcapectitt» like tbe corporate frunchUe or the privilege booxttt 
Afl a oorporatioQ, Such aa exaction Is not ^tmtly a Lix; (t zt 
liko the excise or a license fee impost upon a privilc^ged busi- 
ness or occupation,* and it is a part of the power to impoeo coa> 
diUons on the granting or coatiauin^ a phTUej;^. A franchJM 

iCttinjc AnL lUpitJ T«Jftg. Ca r, totliomDcLiacvy CorffOiKinttJPg«bO' 

Uv^ l2^ K. T< 441. £fl K- U Re|K 910, tnd;y. uid to req«i» Uot k b^ w 

SAnxElOM.141 8MfiT%*Hpraii a e w ri M iiity tn tfia dUtTiet 

end ^10 ^ ^^-45. sltwted. Dtrkljiwr Ox 

> Dj & IuUt aUttito Id Vf>w York Powur Co r. JotiMon, 37 Ap^ Dit 

(Liwiior;4.Y.iwauh.903.^%ijbasi s^t. »n. T.aup|iaMciRa»i. 

ttWMdechuedUntth«l«nm"Iud" «6e« Portlaiid Buk t. Apthoffh 1> 

■nd^veal prapaity^'aliciuld iadndo Kam. S39| OLtTce v> WufalBCM" 

'bll BupporU at4 U)<]IcautT« for c-Ico- Miil«. 11 AUcOt 2^, 3<ftin« v> Quod 

IHcnlniDiiuittcrBBiuikppuiitv^'Biid Tmak R5. Co* lU V. & 217^ tB. 
%hu autat^ bMA been lidd te npplj 



8B83,1 



SLwrnuo unc At noTTmrr. 



891 



t&x mty be fiicd irith roftrcuco to tbo t&Iuc of the propeKy or 
baiiDO06 iQvoJved, bat it s not mcftsurcd !>/ it dirccti j or Limited 
by it* Jt is ExcJ by Iftvr with rcrerence to an arbitrary stacdard 
of ealeolatioQ — it may bo by iho noTntnal raLoo of the capital 
llodc oi a corpomtaoa or tha earnini.'B of a bosmeci, tho num- 
ber of mlks of wire of a tokgraph l>cio or the nomber of |>o^8 
sot up m the stroeu, 8uch a tax Jt not affoot«d by tbo fact that 
thepviojwrty Itself ifi ficbjocted to anotber tax, Boris it limJtei 
by tbe rulu Unit n^[uir«f liuifotiDity in th« laiutioo of prop- 
«rty* 

f 2SS. FranehKo taitf*« on companies operating eloctrle 
llnaa.-^ FnincUnM! Iaxcsm to a ktimiII amniinl :tri^ rommoaly im- 
poaod upon oorporationfl gGOerally. Tiu'?c? nrt* AtrlnUy limlUid 
to tbo oorporato francbiso or prlrilcgo of bein^ a cor]>ortitiort, 
btii larger Gxacdona are madti of certain rlnisrjt of companirs 
which carry on a larj^ bnsiucM \rith comparatirely 11111-^ tan- 
giblo property, and which exerciser some tort of pabUc ftmction 
or poaeeaa some apeciaL prlrile^. Among tlicao aro telegraph, 
tclcpbone and cicctTic>-Iigbt compani^ aoil Btrcot railwaye, 
Thm tax is impoacd with aome n>for«Doe to the fpeotal privi- 



<Tt4 c<xporAt4> f mnchii** In dUt Jnot 
Cnxn th* rrasr?hiHi Ut pArfnrm unmA 
pubUc fttuctloa or •xorolm toms pul^ 
UaHchttMhroTMVRpl^lho rlghl lo 
telw ftfnpivtr or 11i« paMIn ulnwu 
fbraraJlraid orfti^lAgrftph Jint^suLit 
toUli^tolltfoif Ui«oMit^ri»o£. Tb« 
DornMr bekrBXB to Itift cmfVWtan 
Mid I* 1^1 n]lpnAli!« \if till* <'a>rpfint 
lioni th» iHttcv V on« of tho privi li^[Q» 
ff^owenof tbcootiiomtJofinDii mh^ 
tARliMMbloBcd mAymrviTQ IIh? dir 
anlu^Gof thoGorpontloTL tf«nipliH 
& IL Ca T. CcuomioBionem ItD V. S. 
aSakttlt: Uort^n r. U-ubuwiukftJ V. a 
ai7. aSS: Kd« OrlmniL «C4\ R. R. Cu 
« DaUmm^ 114 U. & !;0«^ IbtJ t. 

finBivMi, a R«dr. Ain, itj. Cm mil 

Ba, Parlfio Hf. Ca t. OrUm. S^ FihL 
Mf. 4ST. 4TS: mddioLur^ fUtUc «. 
ftliorfoo, aA Vt 18% 100: PeAfdo t, 
<rfirWo. HI S. Y. !. 1>^ N. E Etofk 

44 ??. Y. S«i>fk 810k t<M<4d l>^«. 
% Wi; Piarov v. £awi7, 8S 1^ & 607, 

ai 



'With mgftrd to the ixAture of ft 
fratictlilflfl uu hDd thA dliriTiirtion bft- 
ivMin thU and m Itat on pr»|krrly. vm 
8ocl«tr to Savias* t. a>it<s A WnJL 
Afl4; PrvirlciHrt InaL f. UMMObtiMt(«» 
A WhII Oil: MlQotT, FhilAdAiphiH, 
W. JE a B. a Ca rUi.> OolAVftm Rail- 
r«si!l 'nut ChmK 16 WttiL JiMl Gdlj 
CallfnrniiL ▼, PMiflc Rj. Otl, Itl n.& 
1. 4K par BntdUf.J-i F««vlo r. Horn* 
]>;& Co., U N. V. 0:3$; Th« &mo « 
Tlifl Bihora. 1U U 8. tm-, Khkte t» 
fifmm! TlTiTifc Ry. C<t. HS U. S SI7; 
Liimb*ir*'illo Dolovt^rD UiUigo Ca v. 
AuHHjr^ U S. J. L fi?g; Stbadard 
Uti<ki-rcnKtn<l Dtlile Cok t. Atloroey- 
G^rral, 4« S. J. F^. fTO; Jwwr Cltf 
Giulixhi Co> V. Un^Ud Gm Imj^ Co. 
40 FoL I^|k fiM: Coolo; oa Tkxalioix 
17U:»AiiL«&i^Bnc7.orLA«,C81 

Iaw. a 9 (M «&>, and OMt oiled. 
Canftnlt Abo wi wtids I7 PrcC 
E4«la Jt- R. SotkcnftD* a PoUU 
£citfiOD Qwt«vlr. MX 



t 



3Sd BLBOTftIO WTBXS IX flTBECTf AXD ma&WATB. Q Sti 

teg«8 which t1i6 companies enjoy, but in some caaeft no dbtisc- 
tioQ !■ Ruulo betircyrn the corporate fmacliiao and the i^txUl 
fbinchiM eajojed hy the corporation, and in others £l is band 
cxprcttly upoa the «stcnt und taIoo of the special frao^UR; 
bui erc^n m these cased it U not noecttarilj a tax on prope rty , 
but like the tAX on tbo corponto frajicbtae it mny b« a umb* 
frcmohuo tax, nnilim ti^^li it Uanarbitrury <>:cactioii, a pa 
nquiKd as tUo pncG of tho franchiae, and limitod only 
didcnjtion of tho Icgtj^laturo gmnting the privilcgo. 

Tlicre LA no doubt of tbe power of tile loj^ialatarcs of tb» 
several £t&iee to impose cotiditioD)i of thit oataro upon 
frnnchiiot grant^^d by them to eon^tmei and maintaia li 
electric wirea in tb© hi;-bwayfl, and the payment may 
quired In tho form of Ittvnte Ici^ja for thu ust? of tho 
an annual payment for tho franchise of the eorporfttion, and 
this may be mL^.n^jrod by tbo mraingie of the bnsinesa or tbe 
aciiount of tb^^f notiiiiml mpilal or in other waiysJ 

§ CHI. Charactt^r and Hcopo of the franchUe tax.— TV 
power of the st^ti: to ][n[insn v. ch:vrge of this cbaruct4.T upoa a 
francbijfo of it^^ owngraDlinv j^ undoitbLi4(I, ami it may bemaiW 
pnulu^ally ei^uivaltint to tho usual tas on the franchlsr; an prop 
erty, or indeed on the whole of tJie property of the compaa^ 
both (jmgiblt^ and iatftnglble. Practically, howeri^r^ those fian- 
t^i'im inxBs are charges made by the (tato in the nature of aa 
excise, and are additional to the tax levied on persona and oor^ 
porations generally ^vith respect to thoir property. 

The franchise tax as such, DioreoTOTt can bo levied only oa 
the franchise granted by the stixte, and cannot bo imposed vn& 
respect to any pririle^jo granted or protected by tho laws o( 
the United t^tuUs, as, lor example, tlio carrying on of interstate 
Gommcroc or the nse of the post-roads for telef^ph lincsi For 
thoae and othor reasons it \s impiirtant to dotcnnino whether 
tho frnnchifiOBof a corporation, either its corporate fmnehiMor 
tho privile^s vbioh have been ^^ntod to it, and tho rigbtacf 
any kind and from owry cotiroe wiiioh It enjoys, may botnaMi 
as profwrty and a^eaii^d on the basis of their Taluo in ths 
market, to be ascertained as wM es may be. 

1 Minot T, Philtuii^lphia* W» ft R R Railrooi Tux Cmm\ 09 U. & A^ 
R Co. (Di^luvarv natlmuil T&i Ciurf>), Hiutie r, Or&ni Traak Bj, Co, lA 
W Wall a)3: Tajlor t. Se-wr tSUie U- SL 317. 



S6S, ^6.] iLKcnuQ LUfss aa p£orjwTr. 



398 



g 2S& Tax om the franchhe m propertj,— Thero ia no 
Joubi that the franchiRe of a coq>orjitioii a* dUlbgutiliiH] from 
ilacoTpomt^ frnrnliiKAiWionstitittoft part of the property of 
this corporation.' Akbouj^h iL miiy hav*^ Inn-n gninliul in tho 
Mrao cb&rtor it » not inaepArabk from tlifi corpoi^le fnuiDlibe. 
It mfty t>« 9oM or mortgaged or Uikcn andcr Gsccation; it snr- 
rivoB tbo dissolution of tbo corporation and got^n to crMlitoru or 
fftooklio14cf9;*aQcl it oruinot be taken for public use vrilhont 
compon3atEon> Krcn thoii^^b it haji b<?on granted subject to 
rcvocfitfon by tho atatr» and municipalityt there is a probabilit/ 
of t&definito oon tin turn f^i^ ixnfl ns ii mutti^r of fact itoob a fran- 
chiBO hfis a value ia itaclf and increases the value of the prop* 
orCy nrjth wlitch ittscoTindct^Hl.* It is, in sbort, a right boloog- 
ing to the company itj^'^lf, ineorporc^al projHrrty^ an asset of th« 
company with value that can be measured in mone}'. This 
fnocbti^i^ lhc^n*foro, it phiinly subject to tnxntion^ urul may bo 
ussened fr>r taxation If th« lav provides for the a.4SJ?s3raeDt of 
property of that chamcter. There are many decisions to this 
*^ffect, snd ihn qurxtion has l)f*cn not .ho mukih over th« ^wwf^r 
to tax as ivbetber the law proTid-^d for tho taxing of this kind 
of propcrrty, and vrbclhor in ccrtafn ooaca the tax afToct^d 
pririlcgos socLirod by the Iuvta of tho United States, 

g 3M>. Is the corporate franchise anl^lcct to tax as prop- 
erty f —* Wbcthor the frunohisc itself is subject to tax as prop- 
erty is open to {jaostlort Justice yield in an opinion of tho 
enpremo court aiiil : '' Tho right or privllego to be a corpora* 
lion or to do businesi as such body ia one gonemlly deemed of 
value to the eorporaton or it wonld not be soi]ght in BQoh 



^DBuiJtiuutli Cbtleire v. Woo-lwinJ. 

Inst ▼. MMBBchuHtU, 9 W»ll 611; 
TMile Bknk r.reauo. 8 W&IL 533. 047; 
'nkrlor T. flavor {^mt^ Rftniuud T^x 
C^Hsim U. ft My. |[on3« In-. Q% t. 
N«v Tork. I3« U, & ftlH ; Smtc ^oard 
sf Ameman v. C«ntcal a a Co. of 
KJL,4KH. J. IJtv, IUsSKlSi44;Con- 
OTftr T. T^jlor'* Ex'r. 1 Klwrk [V- B^l, 
raioas; 8Kcat,Ci>m.40aLC<»loroa 



N. H Ftep 609; Kqw Oilovtfc «3ta a 
a Ca V. DAlainom. lU U A flOt 

nrtaa Rapid TrftOkit Coi. v< Novr Yotka 
I3fi N. Y. 510, 34 K, a Bop.a3a;Wcit 
Kivor lirid^A C^ r.Dlivfi new. (U 8} 
5OT. 

•ro^tLinJ EUak ▼, Aptborpv U 
MasM. SL3i AtC<Q-ac7-GaOend r. BAf 
Htnlv Ulolng O^, W HsM 14«: Ol^a- 
»ii r. UcKaj, 1S4 !£»> 121^ OouIaI 
Pftci(l«aaOaT.CiiliCctniijLl«SU,& 
91; HuniSiraoo ttligft Ca t. Km^ 



894 



n-KK^VlG WiRftB lEt flTBKrTi AHD BttlBWATl. 



BMt 



nmnbeTsasatpresenti^aodinauoiheroaMliosafd: "Aceord- 
ing to tho Uv of meet st^t^ thie frenchiw or privily el 
lieiiig a corponidon la duonuMl pcnoftai proiwrtj and ie sob- 
jrct lo flejptfir&i« taratloD.^ Tho light of the states to tbat Ux 
it lum tHwn nM'Di^niMHi in in»tAnora vrithotit Dimber;" btitK 
Ifl to be o1i»rrTi^ tbat tlit^ jt^)g« !i|hMkii of tim TninfThifte as tte 
proprrty of the incorporatorfi, and it was fto regArdtfi] br Um 
^uprntEiQ court in an earlier caw,' antl hai fr«qtiMit1/ been dk- 
tiogaiahed b; thia fact from ihe francliisea of tho coq>oratcon; 
^nj it is evident from th« o^nion of Mr. Juatico Fbcld that be 
jsepeakingonly of tho power of the «lato to inipo»* atoJE open 
tfao fniDchiac> and not coofiickring the qacation whether it ii 
aBexciHoorupro|>ort7 tax. The fact that tiioraliic or thovap- 
posed value of tbc eorporatc franchise is iBcli«]v<t m the stand- 
ard of calculation of tho tax on a corporation does not make tt 
n^eflaarily a tfix on property ; it may none tbe leas be a fran- 
chise tax. The diatiQction ie made In Tnany of the atatee be- 
tween ordinary corporaUons which ars rcqairctl to pay a pore 
franchise tax irieasured by die nominal capital, and corpora* 
fjan« which hare tbo right to onn and operate a railroad; for 
example, these urcr tnxeil upon ihn vnlue oftb^ fnuichlse as 
property at iIa true value. This distinction in polntetl out by 
Judge Oarrison in a case in New Jersey roforring to the Ian* 
gaagn of Judge FEold as nuteil above.* Tim in anothi^r caM fai 
the same court the distraction was ignon^d; and where Ihe 
qncstion stiggcatcd w^aa whether the corporate franchises of a 
water compuny wcro taxubie under tho statute proridiag for 
the aascsamctit of real and pc^onal property, a dx^sioa In the 
ncgativo vraiA put upon tiic ground that thi^y did not oome 
within tho language and policy of the statute. The Franohistt 
in thia c&se w«re in reality th« ralimbU priTilegoa of laj 
irat<^r pipr-^ in the sttroota and npptyjug wat^r for pay. 

§ 2fs;. Are the franclilaes Inrltidai tn tbe ordlnarj tax 
lawH^-^Asstitniag timt a stale haa power lo lax fRLnchlBaa as 
proiw^rty, the qoestian remains wheUier the fraBchises are in* 
cluie<l in the descnption uf tlio prO|K--rty vrhicJi the taw direct* 



I BocoB In& Ox T. Nev Torb 184 
U- S. m^EM: Hon sii*i>f' ICinhkg 
Cci Y. New York, Itf U & 804. 311 



'IfrmrHiilt TT rri T CciaimMne 

' LcvborTitKominwnBddfsCL 
r. AjBOeore. 03 X, J. U OMl 



297.] 



EWjymuj usia i^ rKOi-xitrr. 



tit 



to be taxed. "Do they oosui wSthln iht scop? of the clattuM 
proWdiDg for ttie taxation of property as siieh, aotl especially 
mm thojr rBclittliyl in tlm pmp^^rty rntiblR hy local -iss^^orf 
uoJer tlta onlinary Ixi Ijivrs ? Tbu qu'-M!»lou kiuhL^ of «i)iinii^ 
be dctormmod by tbo laQ;puge of the stalatea and the poller 
of iht state. It may be ascful to rcfor to aome recent decis- 
ions oa that qut^ation. 

It tad been decided by the coart of appeals of New York 
thftt under %n net proriding for & tax upon oorponttions or their 
eapilAl 8to<^k, a truat conipaay could bo osBesaed only for its 
existing tangible capital ami surplus, oxcltuivo of ite dividctud- 
eomtikg powcff ite franehiae* or tho good-vrili of ita fauaiDeo*^ 
Thfi franobiaeB of this eompany wore merely to exist as a cor^ 
poratfon and to carry on bu^iomi and it bad Already b^a de- 
clared Hut under the lxivr% of 'Sevf Yorlc ibe fraaohUo of ft 
stnetrailw&y eomp^iay to occupy the st recta waa a nested ia- 
tonatand V)diiab1i> pr»j>crrly, i;tibji.rt to ;i1ii*rniion and cuoee*- 
aioa;*but m the case of tha KanLattan Railway Company tho 
court of appeals held tliat Itie fran^fbiso of lluit company to 
DpQraLiJ ail qIkvjiUh! railro^id In ihta fltmHlst of K<?w YorL city 
could noi be included in the raluatioQ of the capita) stock of 
a straoi railway for the purposes of local taxation. The court 
add: "It U the actual valae of ita caplui] stock a&d not the 
market rake of ita ahare stock that U to be aascesed; ia other 
words, it ia ita actuol, tAngible* ponooal property and Dot ita 
FranchiaM. Other slatatea provide for taxing of ita real estato 
aod franchisQa,^ llie aascasincnt was bold to bo orroacoas be- 
oause ii included t^ franobisca. Thia was followod by tbo 
eame oourt in a lator code relattoj; to the same conpany,* and 
by tbo appellate division of tbe saprome coort Id easca n^Unig 
to eloGLHe railway ' and electric-Ught oompanica.' 

In the seoond of tho^e eaa^* the coart^ citing the case of tlu> 



1 People 1^ teL Cabn Tnnt Co. t, 
Cd«Lcnaa. 19S M. V. 433; S7 Ei. CL Kf-^t 

t^oploT. O'Bncallt K.Y. ^per 
&ua«r. c J., p, «l; Uilliaa v. B^u^ 

KK v.au 

*]^»|ll* ex rrL Munlialtan Rjr. Cb^ 
W. Ibftmr. 13J X. Y. 41^ M N. & R*5pL 
8TKM3llf07K 

•PttOffa «< kL Gobcr 1iCao4 4 1L 
L ft Oi. T. Ked U Ap|h Dir. iiA, 44 



K. Y. .Sd|>p. SIO utffi?); FUfd* ex nd. 

or Bnx^kijB, 10 AM*-i)tT.apaaif.7t 

fiupihSS&OtW. 

>PMpi» «z r»L EdDam n tU. C<a 
ItillWiOWOfBwcklj-n, l» Jlpp lAr, 
im. 14 K. V. 9app »» (t«?>. 

■ PHj|j1e ex r«L D«Uvnttab 1* A V. 
R It Co. T. ClH|^ lAV y. T' WSk «« 



rATS. 



am 



Viakallu BaOwqr OoHfMjt aad uether cava fai tbe oourt «l 
^pMlinifltactotbetaiBtimfiCnttraMKKud: ••A^mmtfa 
Mw biftbeeft dedarod thai ft i^Ai »e» of a tmHroad cannot bo 
fotttntJOB. Tkii €< covae faas ended all our q^eoft- 
lad wegirtiOi. It m tfacnfMv amr nttled Uv lUfl 
eorponikmi bftve two cUflU of property — oaesobjcettolocd 
tuaSioaaad lfa««UMri^oaj€xe«iptteiiBtt«fortlie tazfttte 
nadir dMpfesr M], bws tf I881« v bjr expras termi aoMy 
for ftat« porpoKL"^ Tbe eoail Mgpcud thAt it was wiUiia 
lliinmaii iif rlnliij^aitlii III MlTjiiil tlililiiiil iiT propert^lo 
tOMtkaa, ud m iCataM %tm rine* been puaed In TX^w Toric pio^ 
vidiOff 6Xpr«Hlj for tbe aaoBnteni of U>o ralw of scnot imfr 
wmj, UlcgTvph and iimiUr fnuurhis^ tor Um porpoAee of loeal 
Uxatkn,* 

{SSS. Tlir *»«© — Contrntwd — In a case En X«v JcrMj' 
nJxtiag toawjLcroDai|Mnjr whoMifniichur inrlitiledtb6ii|^ 
to Uj p4p« m the str«Hs and sopp^j wnUu- f€>r pay, the oo«t 
said : ** Tbc qop^tioci presented Lii this case is wbetlior our gt^ 
cnX }mw% zathavwa vuxskipAlitica to levjr tAirs on mere corp>' 
fate fnncblses. That such fmncbinoi aro Uxable as propnt; 
ii aettlod by tbe jodgment in ^<j^ Board ^ Ammmton «. A>- 
^Tdf R4t3rtMd Co.^ but whrtbcr tbcj are iDcliHifKl among tlii 
BObjeclB of UHUUcipal tucatioD ia another question df^pcoUcal 
upon tho proper coostract:oa of tho Uvrs JelcgAting tha tax- 
ing power to mimicipal bodioa.** The act of 18<E0 (Ilor^ 1150) 
dedand that all roal and peraonal property, whether owned 
bj- iodiTidaala or oorpormtiooa^ ahonid bo liable to ta2atioa,and 
It irat hold that this form of cjEpreanoa and another clanK 
enoroeratin!^ various clas»e of ppoprty imlir^tcd that it «« 
intended to iQi;iuilc only such property lu u uscioLty owned bf 
inilivlduals and corporations alike^ and to exolodo offiect of 
individuals (iml fmnchiso^ of corporaiions. It ifes ur^ed tJiit 
f mnchiiea could be tuxtxl under the act coucerning corporatioai 
(Bo?., p. 100 ; Snp. Ber,,p. ITO), which provided that the K4i aad 
pergonal e«tato of oT^^i-y corporation thonld bo taxod thosaaieai 

ctil>LMoi«avl[]g«l>!kTikHwon>doolarflit 
to \n> pvrv<rriftl i^ro|j<?rty* tmAtlj> m 
tTin U>yrn ur vHnl. ittii^h a hix wjkA 
liAld Yjilii nifhuutfh Xh» Tunia of Iho 
bank w<ir« Uv^eioU ^ UuiM titotM 



Bochcstor, :!T N. Y, MS riMTi, 
K. J. U 471, 'J« A' 

Ntf N. J- U 



5 3M.3 



SLEOTKIO Ltll68 IS fBCtZXTY^ 



ZK 



thut of aa ULdtTiiaal; but the court sid4 that tho lan^^iage of 
ibis act correspoodod bo clonal/ with that of the former act as 
to compel tho 0OEc]Qsio& that tho satno subjocts ff«ro int^oded 
bjoaoh. 

fn CaUfoniia, on tb« other bind, it has bocn h<tld thitt tbo 
iraachleea of a wai«r compuny an? itabjoci to tJixuUon aji prop- 
«rtj by tbe local asse^or. Tlie court held tbat they Vp-^r? 
propi*rty nm\ woro tssecntblo Qnclor tho constitution and itrdi-r 
tljft Htfltntfi ppoviijing for Iha assessment of property, and ihjit 
the ASB^fismeat might be made by tho orditiBry local TLsarstOT.^ 
Thn opinion rcfiTra to Tnuny cfixes. 

It waa h»Ul la Mit-higiin that l^U-phone oonipanies wptd ex- 
empt from locil taxatioD under a etatuto which proridcd For 
a stato tAx in lien of all locn.1 iax<-%,' 

Tbe di-cisioaa againat the ngbt of local tasiation do not 
imply that special fiuDcbisus arc Dot taxable aa property. Thty 
only declare that they are not iDclndod within tbe moaning of 
tho Qxifititig etatutoa providing lor the locaL taxation of prop- 
«rty. IthasbooaropentodlyiiocidjylthjhttheepociaJ franchises 
of railroad, tek^apb, telephone and electric light companies 
are subject to taxation either as propurty or as fnint^itftca or 
ppiTilegi>*j and the recent statutes povM^ng diatinetly for tho 
taxation by the gtaie of the special rrKtichises of com^Hinies of 
thin kind tuive boen gcnenitly sustainid,* 



' Spring VftUrty Wutor sjo, \, 
8dk0ltl«f, C3 CnL Ca (Itt^^ 

*AttOT&fiy^ntOTal v. D^trflt. U3 
lOoh, »a Tt :?. W, Rcfi «:::! n^^ifTt- 

■StUA Bnutl ol AfMvjtoFR V- (:«n- 
tnl R U. Co of N. J- 4^ N. J. Lau'. 
1«L 4 Aa R«^ 176 {im): Potmt t. 
Rook bLuul ^ 8U L Ry. Oi. 7A 111 

Tkx Camm\ 09 U> a 675; Ceolor- on 
Ikntkrs. SS3; S3 AcL & &|& Encj. 

viewlotiajct^tutofi^ntjibuiiii ^]«<JtrJ(i- 
UgU (»(ii|)»iii<fl. howe¥<f. ilom not 
Inpoae a Ux un t±K»e fniiuliun ns 
fwopAHf. Kit n Tni(ir» frnvchtn Ue 
«T «x«Un OD tiio prfvief^Cb 3 Gcc 
BOtt N. X VtW; Jerv^ City Giw 
Uctift Ca T. ITnitnl Gtu Imfv Ox. 4a 
rnL Etop. »t ; ISuno v. tknc^ W irc4. 



Rep. U:23; Slnmlard ITBdorcnond 
Cith\n d f. Attorrwy-GMMtrnL It K. 
J. Eq. *JTO, 10 AtL Kcfv 7^: 8ingi« 
MfK. C^ T. ncp[>«nhf ^mcr, M H. J. 
IA«P, 4.19. AM N. J. Lfcr, «ia » AU. 
KAfkilil, » AtLHi)p.lOti];Uondun« 
Com. Co. T, PlAl/i F.cTrl of AsicV' 
or&G4 K J Law, 371^^ Aa B«|w 
OAK !tUtr«liaett1ed1nN#w J*nw7 
on princjpliM applicttbk) «li«wli«to 
iliut tlie Et'ite Ux ua cor^ontioa* oi 
ft F«-nvntaip* on (Mr CA^dtnl vtoRk 
ia not n tni on prop«ity, tut an Im- 
pmiUoJi bf ^iv&J of lki<tt*» for •£«*- 
oIsitixtban>fpomti»&mn^i«fc SImiJ- 
Ard DDclar^ronii'l CiUa Ov r. Auor- 

i»7^G«iMni. 46 K. X e<i. e;a I9 Att 

nep. 7^; 3f>u»l«a Ca t. 6tA(« Boirl 
nr AnoHirk <1 K. J. Uv. 401. m 
AtL H^ 68SI 1b Vnni«li«M«U M 



8ftS BLBCTKIC WlBSe W «»&«» AJTD I1M0WAT*. [|$ SS^ 



(S80. SiMe francbLseUxevanfl the Meral Irhs — Qntt- 
tloii UaUn).— Tha qn^tioa erf the n^t of the wUkU9 to tax 
Ui« frajtr:UUf3« of tolcgnph uul teleptM>n9 coatfajtioa 10 ooupU- 
catcd hy the fact that tJi«SA oompaDteei ara mgagtMl in Infafr 
•Uto oommijr^, aod that tho foriner o&joy the pcifikgQ ooo- 
ferred by the act of fioDgroi of using tlie poit-roatU of the United 
Statoa, and ar«, to a c«rt&in extent, ageoclea of (be govem- 
tngQt' Tho nght of tbc sUtcs to authoriM mtuucipalittoa to 
exact llocfi4« fc«a or reolaU of sacb compfltnics for tlio m^ q( 
Cho streata was oooaiderod in an oariier oliapter.' The qtMation 
now ia wbctticr the stutoa may imposo a tax upon tbc ^^uictiiat 
of tho ooKipamoa, oitlwr as an exoiaa or fmnchiio tax, or aa a 
tax upoQ tiie Taluo of the francbisd ax property, vrheo the valua 
of the franclilie is dorlved in port from Clio fact that it U »• 
gaf^ in interstate commerce and h miking om of the privi- 
lego gmotoU by act of coxigntss of using tho puot-roads of tbt 
Unitdd &Ut«^ 

§ 290. The same — Tax rantiot be IxM on Interstate cam* 
liMrce. — It is well oettJed "^ Uistl the tclcgrjipb is an iastrumcDt 



liaa b*»a htld that Ihtiy &r« t&zablo 
a* profwrif unior tho cIhum of tJia 
uoiiMiiixtiun Ibrit (iruvidA Tor iIm l«i- 

Bnnk ir. Apthorp, t? Mai« Si^i At- 
loruQj^-0«ui?iQl V. fia]* 8t&t9 Mioing 
Co, 90 BUw. 14«: OLbuoD V. McrKay, 
I3i UMa 4£4; Fub 9e&t IS«% pp im 
ifO. lit And imdcr tbo prevent 
JiULtutM tl^ value of Lho fnuiobiao 
la Mtimatod b/ that val\io of iha 
tbaroa attar doJuatEcg tho valuo ct 
i^ OiUto aad moohiaorj, ftpd tt ia 
tAiRil at tltn ORuaJ ntM of tax no 
j>ro|i«rtj. Tho ai£«ct of thu w of 
ovar«« to lDolud« naults of tlio good 
m»ixacem«ftt of th« bustoew lo tha 
fvnacbte aod 1^ fmpe«« oa oorpont- 
tlooa a tax aob laipe«Ml on (njirld- 
uaU cofTyiiuc oa a wnnlu biuuiae^ 
Pub SUt. UoB.oh. xin.$saa4ft 

all cvuiiacloft oulboriael to lak* toll 
mr9 mib>*ot to nttncfamrEnt aa mtiuia 
pfvoM^ Pab. Stat, cfc- ^v. ^ «ii 
Hr, Ju«ti<v £V«1I«j,1d bb dlaNntin^ 
aplak» in UiOna *. Qvaod TmiU 



Uj. Co, l«a U. a >tT.SS3^«|»«>LLlifl 

of tba vanoua «laMM of laxa^ea 
cunurttlauua ssjk: "A oorpunMoia 
nfv.>Miijj[ to thl£ o1t« of deedctoaa 
ouf b« toaotl Mvenl thaw 0T«r, II 
m%y bo Caaod foi ata ofaactsr, ftor te 
fmiohufH for tbo jirivlkfQ of cvtt* 
ing OD iu bodaow; U ma? (■« taud 
oa itB capital aa4 it mmy bo laxedon 
IM profvrtf. £ncb of tluota taxir 
tioCM may btt camod to tha lull 
omuuat of t2kO propoHy of iLo ooi» 
pauy. I ilo not kuuw tluU jaaliciiBr 
of onrpnrftiA InAtUtiUooa could ta 
oorrtail nmeb fuitliwr.*" 

1890 Ob XIL i ITS. Tlial Ub- 
plioEwooiiLpaaiesara txiCoatitMia 
tb«M priTilt^ao* vr^ lUcidotl in Itiok- 
mcad r. Soutbcni Botl Tdopb Oo. 
f:4tr.&:0l. Tb*; Idoplioo* oon- 
p&otAi vrlli litMS bttwoOQ vbitm SCO 

oai^Bod ia uit^naat^ oonawroa K 
ubvlonu. It TRU dcci^od bi tbo imm 
of tba Tantioa of tbo I'ttswyivmak 
TU«pboaa i:«u. «» N. J. 1£<|. tt), UO JUL 
Ro^8«Sa&^lX 

>cbir^u»^ckxaa: 



|»i.3 



CLBGTBlg LnrZS A3 rK^FPVTT. 



Mft 



of oofniDeTO«, and that tcldg;t8pti oompatiics are subject to tho 
t«guUttng power of con^rcsa in rcepcot lo their forojjjn and 
iotorvtat^ buiinefu, and ibat tucfa a <sompaD7 oceapios tho aavo 
i«laticn to commer^, as a camef" of measa^-ea, thOrt & railroad 
company doca as a carrier of j^ods.'** It ia also settlad tbata 
atata tax on government messages and OD prSTat© inostagofl »^nt 
oat of or into tho sUto ih iin<»inatituUonal and roid, but that a 
aiate toxonpriratomoasajjcH wboUy wlthlathottat^i fsvolEd;' 
and also that a single tax levioid on both cliuHea of measagoa la 
Qui wbolly void, butmny bi^mifitiiincdasto bliat port of tt which 
is lanad on the busIneKt wittiin tho »tfit4>, if it is capa^bto of ap> 
portion TUGCtv* It baa bcon dtxidcd by tho supreme court, and 
tlie duciftioa liaa not b^t^n qucstioticxl/ that the occupation or 
bnsiaeaa of aending mcesag^^a from oa<s state to anothi^r cannot 
be taxod by a atatei and that a atato cannot impoao a tax bj 
way of Ucenao fee or otherwise on such biuineoa, beoaoao soeh 
a tax itnpoaca a but\kn upon commoroa 

}m. Tli« Name— FrancliUe Of company engaged In In* 
tarstate commerce may be taxed as property.— On tbe otbar 
hand it baa been bold thnt it is lawful for tho stacca to Impoaa 
a tax apoa the property of acompany engage in interstate oom- 
nievoe acoording to Us value, even tboa^i tho valtw be owing in 
part to tho fact thiLttbn proju^rty 1% vkM in thebaaineaK of mt(<ff^ 
Btato comnierco or tho ext^rclse of the privile^ of nslng tho 
poai-it»da of tho United StJitoa. This principio waa applied Co 
tetegrapb oornpaniea In HWdm UfUon Tdtyrapk (h. v. Mattocks 
$eU^ in 1867.* The statate in that case imposed on the companj 
a tax called a fmnehiao tax baaed oa thecaah ralueofUiecap* 
ital atock after dadncting so much aa waa proporUonate to the 
length of the lino ontcide of tho state and oUovrin^ for tail' 
gibie property locally taxed wlthm the «tiate. The corporation 
waa or^Anixed under tho laws of another state, and the com- 
pany liad acveptod tbe provisfona of the act of congrMa onti- 
tUng it to tbe nae of the post-roada.* It waa contended that 



Uxkn lUa^ Oi.. W U. a 1; tUtlor 
itttar W«it«niUDloaT«to^0^m 
U.a4n-iaai WvU^ Cnicn Tolo^ 
Ox T. TfXM. lOfi u. & 4oa 
lW«i««mUrUbtiTbli^CiLT,lVma 

ua u. a 4aa 



TdME* Ccw lar IT. a tit 
> ijt\Mip T. uoiiiK L37 a a aia 

B»a 



£30 



KLECmiO VIKI9 TH y T RKCT a AND RIGITWATa [f ^^ 



a tux based on t)m valna of tW etoclc -vrss a tax a^ioii tbe fm- 
chiffo^ and that this l>eiiig derived from the law* of the Ucltiid 
StftkrA wa£ not taxable by a state: but the codfL s&id Ibe fr&n- 
chm<^ 1o be a t'orjKirnljiiii w:tM itiit ib-rlvi^il ttx\m ihv act of COB- 
grcsE, but from the laws of Kevr Tork, and that the act collre^ 
ting the priTikgo of lutng tho post-roada ^ta^ only a permbdve 
6tatuto and v/as not ]nt«nd«d to exempt thr^ companies froBi 
tho ordinary burdens of Btatc td:£atton, and tho tax, althoi^h 
nominalty npcn tho capital sfoclc, WAa id effect a tax upon the 
company oa account of proporty ownod and awd by it in Maf- 
aachnsotts. Thia deciision was ro-affirmod in a later etaabe- 
ttre^n tho same parti (^&,^ and tho came principlo was applied to 
the t:tj:at:on of railrotidg enga;^«d in iatantato coiiimeroo ta 
two cajea relating to ihe tax laTvt of Indiana.' Afterward^ 
whero a privilei-^ tax was levied on a telegraph company at » 
much per milo aDdintteuof nay othrr t^x^ tba enprenw coiiTt 
held that while no tax may be levied hy a »ta.tc by way of du- 
ties on sul)JQctr4 of iatersl.ate commerce, or on the reoejpla d^ 
rtred therefrom^ or on the occupiLtioa or btuim^fs of carrying 
it on, yet a tax may b^ iirpoeed upon a corporation on account 
of its property and may take the form of a tax for the priv- 
ilcge of exerciaing its francbises within the stjvto, if theamomt 
ifimndo dcponilcnt on tho Titlac of tho property, and if pay- 
ment bo not m^Ldo a condition precedent to tho right U> carry 
on the bnaincss.* 

Tho principle adopted ^n the Mafi«aohnf»>tts cases waa appliei 
In a case arising under tho statate of Indiana proridiag for % 
tax on t(>1<?graph companies.* It was conteodod that andflr 
this stjituto tho tax necessarily included the taxation of fraa- 
ohiaes granted by the United States, but the court said ihe 
fits.tiite coE'M not be diflllngaishnl from thnb of MavaGhasetH 
ami it wm hrld tlix^t the tax, measur^ by the Taloe of t}ift 
cajntal stock an<l apporlionod according to mileage, was a tax 



* PUUbarxh, fU\ Ttf. Col t. Baol^l^ 
1S4U, &4lr|; aaTt?luid, etc R/. Cu 

fitnto V. Wwtom ITnion Tole^ C^ 
1U llCb &18, wtero t^ tax wv licl-i 
to bea ioJt <m iha b^tbm &tiJ tutl 
tbo proF«rt}% aad W«t«ra Uaioa 



T»lc^ Ca V. Hssnobai^tts via di» 
tlnRui>h«d. 

>Ftelal THt^ Co. r, Adam& tU 
U & SWL offlraalag 71 Miia 00^ U 

■ ^rvtora Unka Tbk& Ca ^ 3^ 



$99aj 



ELBCTKIC Lens AS TROffXKTT, 



331 



upon property^ and tliftt Mt^ vnluo of property was tho proper 
luis of tajutioB, even tbough the valQd iv^s cauae^i hy thd 
fcct that tho property w^ used in iDtcrstato commcrxM?, or m 
the exercise of tlie pririlrgc of ming the post-roads. The C0Qrt> 
referring to tbo caacft above cittH), said : ** Those dodsioaa clearlr 
csuibltth that asUtutc of a ttnte rtqnirln^ a tcfc^mph coni' 
paay to pay a ux upon its property wiIIilti tho ttaU, value<l 
nt BQcb A proportion of tlio wholo viiluc of its capital Block as 
th« loDgth of tbo lino:( witbin tho sluto hcan to tho length of 
all the line* «i?erywhei^, cltJuctiTig :i sum i^qail to the valae of 
it* real ettato nnd mncliinttry ffubj^: to 1oc:u1 tsxation \Tithtn 
thefitat^uconsdtationalancl valid, notwkhtt.indlDg thai: notb- 
iag i« in Irrtns directed to be dedncrt^d from the valnation, 
either for ihn Vn'iliiiMif tlvT fnLnL-hwTi froin Llirt ITniti*!] SuU<ji 
or for the value of tta real estate and iiuichrniTry situated and 
taxed ia other statca, unU<» Uicra ;« somrthrng morr- fallowing 
that the system of taxation adopLod isoppre&An'e and uqcoh- 
atitational" 

■* It ts enough for tho Htate*'' said Mi*. Jutltce Breifcr In one 
of tbcao codOB relating to a railroad engaged in intcfstate com- 
Diorcc,' " that it linds vrithin its bonkra certain valoe. AVbat 
baa oaosc^ th^it ralne is immaterial. It is protected by atato 
lava, and the rule of all property taxation ia thd role of ralu^t 
and by that rule property engaged in intfjrttate eommcreo is 
ooDtroUed tho same as property engagod in commerce nithin 
tba stAU*/* 

^3fi?< The Kumn— > An e\rKf> tax may be leiled on the 
fVnirhlNe noii l.haii;^h nini^an^d fiidtrrctlj hy rerrlplKfrrini 
lat#r«tate commerce. — In cltt^se oxm^ tUe t;ix vroaJuj&LitlL-d on 
the ground that it was m fact a tax upon property, eren though 
mrosuTod by tbo imlue of tbo stock, which depended :ndi- 
rectiy oti tho use to wbicb the property Tree put; and altbongb 
that two connint^ in pari of eommeroe between the slatca. la 
anolhi-r case relating to a railroad eoinpAny.^ tho coottsn^ 
tained a state tax made directly upon the pririlege of exorcis- 
ing its franchisee in the Btato, even thoa;*h the araoimt of tho 

lCl**«lMd.lXaa StltRy. Ox >Maln^T,GT«ad1tiiakBy.C«k,]tt 
V, B«chivi* IM U. S. 4»k So3 «1» U. & 217 (lSei> 
Wft»icifi Q&k>inTi4«fC-CaT.}{araiaJi, 

n rwL ftcqv ts {vm^ 



8» 



xi.BCTfijo wift£« nf ffTBKrr? kVT* tnonwATA, 



[| 



tax vras detenniDed by re1ereno9 to tbs avongo gross «RntlDgi 
of tho company [wr milo within tli« >tat«. Tlie ooort fluil U10 
prlvil^lP bad v^lue and the grunting of it vbb entirely vitbiii 
the diacrrtioci of the KtiktH, and HikL tbn iminniTr iu wIikIi it b 
aaGtiftaincd £b of no oonjtaqueQoi;, becauaa it may be iioposed 
arbitrmly, as waa dMidod in /^rA« /hs. Ch, p. Jfhp Tcriy^ aad 
that ttiorcforo tlio tax Tra« not a levy upon the reoeipU tlwni' 
telrea and vraa not an intorfdrcnco iritb intetstata commercti 
3£r, J aatico Uradl^y, with Uarluw Lamar and Drown, J J^ di» 
lontod, n^forring to thccoaee'ia whieb it waa held that no tax 
upon the bosioeeB or gross receipts of intcrstato oommcrco can 
bo impoa^xl by a state, and ioid; '^Wo think tbat tho proscol 
daoisioa is a departure from tho line of theae daoldoiia. Tba 
tax, it is truo, is called a *tax on a fram^isa.' It is bo callfld; 
but what U f1 in fact? It is a tax on the receipts of tha com- 
pany darivGn:! from intern fitionAl trarisportation." • 

g 203. Tli» ftarae — TaxallonorfranchlMesof exprMicon* 
pnnleNj hrblge rompanlen and telephone rompnnkfi, — Tho 
pnnr^ple that property eniployf^l in dilferent statoa in intcr- 
Kt^ite commnn^i may bts valued us a. utiiL und Uixfrd in any Ktato 
according to the mtid of the property foond therc^ hna been 
extended in more recent ceiscs to the taxattoa of the franchisei 
and intan^le property of express coiDpAni^.' The statato 
under which tbi« tax was leried applied to beLagmph and bele- 
phOBO companies m well aa exprr.^ compucics, and its Talid- 
ity wos anatalnod.* The same pnaciple was a;»o applied to 
the taxation by a etato of ths franchise of a bridgo eempuiy 
muintaminu; a bridge betiroen two stJitus for tiio purpose* o( 
intorsutto oommdrca A tax baasd on tkie capital stoek after 
deducting the valtiu of the tangible proj^orty in the other stabs 
was ausuined aa a valid tax on the intangible property in 

Auditor. 103 U, & IM. IM a & 113; 
Xdami EKprM* Ca t. StAC« of Ind^ 

Col v. EentwikT- IH^ V. a 171 1 1!M> 

law}! ooviFriud aua kooumsIs^ 

|hUS1,8*m. Sea Wottent Unloe 
19, wh«ra Urn lUui-jckj ttAime Is 



■Plnkanl t, Putlmu'k PiU^ Ckr 
Co^ 117 U. a Ml Uloup T. Uobile, 
]?7 a & 04<l: Xatfolk A Wortcrn a 
fi. Cri T. Penat^ltnntit 13G U.& 114: 

PltiWlelptUA ASouUiora SkatMhip 
Ok t. Paun^vuiU. US U. & 381 

■6«« li (iirtb«rqiiitttatioa from tbii 
epfako in note & j^ M^ npfa. 

* AiiDu Exprcu C» t> OUo 8tACe 



9S84.] 



BLBcrslC lists Afl rEorEKTT. 



8B3 



KentiK^j. Tt vrafi said that the elTect on ioteratste TOtomerco 
whb too rxsmotc to bo coa«ldcra1^ ftml that tbe ctectanHion that 
Mich bHilg«« idioald br< reganli^! om po«t-n>ndi did not mtcrforo 
with the rjg^t of Ihc «tatc to impoB*? such X&sea} In all tbe^e 
later CQAM 5lrcnaoiJs opposittoD lo tbic( oxtcnsiozi of the lAxtog 
poiTOT of Ibo elates was made bv JuRticcs Whil*, Field, Har- 
lan and UrotTD, and in this wo may bo soro thcj would haro 
b^eu joltwd by Mr. JustJoo l^radUy* who ia hii lif^tioie con* 
tended bc* oarneetJy aj<ainBt tho encroachiDent of tho tjudng 
powor of the ctat«i npon tho fcdi»rai oo&trol over int^trstaU 

i 3M, Tbo8aii]o—<r<iTi€lii«lotifl ad testate taxes and Enter* 
■tat« commerce-' Kef 4>rrtng to prwious chapters' for dU* 
oonlons of the cjisos on tht^ power of atatoB and cIUm to Im- 
pose 1ioeii«« f«gs on Uil^graph and tol«phon9 compantes engaged 
ia int«rctat0 commerof>, and {^orxi^IcHng th« d<M:i«!ortM abov« 
referred to on the powor to tax the franchtE^ of snch com- 
|wiii«j ttio concttisioni muty bo rtutwl tineny ns follows: A 
cUte^ or a maiuotpalit^ by iinthority of a HtaU!, m&y fnpoM a 
tioeiue foB OQ polfis and \rmB for thi? purpose of the k^W 
tioa of the Q0O of tbo str«ete, or may «Jtact a payment by way 
of reot or toll for Ihd qm of the atresia. Neitber citioa nor 
vtates can impose nny liocnao foo or tai on the occupauon or 
b«*m<«9 of •ending U^lcgrapb or telephone Tnt<iflg<a 1>»tweea 
tbo atatefi, nor upon the mo^sa^s IhocoselTioa, nordlroctlj apon 
the ncoipte of tho baftin<*s« *o far aa they arc dorited from In- 
tentato commeree; bat this exemption doee not prerenC tho 
■tato from taxing tha property of a {>onon or corporation ^n- 
gtg^fntnchbuainefa; and ibofronebUo of a telegraph or tol^ 
phone eorapany may be laxeil as prc^rty according to its 
ralnOt although thnt vkIiip i* in p:irL dtrrinxl fnim tiko fnct Umt 



I ni>BdtW3n IWil^ Oct t. Ktm- 
ana HndfA Cct t, C^I^ at HnailOTvoa, 

in u a»B; ac, muas34(ieoek 

■arrdag BwulviKiii nniltf* CXl t. 
CotttaoQVNAlUk. SI & W. lt«}iL <W 
Aa to oxprtn co in jinfai and tho 
VkJbolA Uw, HO WeMcVD UaVon 
-tU«it CtoL V. Pf^ Anrticur of Ohio. 01 
md. Eap> 440; A<tMna Ba|tf«M O^ t. 
FD«k Aadtior. »l F«d. B«p. 4m U FmL 
Bc^ It; Adama BxiiMaOiL V. AaJHor 



of OllFOb lU C. & lf«i SU£<i T. Jnn«« 
51 OliAottL «>3. Ai to ft lAi te an 
lai«9»Uta bridge •«« IMiibuf^li, O, 
a A Bt 1. Br. Cd V. WoU Virsloi^ 
173 U- a 51 

' WlUi n^ri to tho tacoaao lax OM 
a to1oc*^ph cftble compuiy AouioiM 
ahfti*4 oa4 ''cwrybs an budb««* 
la Knaluui mm Ertah^a t. lArt»0 
g. U DlT. 4tl 

'Ctk IT, UH 60; dk Xn, H >Mk 
189l 



su 



iLEcntp irtiu^ Iff STitttCTtt A:n> niaitwAYs. [$3^ 



it i« rtg^igcd in biisin<7!s bi^lwron the sUtCK, uitl U^o fruicliiM 
is aXso aubj^t to a.n f^xcine or privilege tax; vid this is not in- 
Talid (Tcn tbough it bo tixoil with sorao rofcrcnco toUio groM 
e:Lrning9j ^ThicU in^luilc tlia earaing:} ot tiid bLoincnof itti 
state commerce.' 

§ i;i>5. t"ranchi*o tax^Klertrfc H?;ht, p«wer anil hfS 
coitipatiics not exemiit as manuracturing compsulea.— Tba 
statutes imposing a siato lax on the fmnuhiscs of corporatJoos 
Qsuilly provide that maDufac;arin^ conipanEet shiUl bo exompt, 
either abaolatety or on certain conditiona: Tho queetJoa 
nrifl]>n,tliorcri>re, whelheroompant^ent^gcdingftnicrHttDgi 
tricity for light, heil or power are manara:;turiDg compaidai 
within th<i nicunrng <if tbcsc nfjiMiti^. In Pdnnsylrania' tbs 
£«uprt<[iii? ciiurL iln.-uled tbal an i3i<H:trtu liglit anJ po^vvir cvn^ 
pan; was not a iiinDufdctorin^ company mtbin the mcaniB^ 
of thn PimnAylvnniii staLuto of IS^^i, by wLicb manufacturing 
companies vretQ exempt from taxation, and ibe court rest«d Its 
judgment not oa the meaning of the word " manufsctan^" m 
given l>y loxicographeri, but on the cli^Gnitioa trhich Ui« ksgi^ 
kturo bad adopted and adhorcti to for more tbaa half a oeit 
turj. This d<?oi3io& was approved in ttub^ucnt ««C8.' 

Tbo supreme coart of Alabama,' on t^e other hantl, has 
decided that tight compaoios aro manufactunog companies, 
within the meaning of section 1565 of tho oodo Of tS$S, which 
prorided for the union or consolidation of niinin;^, quarrying 
or mnntjfacturing companies. The court regarded the produo- 
tLon of el&atncity as anato^oui to th« maniifactnro of artiftc^ 
JOB, citing PcopjR V. Ics Co.f ^nd tho mannracLtire of gas, citing 
JftUfAiiu Qajf Ligfd Co. v. BrotHyn.^ 

Tie court of api^ealfl in Now York decided in 1892* thaca 



I For ciUQ* aa to vimt Btfttut«a 
(ind lu-lw of law rcfcrrinff to t^lo- 
^r^(jb couipiim<4 locluiif t«lQ[iboao 
OOoipjiTilBA. fisa 9^ Am. A Rn^ Enrjr. 
ofLAw,TI& A ktatuto proTiiliDg f or 
tli» oioJo of lAxtn^ telcgnph profh 
ttnj hAlit to lacliuU Mkpbaao prop- 
ertj. Iowa Unioc Tskph, (^ ^. Ot- 
UoOM»e7 loirtfSCIltl Am-SLQw 

mam). 

■ ro[nniAnwf«iTth ▼, Ni^rthftra Kb»v 
trio Lif^lit K Poiiyir Col, 145 P«- 31. 
20S^ 2S la B^tv 3». 



iCommonn-nltti ir, Sdiaoo & la 
Co., 1» Pri. 3t 131, 93 A^ ^ 84; 
CoamiunwoalUi v- Qnmh Bloctrtc Li 
Ci\. 1«A Pa. SL UT. 2a AtL Utp SH 

«Jk^gi V. Ed^OQ Eloctm Ligkl ft 
niaailnatlcs a>, W Ak. SSG^ U a 
K4|tSSL 

>»N. V.ISL 

* 80 H, 7 40a 

'F«cfilo f.Wo«p&Cb]Uir.T.S« 

s» H E. AicL ao% aia 



205.] 



aXKCTKlO JJtSXA AS PEOPKXrT. 



S» 



oorpomtEoa engnged id the btismeca of geawnting uul nppl^* 
iDg oleotrio ourrcnta for various purposea is a maDcfaoturui^ 
oompaDy nittiin tho act of ISSO vbich czomptod such corp^ 
rations carrying on mAJaofootttrea vithia tfais aCite from laxft^ 
tion, The court distm^niabed betw««a the meaDinj* of tho 
wortl "manufacture'* as girea ia the dictionaries, and tho 
TueaQiog of tho word as used and oonsi^T^ in commoD lan- 
guage, find said that electricity as now tis«d and applied to tba 
bnsiuc^ of life, being essentially the product of the tkOl and 
Jabor of man, tbcre is no difficnltr la reactung th& concliuioii 
tiiat a corpomtioa eng^tgnd in tbe business of gooieraLing, jtLor^ 
log, trans En ittin^ and selling it is a manofactonDg oorporaUon 
within tbe meaning of tbe corporation tax lav of Xew YoHe 
(1S30), 

In a case in New Jersey in 1855," it wa* held by Vi«-CliaB- 
cellor Bird that the vnres and insoIatOTY nsed in oomuctiag 
tho electriolight plant with the dwellings and other plaoea 
were *' fixturee for manofactcmg porposes^" and aa soch caiao 
within the provisions of tee mochanic'a tien law; bot tbe staU 
nta in New Jersey expressly taxes electric-light compaaiea as 
ffuch and not as mantifactaring companies. 



iHnghM T. lAmberviUe Elaotric Li^ Co, a K, X Eq, itet SI All 
9X SMS2Sa 



INDEX. 



ABUTTEitB (AM Amrmuo LAjn^<iwvBB). 
ABUTTIKO LANl>OWN£RH^ 

oftblv Allvraj. riffhte ot with i«p«ct idh 12SI 14ft 

<ihftn|[a of grmAn of «tT«et. lAd 

oo&aoni «t to Iba v*0 of •trorte fov «lcotric wlm, 36* oot«, SS, U^ U7, Uft 

«JI«CliMJ|ibt wink ohaptar cm, lOT to lU 

•lactrlo rulwftf, oh^piar on. ill 

#I«CtHc nlhraj, tig^t to iajanciion ACjUofiti 146l 

•lACtrb nilWAf, ngtiU of with raftpoct to tbo u«t of t)io ttmito for. 
II. IS. 10 (o 8L B% 3&. 36^ T4, 106. noUf t milT. lis, I3«^ 1ST. Ifia UL 

ics, tH i«a m to iM. na iti- 

iUMftrio wlrw, rinbbi of wHb rv«poct to tbo luo d tho ftrooU Ua, get^ 

eiaJ obscrrfuUoujL 2. 3, IL 
4loctr.c wirw, nghU Of vlt^ TMpoot to tho OM of tho >trMt« for, geo- 

«nl TifTW, ch-biit«r on, 74 tti SI 
alcTitiid ra^lwu;. ti^tiia of with mpnut ta T>» iiotiv 81, 83. VXL 
rigkti od ibJJaiNiaiOj. poiTDndoa at ^mo of atfiMlai 13& 
rinbla or. ar« the righto vt la^net aad oKrak 18^ 141, 113. It4 
rtgbtt of. hoir ft^WTtcd by oWtria ndlwu)^ 2A. 

rii^litoot liow«cii|iiLn>lixiuBDt coDilamualioa.oh&ptflr gia. ll7(o 1T4 

r^hta oCIq Ih* utrovt, GOnidiJorwI. IIM41 

Awn nttroad^ wighl9 of with Mpot4 to, U, L% Ul. LSa 

bono nll^obdmigliQi of with nsptct tOb U 

•tVMt Allwftjr* ^ Pomu7lTiuU&, l4a 

idetCTipb Md telephone, ria,^\s of wilh t«9p«oi tOk tti B^ 8S to 1% 8S 

toMift3toP7,OBtotai 
Obftpter oo^ 85 lo 104. 
uti^Kruiuid «lr«ib 107. 

A0CE88- 

•Iwtric nllvrnj am AlTootlnic, 1S7. fS4 tM 
I J>aift6« oauiod hj tologmpb poloi luid wira^ 101. 
^^bl|E>it or. &(TBCtnl tyimeot tbo^lrwCo Curtfsutiic «ln^ 8^91101 Ult 

I ACCIDEKIS— 

occarnccooC not crtdgpoeof nigHgiiM^ SHL 



338 iHi>] 



ADJACENCY— 

riglita ot dafiaod »d diacnned, es. Si It^ list Dota. ISi; 1«1 to 144 
rights ot with re^Mct to tUecttic rulvftj'* llfl; lU^ not^ 14L 

Me Aoctbb; Axottuiq L.ft?iiM)wim. 
intflrfereaoe with ri^ito ot, bf •lectdo^i^t po^ 111, iMifto, UM, 

ALABAMA — 

co&dBmnatioa «nd mgulfttioa of imilioAd cronngi^ 17& 

APPLICATION — 

for munictpftl mmuazi^ or fbr & dengration of the stnot^ 901 

ABBANQEHENT AKD DIVISION OF THE SUBJECi; t. 

ATTOESET^E?fERAL — 

mmj file informstioii a^iiut stootrio Ailw«r, lO. 

AUTHORITY— 

of«atne kind is T<oqaiTed Cor ifMoiA] oa» in (be straeti^ WL 
for the uaa of the itreetfl tor electrio wira^ obaptar 00, 4 fa> 8^ 
over the uaa of atreab^ peraTn^wiiit in the IngiilitTiny 3^ 
for use of street^ extent of mmioipeJ^ $L 

AWMINOS — 

over ddewaUn, 10, 83i 

R 

BOARD OP W0BK3— 

title of to the street, control orer eleotrio irises, fi6L 
BREAKING — 

of telegraph wine, not suffloiant evidence of tu^JIgesce^ 231 
BRIDGE — 

acrofls D^vigubte Btraam, oondemiuition of priTlIege Co qm^ 157. 

what loctil autlioritiea have ohArge of, D6, fiT<L 

uM of by electric reiiway, power of ooontj oommiariopews 0& 

BRIDGE COMPANIES — 
aiB*e caxas on, S93, 

BROKEN WIRE HANGING LOOSE, 273, 

see DANUEfioc;a Cd&icents; Elkcttoic Ssock; KBGU<«ifGK 

BURDEN OF PROOF (see PKBauMpnON Ot NsOUOSMOXj B^ IfSfc to- 
absence of guard-wire, 208. 

a 

CABLE RAILWAY— 

coademnatioa of. for eleotrio r&ilwaf , 10% 

is it a new burden on the street, 123, 140. 

not en additional serritude in Pennfiflvania, I4tk 
CAUSE — 

proximate, 3M to 2711 

legal, 966, 270, ikoteL 



«t8 



CeAKOE OF MOTIVE ro\TER — 
Anot nilvbj. lis, \:i4, 144, 14A. 
oooMat ot propertj oivii«nb ItiL 
neo HonvK PanrioL 

diDgOHHu aUmetionft tor, t^ notai 
CtTIBS — 

varioiv «ut« of fftteoU ia, !■> 
we HcrrmirAi J-TT^ 

CX)M1I0S OOUKOIL- 
(Vmmnr. of. hnwgtTon, £& 

CONDEMNATION — 

ot c«blo nhUwviy for e]«otrio raElvraf » lOH 

ooadltkou pTMMdnni, IM. i:n. 

oooMat of iniiaici|«l nuthorltj, IOS» 

for tfftoLrir>UffUb lm«» 16L 

ll>r«ia<t^lii^rowo^lm^ 161 

CorttlMmo nliwAj. 1S(X 

for risdrio ruilwa^* Likiu;; oua railroad for tfao Qm df iUnAbar. 14lb 

0^kIll1ftlJJpo•^n:<l-lfiror Ul^grajihUiM^ 1», IM, UUL 

roquUltAft of )i«tiliOQ for, 111 

uf hgJiU of lUiuuiuK bmd-owiuBt JotF>liKtiM7> 130. 

of Elglitoof jLbattiag IcLDd^iwntf^Onlj n'h iir it nirowMj, TTtt, 
for tolecT^b aai tdepbone Uiub, tU b> IOOp 
1 CONDttlOK PBBCBDEHT" 
I niiinlo[|Vtl (X}itw<nt mh. JM. AT, 8& StL 

I luiitcwiiDra oonHDt da W IIT. 

I to rlgbt lo comtoom. IM U> 107. 

I CONDITIONAL QUANT OP LBOISLATlVfi AOTOOanT, M «t 
1 CONDITIONS— 

I |DVvr of tuonitifpiLlitXtobliinH far Lho um of «Uw4<^ 8^4^ SI. US, A 

^^_^ Ot nuiDldfAl gnuit. miul Dot tntorfera wub rrnnolilMr 51, 93, AIL 
^^H tl»b otlirr compMiies be kllcr^vd to lua fl&iuo pmla^ 48* 
^^ what an not Inaludod is po««r to rDgolata poloft. 9L 

COHDUCrOlW- 

oa >U«Dt cnfTL 4jrdiii*no« rtqulriuf, Qt nolo 3. 
CONSENT. ISONICIPAL— 

to bolUlng of Und mtiA onfuwcl to lonatloo of tractoi dlatinpilihad. Oft 

of muatuipftlilj or IocaI jLutI>jrltj t> uoa of irtr««U fur ol«otiio vliw 
ohoptera OQ. 8» to il, 46 to % 

wadtclpal, bow glTSo. tMAtuiMO. onltwu^ «t&. AQL 

prioe of ooadittov of. S^ Al, liC ttl> 



uo 



DTDKX. 



IkTcrvcv V* to mtfe^fc 
00K3EXT OP ABTTTISO LAS&OWKEBa* aot«. 381 «. 117. Itf. 

OOJWTECCnOH A»D MAISTESANCE - 

lUbilltj for oegUgvnce, itAractin imu^rjfth ukd iTaiifiw 

COKTACT- 

CONTRinimJRY KEGLIOnSCS iten 'gliiiilMllH) 

COOLEY.TQOMAS M-— 

vbiwi OA tc tbe pnrpova of stroeti fof attoet r&llmij, tSOl 

COUNTRY ROAD — 

rtfatloiTUJfJiod from oit; etr«ct8 in r«speci to ^ootrio raihoftil^ 1I& 

COUN-n* COMKISSIONERS AND COCSTY BRIDQBB— 

CBOB^mO OF RAILROADS — 

con<iiMEinution uiil rOf;uUi£io», 101 tc ITA 

CROSSiNa or steam railroad- 

hy ttlooUiu ti^ituj, iiijuiii.'LiorL US- 

D. 

DAHAHHS Cm« 0>vi>Eii]iAri(.i?f> — 
lor 080 of toilrocul for tdogmph, IGO. 

tta ft mnsuTD of Juty lo usedueuiti?. 343, SSlloUft 

«IT>Hi of KuddeQ emergency on contributory ttf^gHMOb Ml 

of eliKitrio wirce juottflea oootral over, 4& 

Bpei^jLkl HEL J obvious snrv^iat uwainm rUki of. WL 

ol eiButric rfcilw^y tA AM^eUa^ ri^hU of Abutti&g oviwr^ 129 lo 1^ 

Mte DANijLuoua a&ticl^ to d&>ok&oto Wnia 

DANOEUOUS AUTlCLEts — 

de^roe of cjir^ TO<|uire<l tu xkse of^ 341 

DANOeROirS ATTRACTIONS — 

Hahilitj for injury froin, Sft3, iiotib 
DA»GBHaUS ELECTKIC C:UR«E,VT — 

lUbilit^ for injury by rfifLeon of, S<4t COftTfi- 

AA &rfix.-tiri^ nbatiing Innd^wnor. 139L 

nAHOEROtJS OBSTEUCTiONft— 

in tho fftracliii nro not QUtJion«cd b; nuncnkl nuLhohtJt GL 

fn lhc» Ktn.->:U, liKbililjr of iniLitU:i|jftUUa« for, S74 

DAKGER0U3 TREMfSES — 

liability of oocmplor of ownof, 313. Sia 

DANOKROUS WIRES VWe D^^aBBQUa El-KCrfilC CCBIiSa^ 

DEATU — 

IJftbiiJty of oity for ilentb by «tftatric~ rihc-ok. STl 

lUbillLy fur. »co DAjroOBOCtt EuxTUt; CtrnSBai; ^yTBin ftmy 



DfDlCl. 



Ml 



DETECrrVB ArrU4NCB3- 

llbbilLty to «amiitiiro7, «I7 to aai 

inAt«TuU4 tiftbdUir for lojunoa bjr itoMO o^ 811 to 176b 
DETECTIVE POLES AND WIBK - 

luUillitjr uf dliiv &iie1 Lovu» fuc. JTOl £T9b 

l^LEUATIOM or P0WB&8<- 
to muiiii:<|nlitr. IT, 

m^lUNATfON OF ffTHRrra — 

bff obrtito UiiMb «pplmiioD for, sa 

te llocirlo Mam m coudttbit proccdoat to ri^t to oo&dotnn* 183^ ootei 

rorM«0i^b Utim. ia 

for eIocuit:-l%Ut UcMk ^ 
D[LLOK, JOHN r.— 

vkmi of ON to pfOfMf UMB of atront aqJ rij^bi of abutting buiit-oviuki^ 
T7. BOb 101. 10& 

DRAINS {tao Scvnrni An» Diucxtt 
BUUmr ffTEAM-EHOIKEB — 

^imdoa of now ien4tudo 00 Ihoitroot, VSl, t^ 

DOTY — 

e# thot» who nuLlotAlo «l«olric wirts Ea «Lf«4eij oampftriKo ud •ii*!' 

0|7 wilb oucuiiii^rn oi Initd. SVl, SSS. 
suioiuo oC iHtti Mapaot to dongOFOoa ooRont^ 137 to SSI 
«f tfaoM wbo iwofaJa olac4rio wfnoa In 9«i<Cot»i doflolUoo ot W* 

diMooiMlaa of, with gmh« t3l Ui Ka, 
OCtlioH wlioiuwdang«K)UMOurr«nl«i, to tho puliUo^ 34> to ML 
toponon^oT printo propetty. 917 to 304 
lotholT aarrfinu^ SVi to W3L 
toLr«i«tti]n.»iS,90%aa& tti 
tolkoDMoioi ponou larltKL Ma SJ2 loSM. 






ELBOTfticrrr— 

oaont of lUftnrtMtoa of ctectrto oumnUh Itt 
ttidiwUn uid t«ttl«ev^ 10^ 
t&Jw7 to OMt^ltlo atTuclutos. *M ^JXTTtoLimk 
rBBedi«a fair ilucorbttiiirutt of ounfml 19CL 
•mEuctuo CmuDn'. 

SLBOTRIC CDSRENT^ 

tei0w fton tt« ot u MVffotlair ^bvltbiff Uftd-ofTMir, ut. 
tUdlftr tor aaapa oT, IB?, Ma H9 to iBU. 

tDtarfAFaaa of ona with utotlw. chftptar on. I0t to 1301 



Ml 



DTDKX. 



ELeCTmCLIOHT COMPAK ¥ - 

Ibbllit^ for dafi^Draw toratioii of po^ta, StI l4i tSflL 
Uftbilitj ia ponoM «d frtm* pwgi rt y ipJuoJ bj 

BLBCnilC LlUlfTlNG- 

EiixlWi »lAtut4« roUling to. 3&. »ot«. 

|crw«<Tof iruiTki|]^llj404nUionMpoIii aodvlRB in tlia rtn«ta for, 

XLBC:nUOLJOHT ureb— 

eas3pftT«d wftb jnwfipc* uid kt*«:nph Uom^ lOT* 

Hmrlt^mnrtlfnn i^t prtvaia rigliu Cor, ini- 

f or lighting tftmeb not » Bov buTfioQ, U€^ Ut, Ul 

iaunloL|Mlftutliuri^«iUiP»pnciliiA^W84. 

miink^ipfii ronr.rol vrrv 6tafi^9lkm of totJl* 4L 

00 hi^hwikj^ lawm providing lor joiot vac of wlnA it ootix fi& 

p«]U^ rn^ulfttic n <if ULM of titnifitii fi>r, 4A 

povor of muDfcdpsTlEy ic anf horiao a>« of ctivetf For, 39, 3(t 8L 

lights of Abutliox owners chut^er od. tOT. 

nftm^rm of fniwhiMs 41 -tJL 

ftod tha tdcphono. Lat«rfAPei)0«of ^nrrcat&rogalatioQ of tb^ ttMof U>t 

■wBrokbv Wms Bakottto Ijoc«k-. Davoebdci Ccukvtc: Eunmuo 
Lrav; Blpctiuo Lifuin>Jo; Elb^^huc SttocK; Kcciuokikgil 
ELEOHtlO UOHT ASD POWER COMPANIES — 

Joint mm of poliv *cid uLrto, QJL 

BLECTBIC UOUT, POWEa A^D IlEAT COSffAMES — 

ELECTttlCLIOHT WtyjM- 

dbMAAootad, pr^ma /fj«ic OTldcc«t of MgUfnoa^ ML 
ELECTRIC US'ra- 

W JtLturw. £77. S7«L 

» ptofifffCjr, ohAplArnn, S?A toSM 

aa prcpOTty, mibje^ to mcduULicA' tlcoK tniL 

Hfl pii>p«rty. »(it>Jocb (o tNaaiivo. J±30 to 39IL 

ai proputtyn t^lB^fraph Un* u nol (atat«> 10(L 

u HvU 01 |>«rnoiial propertyt STQ to 28% 

«te r^ijoTritJo Ldgitt; ELBcimiG Powik; Et^omc TUiLWAt: TIU- 

ELECTHIC MOTOR— 

luo of, la^ptiod in AttUwcitjr to UM Uiimal cr otber povnt «Aoopti£«vik, 

■M EL0OIHC RaILVAT. 
KUCCIHtC KAILWAV— 

AtrqttliicUaJ-owfi«ntHftfct<ofiLo«&ff«ct^; I*Rk»ow bmiwylMT 

io w, aa, II*, UT, UB, vn» \*a, \tt, \v*, \ A. x^.v'w, iTi, wr to i» 



Mdbx, 



34& 



ELECrniC RAILWAY (contUiMd)-- 

OOodtauuUon of oaa lino for th« vi* of uiotbM, 163. 
oraoliulona ■« toauUiotity to u«oiitrootA 37. 

A-atf to gubfd of^inat ootiUot <d tu «inv with tot«pliODO vinft SlBl 
duty tu Jtvrii Ili« l:iKtwft/ rvMUiuiljIr W^ £07. 
dutf lo tnfrmUin ^u^nlwb<«|^ 907. 
CflohMlTo fmooklM^ ft 

Uitorforvaoo with uso ol itroet k quutLon of iucu 1i^7« 

Joint u» cf polcv^ vtc«e «Ad li»ck& K!, 5d 

UiAjIlltj for dATiiCoroiis lot^tion ot poltHv til lo S3& 

monioipat oODocDt* Low giv«a, Otly fi& 

Utcbtiuu Tf r tnckiw 5& 

motiicipal oonlrol otm. chupiton on» SA to 4ft 49 to ST.. 

mtart of ik« use of tho fftrooi«, 143. IIA. 

BDi«nie4 by dvulMfona rel*tiDj£ to toltf(Tmpli, 117. 
povw of maDirrijiatit;- to autboriio UM ol, U Btn«t« li 17, 
b it B |>eTt«r^uu vf Uio u#o uf Cbo flU««ti o^uii*uitM* wiUi oltiMr rdJ- 

raid^]3i.1i& 
potM In Dilddlo of fftn>«t 1S7, ISi 1S9. 
polfm rvcuhttioD oC 49 to QOl 

iropftrttfoof t£i«Btnwt« for pubtio traval, 140, 107 to Silk 
nXl chftrffvd witli <lAi2ffvrou« ourrvut. £?& 
rnTUi3Bt.k]r] cif f muiibliHv 44, 40. 
on ruml highwayi, I4U, 
tolls Dbd fnrMi, n]ubici;>Jit control, 51- 
■nd thn tt-lf-phoaa. iiiu<r«mi«i of cuircDt^ Rigalatlon of thovool tli9 

(ilrw^tii. J*fl to31tC 
tdmounk; tms ia thv sljiccto. IM. note t* 

ELECTEICSnOCK: — 

iojurkfl from. 2^1, VA. S.*!^ aWK ^a 

■00 DAsrodiom Euxmuo CimitE!Cft 
ELECTRIC WIRES — 

la tho •itwtik ok«Ainc*Uoo iwd bn»ikcwn«fit of tU mbjvct. tL 

fnoiUJlftT tM0 of tli» StrV«U for, 8T. 

aa proporty. CDOtnM?t botvroe& tbkgniA iikd rftUroftd ooapftote IKL 

QMof tlii^i^lnwu fo«: ftnjiloi:7 to other usas. lU 

»o EI.EGTR10 Ussa; fXscmo-iKfOV LorsAi £lbctuc Railway; 

HLECTROLYSlSv 11*1. IML 

BLETATtlD BAtLUOAm — 

HghUof AbuitLuieowfjcn Tti notiw 6l> S^ iS& 

Id tlw mldJlo of ■ mn^ rigbu of BbouiAf lu>1-owB«n, U« noct L 
pieoHT. 



ikfih 



EUHAROO — 

powcf (o ncuUto 6om ooi implj pirer to ky* M 

BUJ>E>-r DOMAIN (••« COKCncv^TIOM). 

EMPLOYMENT-^ 
risks of, a».3A3. 

EKOU5H (rrATOTBa- 

relating ki «Lri>«t t*ilir«js, tetc^gnf^ aaiI olMtrio Uffatit^ 18^ aolfr 

EXCrSE TA3 — 

oa th« fmaohiM, SOa 

EXCLUSIVE FRANCmeE — 
Id tbe 11M of ctfMtA, V. BS; 

EXCLUSrVE iccaiTTS — 

oa pcnl'ronda cannot be conferted oa bilognph lioc^ 179 Co I8S^ 

EXPRESS COMPANIES^ 



F. 

FEE IK THE LAND- 

rlghU of the owner anil the publio In tba street, T6 to 9^ 91, tM, I3t 

•M ABOTTtSQ LAMH^W«mn& 

FEES Ch« LronrsR Fk^e). 

FIRE ALARM - 

Mlc^mpli. ooiupcuaatioD for ue of etreete bf, 101 

FIXTURES — 

eLocUic lioea as, 977, STS^ 

FLETCB&R V. RYLANDS — 

JootTitie of, Api>lted to tbo electric cumot, til, S30, 23T» MOL UL 

FOITNTAINS — 

FRANCHISE^ 

of coropany e&|Eftg«d [a i&lecstato commero«t miy ^ lotxod •• pn^ 

erty, »eL 
oorpors.1*, «ubj«0t to Uk u property, 288. 
of electric ImcA. dinUac^tioD bol«r«ca oorporato tnkocdiije bad fraaidUai 

lomainlftin Chft lami. a^S^SR^ 
oxaluaivu, powor of luuaiaijKitilj luid Ugblature t^ gnnt^ ood Doteik 

«a 

bow txr It Jiwtiflw obstnicUon ot U^ ttrwt ohaptar caw 00 to 6^ 
nrocfttioa of, 37. noto 9l 

AM FlU-NOHlJiKS, 43 to 4fiL 



amKX. 



3tf 



rRAHCHises — 

fot tb* OM of tb* ttreote. ><*funa<i« to b^)tt timliec of, 9k 

tofiiabktlroftn^ nwafoiittl. cb&pCcr «n, 4 to as. 
tucM an coEnfftnlM opAruIng nlontrlc litm^ S8& 

rKANCUmiiTAX — 

aoJ lAXAlioQ of ilio fnnchiso, 383 to SfiJl 

ohAnhctor and tcopo of, ^84. 

00 •l«otHc-U£ht povror JinJ HtMt oompAttioti VOCL 

state Wid fc^lvmiL Iahb, 29L 
rB014TA0Efia Cbm Aauttuio L&MK>vrxKBa^ 

G. 

OASPTPfB — 

is oaunlrr toaiU «t dtf BtTMti. dghtt Of abutting ownort, 107 to USl 

UOhuO ijut^«> 
lor MtunJ gM in niburbon M^htnj, mattaority for. la itote I; lOVi lia 

». 61. Sa lOT to UIX 
OUABD WTItBd — 

dutr to mamUm. 310. 213, 1^, SOd; SOQ. 
OUT WIHK3- 

UftblUtr for injiiij from. 230. 80(L 

HEDGE — 

cattinft for a t«le(rT%ph Jla«. OOL 
HlQfiWAY^ (UA STftErm) — 

DbstnwUoQ ofi hy imprcvpor <f9nj^raa^oa of elocMo Une*. ct»pt«r on. 
3)1 «om 

HOBSE CARS — 

anliiimn4*« rociuirlrLs oonducton on, SL 

nOEHR HAIKWAT — 

ift^a4dJit»Tial bardcDon thtUnd. ItDukdnotOi HNX 

cnmmllr >ioLJ tob* iirniH^r iiv-nf cJiertraMtltS kad noH llOb 

iv^itftii »(l<3ition:k] Mrr^tulD in FtdnuylrAnu, lUK 

powor of munlo^iwlitj' to aathioriat, U mlJ Qut04 
B0178B VOVINO — 

ricbt to out vrlrv Car. ^ 



ncDiCTiiEsn!— 

for tri»tmcUuo of soQQM cf lifbt wd air. lOtL 
tor GtiiiLn»tifig atTMl pha cf UoooNb OL 



940 VDEL 



nrDUcno:T asd leakage— 

of dcctrfc ««mnt, IW 
CVGEEBS AVD EGBE8S fine AGCn^ 
EUDSCnOS — 

laa 13% IK W 14% tti^ l<7. 14a 
deni«d to aboitnig land^rwi^r, Itfb 141. 
graDtod to AOorDey-caKTal, 14ft 

agairaA cixisiDp of rtc&m aitrottd b7 daetrio t»itwmy, diHiedp m 
agaifat dectrio nitmacf tmm t ii—iu^ atom aflroad, MW to 11^ 
Bgainrt tbft iMeqf»traeUtordbCtricTMi**y<»i|ifiiB>t>oa<<fiq^»r 

DWDen. U^ie^2a:i,33.S4,l!Stol44. 
■gajprt troQer aritem aatboHsed ty ie^Adan, nSvaod, at 
ftgftiDst 1MB of bIrcU without Matofavj C0Daeat» 3EL 
local aothoTttici maj Iwt^ »gala«t «Kei«M of frapcbwi irithnd tfaeir 

coDMntlia 

iNSPECnO?? OF APPLIANCES— 

diit7 of with record to ao r w an ta, SOO; SSL 

INSPECTION OP POLES AND inBES— 
If&bilitj of munickpaUtim, STi. 
monicipal fee tor, 51 

INSULATIOS — 

of electric wires, defective, 28& 

of electric wire^ no general dntj oslesE rafet^ requires it, ESO^ SS3- 

of electric wii^ iiabililj to nerraDta, 255 to 25^ 

of electric wire on privfite propertj, liability for injuries, 250 to 251 

of electric wire ia tbe pabHc street, liability for injnrieBt 237 to 351 

INTERFERENCE — 

of electric ciirrents, conflicting iu» <rf eleotrib wins in the streets, 
chapter on, 101 to 23XL 

INTERSTATE COBfMERCE- 

licCDBo fee on telegraph line need in, 54. 5Sb 

state tax on, 2&0. 201, 2M. 

telegraph lines as instroments of^ 4T» 3S0i 291, 

INVITATION" 

expreaa or implied, to come Dpon dangeroiu premise^ 247, 248> 252 to 
251 

J. 
JOINT NEOLTOENCE— 
proximate cause, 270. 

JOINT USE OF POLES — 

by diHerent companies, 41, G^ 

JOINT USE OP TRACKS— 
by different companies, 53L 



NDBX. 



m 



tn tovBTCoaib 



LAMP rosre^ 

11M of Um AtiecU to^ £KL 

UKD— 

iDiermf in. Tor the lus ct elK-trlc IfncK taxiOop of, Mt ttL 

LAKDOWNf:»8 (wo AWTTiNO LAJt1K>WKKU% 

LEOISLATEVB AKD UUNICIPAL FTUNCHtfiES^ 

LBOWLATURE— 

pCivvw OTi>rM««olibeIonA« to,!t,<, H^ 1%S3& 

iBfty uodlf^ tarn «1 tba itrML 0, US, S^O. 

m*; MwteauthoTibr Id muniuipitity, (> ?. SO. !^. 

oy^ JnipiW) oondmoiui Qpaa th* gmat of » fmnohlK^ W, IT, 

Ii?lTEIU:ASElER EOUT£B0i« FtJKr-KOAmk 
LEWI&JOaX- 

vl«waef oa prop«r omm of th« hffKvft^ vHh reapftpt tot tf ag Mf li iJ>d 
tolephocch hoiM mUroftd, eta, ood rl^U of abttlfiing lacdotriier, ??, 
M. 101. lOS, iia 
LUDIUTY- 

cS tbc» who RkAlrLbiiQ a]«ctrlc wira in ttn^U, «ii*l0S7 Co lUblUt? Ol 
OWQpior of danjc^niiA premitu, S31 to S3i 

hf nifa'gftd oompuij (o mMBttip Mogmpb Cnoi oonslraetiofi of, IWl 
tofonpondftiigvraiiii pntmlav, B47 to 8&L 
|Ji4or. to lMHr-tra*ot rorcUitrao^lRgftLr««t A& 
UCEN8E rRKS — 

on «l«(7lrio Iiiic4^ powor cf municipalitr to Eropoav^ 3; H M Mfc 
pcrw^if ct Blata or ciL/ Ut nfqui» of Uil<i(ni|di cOenfAnf •ogBCvi In !&■ 
tontata coauuarot^ ^SDl 

LICENSEES — 

lUbilitj for iojarJiA tc% on dikiiicftovi prombv*. iU? to fi&i QSdt 
LIGHT AND AIR (ho ADtTRlfO Ljk5DOWf(KMl AMACBfOfV 
UN EM EN - 

liabtSlf ot clir iOk ftoc briAkiaic of fcJw, 3^CL 

lldhlUtT for IE1J1U7 U^ Ul t^lOL 

MO Drrr^ Z<fRouoB)«CBi BunAsr^ 
LOCAL AUTUORITUS- 

oossrot of, lo |iuttinc wiitv undergnnind, tSJ. 

ooiwont of, to tho UM of MfMM Idv oloottio vtism, SS to 3Si 

ftud oount7 bdd^E^ CTo. 

wLaI la mttnl by, in tiUxtuuv mquirtnf oodmbU ST. 
LOCAL TKAV^.^ 

OMoftboflFtVlMror, LSI. 



MA 



LOCATION or POUB— 

LOCATV^ or T&ACsat SL 



MA^rcr ACTCIOSO OCOfPASlEB — 

M-IEKET — 

n>e o# itnefa for, I& aote I; 77, 
X ACKCT WAOO?Ca DT ffTKEEl^ Ub 

MAdSACHUSETlS ^ 

fTit4frT iimtfi7ii and rag"^**'^— ot isilfiMd 

HAfTTER A5D 9EBYA5T — 

duly of anct«r «■ b> appliuicc^ S55 to SS3L 

•eeDuKiBBt; Depktite ArruAKSi; liorBCDtWi: 
or EiCFtOTHCVr; Scktavl 
HATEBIALB — 

dflf^ctivcL UftbOl^ for, 357 to Ml 
McLUEE — 

dtrtic^ tirr te\cphoD^ line; 190, £09; 21& 
MECHANICS' LIENS - 

elfldric Lioeii sabject to. ZTflL 

MIDDLE OP THE STREET — 
polos in, 21, 127. lU, 13j, 22& 

MONOPOLY— 

|x)»er of municipal coqKmitioi] to create^ 0; note, 
telograph on pOHt-rond, effect of act of ooagrees, 17SL 

fKO EXC-LCmiVE FftANCH[aE. 
M'^IVE POWER FOR ELECTRIC RAILWAY— 

olianji^ oi, effoot od character of the line and lueof the etreet^lS to 97, 

20. notn 1, ISl, 122, 126. 144. 

wh^it^ier electricitj b included in general terms of HtBtnte* 91, 28^ 34^ 

21. 27. 130, 1S4. 

not the crit^ioD on the qoestioD of new serTitode» 121, 122, 13& 

MUNICIPAL AND LEGISLATIVE FRANCHISES — 

<;Lmptcr on, 4 to 30. 

MUNICIPAL CONTROL — 
ohaiit^j- on, 46 to &9. 

MUNICIPAL COEPORATIONS (see MDNiorPALTiT)- 

MUNICIPALITY- 

L^annot Ax tolls and ohargea under guise of regulatioi^ EEL 

o&onot gmnt eicluaJve or perpetual franchuefl, 0. 

OftnnoClay anQmbMsoua^Qi ^nl4j^iMt^W\|Qsla%i!«caIatioii%SlL 



EVDCX. 



»» 



mr^nCIPALTT? foODUnucd) — 

QHOMinviokA fjUQohiAt whidh ban bcooa« aTOstod ri^hi, tX 

ftfipl-kution for. tKt 

pfnrer of, to authorice «t«etrIi>Ugbt linfo to thn Kmcuv CtL 30l SL 

tvfl-er ot tobtilLcirizH oleotrin milwayH iu Lho tftrvvte. 13 K> ^. 

|)0wvr of. to Authoriu tolcgraph and tolcphoiw liAO^ !£& 

pcrvv to hghi ll>o alnmU vitb dcctric UxhU th 3£ 

powcET tOEffflnt lUowa 6lrcLrlo-1lKtit ptnct^ ^ 

powvr tolmpOMilforau»f«43» oa UUgrftphootcrcuiT^ 39^ t^ 3>L 

powr D& ti> wJtliLoLd ftai inipoM cosibtion^ 30* 117, QfL 80^ 

power of, v\th v«ip«ot to ttw dotlgnfttlon of iha rwU^K 44^ 4L 

power* of, witb xrnpm^ to dcclricUnw i» ti^- *tnul4; oo&G^uifbOft A 

cootfol ovsr Dloottia wirw in atrvobik ctupbef «dw BflL 

hoU* itTMt* for pitblic purpoMa nud nM *« m ovtt«r, S& 

li&bdlitta for ^eative poica &n<j wirvsk ?T4. QTS^ 

povw of, with rcapvct %c tiu Etroiti^ ftxtout mnd UmJte^of ordlnafj* 

7toia 
pcnrtf oC is oulj whAt b detected. T. 
p>««T of, M to •ntluviv* fruitshlM^ 0. 
p>v«r to oulboffiM atoooa utdhoraorub^ftdviodMOt^ tSL 
|vlcn or »indttloiM for AriTunnt tci lun of anM% M 
tolognfitw on pOitrouJib JS&L 

NEOLIOEKCB— 

InooiLctrDotlo&awl mftlntooimoev ISI toSSDL sntolTS. 

COolributcrr* SM ud nolo Ss 3H. 303. 

oontribmorr, wira hanging too low, S9lk 

ooBtrl^vluy, ^m Serv-ott. KBGiJOKSffCi or. 

dutjrcrDOB locBtloo of pdo^ £121 to £J30i 

du^ t9 |irovMii «*CBpi> of <lv3g«roiui ftrtlcEo^ 317, 231 

hllM iiMof ft iiAiic«ToiuoarTODt.SiT. 

b dobctiTO cutehaEii nud duMpaiotu ountab^ »! loMh 

tlfttlltty ol occuplftr of dkOjcoNU* pr>ni1ii<^ 211, SB. 

of Dumioipftliir, ?74, mjL 

pfwamptloa of, nv ^pai JoTUltur, 3T1, 27SL S7& 
HEW TORK LBOISLATION — 

mlatiag to undorground wlnw n&d mAwaj oonpuila^ Tl, TJ^ TX 

KoncE— 

of iiifpUoitioit for imuQkipai ooonnl^ A 
KDBANCE - 

olnolrlo 1i4)fii dnlj autboritod tarn nok, €U S3L 

•toetfto lin«i bUftsUiorlwri or ImffCfmtij ooniliintod a^ b«» S$l, 2S|» 

■iiuilki«TJ«»4 cl«cuio mUwaj k ItOi 

nKAiiUvirtzMl foU>ti a>mI vrlim In MUntU ova Ml 

ow ol Ttfjr doagttow artkil4^ Ml 



3M 



ISTDlbX. 



o. 

OBSTTlUCnOS - 

of ncijwk Uifbt vad «iT. Imlbtmout for, 10& 

of thi* biebwajTH liabiUty t*>t Jajuty, oiioptor on. SSI, ftWk 

of«ti«hlgh««yHpQt«u£id vnrMAccbiLpMr«o,aoWM. 

to or^xDMj ftsd •xtnor^UniuT u»m qf rt iatta, 8L 

lu Lb* hLrv»t. povcr of luualcipaUtidi to n»moTe or vithiQrtB^ Vk 

0CX:UPIER — 

of prvuUMtt, llabiUCj of, S33, a4a 

ORDINANUK — 

aullioH;ciiu?«lKUic nilwnT. do^ O0» rifaot |ghi>t> property, 
for ute af eLTABts by u^legrupli iknd Trlnphmii Ifnift rt 
linpoalfij^ llcoDM toes ou Ui!oj^i>1iat i^t* 3^ 
wLi0u required Cor uuaioi|«l ooimoaE^ b^ 

OTERHEAJ> WlHt^ — 

conditions reqirired by En^Luh MBtilt«^ AT. 

of eliwTtric miiu'fl^ -Jut^ ciDihoirif^il, will oot bo unjoin^ iwl^ 

orL/ coDfitniL'ted. ^ 
tight to UM luiplifnl m ol#ctno moloni, L9L 

OWNEK3Hff — 

oC Um taikl lit tho BtrtwtSp Qffoct upoQ tlw riglu* Of proportx 
T3I0 83, 



PENNSYLVANIA CONSTITUTION — 

provUiou for ooDAWt of t<K«E Atitboritioe^ 3& 

PHILADKLPHTA — 

uLrwt miir^Mda mAiBt bAvo munioLjukt coneooti 97, ooto 9. 

PTPFS — 

for gu or oil aloog Ui« highway, pow«r of nuukldpftti^ to »»Uni 

•M^OAg Pma. 

K)Lt3- 

llnbllity Tor cUngeroiis locnCfon of, flSI to 3361 

location »>f, B«o I^xiatiom or Pole& ' 

to llie uiiddk ot Btreetep a uubitDiie if <U;ngdroui, flX 



B«r«na«« at* i« AMtlga*. 
iLfiS AKD WIRES- 

lor Llglitin^ ttio vinot^ oat, » now burdqn, 110^ lU.llSL 

aa ui ubetruotiua to ih^ liigliway^ bow £Af Jkudfiod bj^ grant of CnB' 

«hi*A, clu[>t«r 0T». W* U> 6^ 
yolioo r4in>Ulfoii of, 49 10 n. 

wbf-Uwr ibaj idborrtfo willi tlio on of stPWW qilWlCiM i>f furt 121^ 

^reotoi with iDKifilutivf* vtni.Hkiri ^n nut oubucM^ GL 
inufltnottnhirf«r«with pubtici tntTr^l und muHtbopropcrlj'OonBtnM&ail, 

^^V jm Apctti:co LuitKivrsiiutA: DAJtOKsoua CcTU&itm; Duunvy A^ 

[ AAd powor of tontloc dUUnguubiHl, W. U^ 

nitb trrorauctf to uutioncrourkil wirn^ T0> 11, 7& 
wtth rflAptvt tfl pal« And wirw, 4A to Oil 

POLICE HEQtXLATEONS — 

irltb r«pDCit to p^iat juid wli«ft 40 to 93L 

POLICE TEL-EGltAPH- 

oouipvuMtWk 1<a UM of rin«U for, lOL 

poenr-itoju»— 

I irhftt doea tbe Uvm ioctu*!*, ITT 

I >in of iiiMinrwi mini iini1iij[ inlmia^iTM nn ITS to 1M. 

I wb» of ooap<<M raUUn^ Cc, dotv Dot doprivo MAto of oontr*;^ over, fiar 

I Ibe iH) of dwtric w(<ufli. 73^ 

I oondUlorA of n^bi ta condamn rIghU In, lAT. 

I to^«icnifJtt 9X Kubitot to tftoU t»0kt(oci. ML 

^^K toU^|itmoa.obikpl«riipoa, ITA tolM. 

^^P tot«£A|ilw 00, imb>ftot to munkcipol oonbrol, Ittft 

tdifEiApb* OQ. Bubjdct lo buid4>wii«i'A rijcbt to the trvo^ IDi 

P08T8 — 

bJti^liinj:. in Ibfi BtTDrtik to. AflL 

IM POLM. 

PBXgUHFTIOK or NeGLmG>4CB— 

bow tar lbooo<Hirmnooi>f *il«cddODt Cnataik ttl toS3lL 
PRIVATE PilOPEKTY (an AlVTTDro LaM^OWIWIA} - 

llftblLtj fur InjuritH fnju aJvoitio oarreui to peiwoa od, M7 lo &H 
PRIVATB PURPOSEa — 

«l«trta^ghc Ilom 10 Iho ilNrtJ for, 113. 

PSJVATE RIO UTS — 

wiib rvnpoot to poloi otamcttaic ttntita, 51; tX 



i£A 



PKTTSTT — 

RCODUTE CAtBE^ 

PUBLIC PUBP08EB' 

aeccne-li^ «m fo^ UJ, US' 

PUBLIC RIGIIIB— 

ia |Jm> iftncA* Willi 

PUBLIC USE — 



^O WAERA5T0— 

tDfc<mfctiooinliiegatBf>oi^iCi ^Mt ci«<rie »B p », lM 



R 

BAILBOAD C&OS31NO — 

fxmdoDiaXioD and ngulatian o( 1U to 17& 

<Vf.idvmnACif>D of rigbt of waj ot Urr tdte^Aph Ifaie* 1SL 1ML 
aft th#T5 Bubject to lUe for Idcgraph withmt compenBBtkn, 185^ 1ST. 
&< ifjVtfA^f, rii^hU of telegiAfA liD« tbemM, 179 to 1S&. 
«U^[n, power CFf roanicipahikA to autbodze in streetfl* 13« iiot« & 
WfA Klrctbic Exilwats; Hob&b Bailways; Stsam Ratlkolxus; 
Hthket Railways 

eakjjolpii, carman r- 

<lL-kf:u<iiirjn of ovnemhip of, And ri^tafn the Etret^ 80^ &U 

I:KAL AND PERSONAL ESTATE — 

liMi^^^raph an pervonaJ or real estate, iWl 

RKJvKkS.S — 

puliliu an'l private, for obetmction of streeta for poles, GX 
Itr/iULATJONS — 

riiuntcijjal, of electric wires ld street^ chapter od« 16 to SQl 
ItKLATJONS (LKGAL) — 

hi Jijii.-n lit wiru to the bigliways, & 
RKK ll-SA LOQUITUR — 

ripplj'iition of the maxim, 27^ to 236, 271, 2T3L 
in:SiJl-UTlDN — 

whtm HufTicient for muoiclpal consent and whan not^ 58L 
UliVOCATION^ 

of fnnohiae. 37, note 3, 42, 43, 44^ UL 

of inunioipal oonaeat, 53, 






s^d 



ROADS [MWk HloMiTAT; EusiL HlonVAT; ArKKK-nu. 

EOOF or A BUlLliiHO- 

pcoluluLiua or ktj«|K>i^Lli»g win» o*«ff, M 

itocmi- 

pr>wfir of muDiciiinlilj with rMqmrt to dwiifnAlioB o( 44^ 4L 
RURAL KA5KMKNTH twi* Rcui. JJU D«tt4JI bMMBm; ftouj. OmB- 

WAT; Kjrxi. JimawAVs jjtn CiTT BnUHi^ 

RURAL AND UHBAN KASKMKNT3— 

itt Um KraeU, 100, 1S& |40l 
RURAL HIOUWAY- 

U aLocthu rtllTikjr & avvr burilon, 140. H3v 141 

«lACOnc nUwa/, mjunotUHi daaJud to i^buttkng Undoviwrf ItT. 
RORAL HIOHWAY8 AND CITT STRKKT8— 

dlotlikctkm botw«cQ, witb nttnaoc to tqlograph nod tolo^hoai^ tiBL 



SCOTT ft JAKXAOW » 

SERTjurr- 

ttf auolbvr i^iujmii j. lULiitit j ta 338. oot^h 
of «dnr4ri(> <?<impan J, liAbllltj rormjurr. SS3 to flR 
liftbilit/ of oiij tot brcukiiLe of polot^ fTT^ 
IbUliLj Uk tar 0«faALV« Ap|iIuiuo«h 257. 209. 301. 

fM^sUfioiM Of, SU. S9a fl^. 83D. Ma 961, Ma SOSl «Ul 

BEWEBS AKB DRAINS — 

DM uf Ul« «U«tf U fOTp 8A 

SHOCK {M« £L»n^UO SjIiMI^ 

UDSWALKB- 

how Citf uuf Uwy b« Kt uido for spedttl imm 80b 

BTATDTES — 

Anmncwi, roUtln; to tmdanp'mnid wins, Oft 

Mthortslax atTMi fBil««7i^ m^j col ftuthorbo fmtnlflmnMfci^ tIL 

^'l****' rdAtuiE U> uadac^roiLBd wtfi& 0}- 

toltg^ph «a<1 t«Jflpboa«^ rafanQr* 1^ 151, not* % 

proriiJiQiE for ixia<5'?ninfttic& for tolfcrapfa 1uk«^ LSL 

pniftillni! Tor aHnpoiubluju fmlasd Muio fur imilriiftdi du Kit «|i|4jr lo 
fkUwit nUnittiU IMl liot4b 
BTBAM l|i.)TV>R8- 

ifUDiUoDOf DO«o«rTitwUoni^dreat Ut L3^ lil 



asi 



nrm. 



0TUUf RAItaOAD IM DnorY Dkmiqo* 

in tbe stnwU pwcr uf nuuucif^ilj Ui kmLhoria^ tX 
«tt lui4 9^1 101 Bad MH m tai. 



ST. LOOia CTTT OF— 

foir«r of, with Tnr«T«no* to robwn^ OODpftAte TL 

titlo lo the Binct^ uid povtt* c/ oamk^dily, t& 
ffTORAOE BATTERT- 

BTBGET B AILW AY -* 

0«rtfeJvpdfttOft«f ^•<m«CptOp«H7MAA(Mkft for, t9ll 
*0« K[JCI«C Rulwat; HdBtS Kaoboaa 

wttboritj for ndne 4larti1e wliM iiih r3u|4n- oik 4 to S^ 
•iMtrio wlrw for Ugbting, UO tolU. 
4«>i0DAtioQ of. for telftfrapb Ubo^ 4Cb 
dl>ttnotlr>n toivcvn rirban uid mnl nmMMib t<CL lOSl 
fcothority oJ miialol|Atj1y lUkJ J«claTa|ur«h 94, 88k 
pawvT of muaiitt[Blitin ovvr> bb« HcasarAUTT' 
HAtura of Iha nghU of the pub]lr? Lbd ^n:! «f|f o«t>an iD, 78, 77, TB^ TtL 
n&turn of the titto of mvc idpftlilin* to, a\ fiA 

O^'UDnbipoftlie fn^iJisLitictiua t«(wnm tbe Civ>B^T&fi3; 03,84^11^1-4. 
187. 
•SO Abuttino IiA^fixiwirEii; Fee m the LAltft 
ownprihipot wjth ra>poGt to tncifc 101 
pMaliJLr rii^ht* of ]Bnd-nwn«TS la, llCk 
pdiott nsiculALJuLL of LLr lUe cf, 40 |o ^ 
povtf tfWT. ^«1nng■ |c tho ]F\dKUlar«. ^ 
powor of Ifgcia^atuni to dMfSbuto tbo ifftco in, 291 
proper iim of. moU*v powtw out tin* oritBrkti. lUI, 12& 
]ptop«(r 1MW oft Introductory obMfvattao, a. 
pvopc* u»« of^ ditfuront T4*wm TS* TS, 7T. 
pnipw una Givuuajiry aim ot 10. tf& U 7^«4<7.BfLS0, 107. Ill^ 111 

fiuljlta tiiMmKiot )0» tiootrol of, ik 

fnhUo ftnd private Hghta In. vut tbatr ToUtlon to ifm «lKi;^ '^rtv^^ % 
•[■edftluaeo^faa ftenohlao wUoh leHfalAtnn aioDo OM ooafw, 1U 
Ihte to tlid land Ln, dUtiaalJaD id Ums ommb viUi n«p«&i (Ah 13; 3& 81, 

■M of, rigtlm of ftJjMWUCy, ftt. M. 

«M of, fot olootjio wirceh oIuvHomjobd of the vnbje^t, & 
ttB« of, for v^tiOQM daweo of otcctfki n irok TSb H 
OM of, rot oUi-tno-llght wifw« ICl 



ncDtx. 



»i 



lue of. foi oaibla nul«Aj^» 133. 

tuor>r, for oUotHe nllv*y: UHjiH#v burden; OliAptf^OOH Illh>l4t> 

UM of, fi»r t«l(4p«^ uid tal«pfaoiiei u it ft oew burdeci oh&ptor 00. 0t to 
M» ABirrroro Lax^jhwvtm; Kucctmc Kailw&t; RLVcnuo Wnvi 

TKL.U'ItUCVlL 

8UBUEBAX sraVITLTDK <•» ItUK&L AM> Ukbak E&akmbvt^ 
SUUWAV COWPAWIES— 

fur «liiotriO wirai., 71 , ?1^ IS0. Tl 

OMCKDl>fl&tt> 



T. 

TAX — 

eioroolor <uid aoopa af tho frviiobfj* Use. IBSL 

OQ chii fnncbJM 4k« propertr, £91. 

on iho ooipcnt« frunohu* ■■ propefty. tldf. 

cm f niD«hi«\ iRR LicCHmK Fkk* 

lij wHy 'if rtK^^itvi oci lliv fntfirliiMk Bl^ 2fl& 

ftM fniDcliiiKtf mctudodiaUM<vAiiftr7', ViT. 

TAtATIOS- 

0# *l*><3lrio line* WS. asO. 

of tbo tnhnabbc vid fmDcKiic tannttdto WL 

of InlAnul Id Und nnnitpiMl Lj it^Aoirio ItftM, 88% BSL 

fli&kv «Q teltignph* on pool roa^ 10X 

HO Tax. 

TKUXJRAPH — 

M> > new tiord«ii, opinion of SooU ft JAnu^ln-Stl 

KuglWi rtntuU* nUUns to, 8E^ no«c. 

fire ftlana m J polios nanrairy um gf BtfQ0t4« 104. 

CO pOHt'fOftdU, <^haptor oc^ lis to IVOi 

on poatn^li, rigH to condano oM 1g|JUJ^ 181^ ISl 

on poi^ronds^ Mibjool Co nmnioiiiAl oooUnt 188> 

cm p0itr04d« oqual privib^n; iTtk 

Ob pOBC-ro«^ oxoLufttvo prlvilcitM, 179 to IBL 

OP pnt f wdfc Mib]<Bt to rtftfai t« gallon, IflL 

ML nitro^d. ooBtnwTt fvovldtnf; for compulMfy Brbltntton, 19Ql 

en FulroaiJ. UoccMO to uiAtntnin Iiii4. IIHL 

on tb0 luid of n rvilroftd: ■ U ft nev buid«n, itH 

on imllroftd, coDd«nuiftti«o for, 150, 16(L 

on niilmdL dfcci on Lho r%li|8 of ftnuttkor toleirnph cxHupui j. IfdL 

OS Union dcPftciflcltoliwnr. IftD^ notoL 

Mft numum Cosu'ftiiT; TloJsiiiLLm ikd Tnxnt3ff& 



lOA 



aae 



ixrax. 



raLEORAPD COMP/HY- 

^atj vl<i) rwi«ct Ut ilM)fKrau0 vlr«% SHI 

jd&t vse of pol«» and vinth 03» Ul. 

power Co iiu^vM lloeiiw f«a oa fur cMof sCtfcU. SI, 51^ 

TELEORAFB AND TELnPHOSn- 

■je tfa*7 -cHtti&n the publii^ «<iei*menc of Itw hSfHwi^f or do tbey isnyca* 

ft nen- burJco; viown of tcxt-wrlUrvt 88 to 10& 
ftre within (he jniMfo fw^m^il iif Vin* hi^liw^j, fV^ 88 lo 97> 
uo Dot vitbiQ the f ciblio oavmont of iht tai^w^jti cUi« 08 to Wk 
Aboltlns ovDcn; m Ua lin^ oU » D«w burctvn; oa*«i la th* B«gAti^ 

AbuttiDgowzien; Avothe iineeof^anAW biETdcb: orgonioat Cor tL« Mfft- 

ftbiLltin}r nvni^rq; ure tho]fn«4 «f, » ne» buHen; AiXnilMllt for lfc« Af- 
firmative, ttX 
lmuic»a »lHlutes ralaUng Co. 3^ noM- 
mndomDfttion for, 153 to l«a 

Ow.coto dJiitarbod bj «I<u>tric-llght wltcv lE^ to tOSk 
daal£nHti(ift iif HrwtH fnr. 4a 

diuticction botwooa njml hiifhutihyH mid ctij <Cr^U> 101 
dutj <jt »rrrinjf All JkUkri* Ifii^ nol<i fl- 

liability fof dckEigDrouii looatioQ ot poica 331 Ut 2B& 

njuiiiciiittl rvguE(ktiu[t of am mI ttnwl* for, 33. 4(1 4X 

TOttnit^pAl ■Jonlml ovirr dtaijcnairioo of rout^ lOi iL 

usdor zuitunJ ntrooTD, tflO, DOto L 

&n3 puLilJu uwa> 1^ 

u nul oitiktCL left 

rcTtXttltoti at ffADOhUci, fSL 

In Mr^eU. legiHUliT^ Rftiirtion T^uSred for^ 38. 

in itroettf, uatura uid pnrpMe ot tbo uw of tho ittmU bj, H 

wirtw litkrigins 100 low, Biff tC 3^0. 

<3itAra; TcitFiPBons; TEuriKiltB CoiVAJtUB; tjRiWMBui/Av WiW; 

III It ft firopor VM of tbo rtKet M BCftlDit uk olvctrio milwAf. 3U lo9tt 
iu«oif, dEHtiirTv^tlbjiilHctH^tlA^btftDilelectrfcirsfiiffHycivPeaic til- 

TELEPHONK COMPANIES- 
>UtoUMfton.S«a 
Mft FiLuacinvK; Ljccscmc Pee, Nsuunmcs; Taxatvov; TiDJcauni 

TCrjcpiK>NR cunaEXTs- 

dirtttrbod brdooldo mliwftj-, «W bo 9:1 






81^7 



■H Fb w tm hun>i Ovunmatst or Ljuid; Snturj. 

ID Q »trccU ftdiit*»ial ■errttodCh ItGL oolcb pngv It& 
TOLLS AND RATES— 

SL 
TOWNS (M« HDROnfcUrtV 
TRACnoX COMPANIES — 

OMittat of property ovnon for upc of >tr«ot> hj. 3& 
TRAMWAYS (no Clbotmo JUttw^T; lious ILui^vtat; Srtt^ lUlb- 
WJIT> 

TRANSFKB TICCBIB— 

Mnpot h* nqoiTWl w s fondhion id oaruua caam. M, &% 

TRAVEL— 

pOl^OMd wilts foTolodrio ruWaj jtJt'^aikTl fxrr purpooiB ol. IS& 

polMftndwinsof eloctrlcnuiw^y tu4ttDiUiluf. 117, 

■M«f (bantPMUror; dlili&otioa ft«tviwii lonU and ttumgl^ U& 
TRBKS — 

AlcfEg Uic nodci^ i&Jorin Bo. 104. 

ill ur iJuuiE Llw ■tnwLc tcrtror uf luusiciFblilj to rvrmlt or nanovft 1(L 
TRESPA£eint— 

Unbfctity fnr injorfM to, M« to SM 
TRQLLKV WYSTKSI — 

right to uoo. itnptM u) oltwtHtT motorvr 13L 

B«o D-ununti Euxn-iuc RAU,nAT; £iJ:cTvac Wouft; Omntu* St» 

ooodoEDDAtioQ of fnncliiao of, IAS 
ooMbmotiou of loloinvpb U&o otii 1S& 
upM^mada-rigbtof tologvftpb luuv to uai^ ITfilo US 
UtUto*oIliB.ea 
TURK TABLB CASES, USS, tuML 

UTn>eEGRon7n> wiRsa— 

oaaoon Canadfaa aUtutoi aatlioffituig, B& 

ohafior od* <La to T& 

OcmitJuctJoa of ttAtntoi mUttcff t<x 7(L 

OOWrtnicttuk of Uia«; munielpnl ftad T«««laUTO powv «T«r« tt 

BO&tnl pnmsioiiBof AiuorkKn sUtUlciLtt 

powoTof EDunidpaltqr toordoT irina to b« pal UBdtrpoOD^ T(V 7L 

qDoAioDo r«lat£oB lOh BUM. <& 

Uio ra laUva oast of. fiT, 

Mt«U« »ola«iii( to, 47, m 




S58 IRDKX. 

■zv Co 



UmOS PACIFIC RAILWAY — 

relation ot, to t^egi^ih oompvllff^ IBO, doto L 
URBAN AND BUBAL EASEUENTS (lee Btoal >J>D nw^ Bunxn^ 

V- 

TILLAGES 0ee Uuxioipalitt), 

VILLAGE TBO^TEES — 

powezB ot wttk refmiiM to electric-lie^it linA^ 3& 

WATE&PIPES — 

DODBent of mmiofpaUtr tor ma of etreeti tor. B8. 
use of the atreeta for, 9B, 
WIRES — 

hmiging too low, injoriea oauaed bj, Wl ' 

li&bilitj for injiiiT by^ 287 to 830l 
over street^ rlg^ to ont for the purpose of movlDg the faons^ 81 

power of munloipolitj wtth regard tcs 50. 
ondeigrtmnd, wo IJmdbbcibound WiBita 

see DanOekOUq Elscv&IO Cub&SKT; DxTITX EiactBIO GcRKIKT; Eia> 
TBIO LiaBT; ElAOTBIO BaILWAT; ElEOTBIO WlBXa; MUinCiPALITY; 
^fEGUOENGl; POLBS ASD WlKEB; TBIAQOAfH; TeLEFHOMEj TSLK' 

ORAPS ahdTblsfhokl 



■>/'*'/ 



— 1 . — ' — 

TIIE HEW YORK I*UnUC LIBRARY 

Tbta li^tt (ft sndtr t^tt dremrmti^n^rt to b« 
^. <«fc*4 iHiM-llia RhIU*b4 » 




4 


4 




- 



















- 


~~ 








■